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Quiz

1. Outline the concept and characteristics of systems.


2. Give some examples of systems from the following
subject areas:
a) Biology
b) Environmental sciences
c) Every Day Life
3. What does it mean that systems can be applies on a
range of scales. Give some examples to help make your
point.
4. Construct a table to compare the exchange of matter
and energy in open, closed, and isolated systems. Give
an example of each.

Assessment Statements
1.1.4 Describe how the first and second law of
thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems.
1.1.5 Explain the nature of equilibria
1.1.6 Define and explain the principles of positive
feedback and negative feedback.

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system
-will be able to create a model of an ecosystem of their choice

Ecosystems involve interrelationships among climate,


geology, soil, vegetation, and animals. These
components are linked together transfers of energy
and or matter.

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Two basic processes occur in an ecosystem:


1. The cycling of matter
2. A flow of energy

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

The cycling of matter. Because there are only finite amounts of


nutrients available on the earth, they must be recycled in order to
ensure the continued existence of living organisms.
Examples are the:

Condensation

Transpiration
from plants

Precipitation
Precipitation
to ocean

Rain clouds

Transpiration
Precipitation

Evaporation
Evaporation
From
ocean

Surface runoff (rapid)

Runoff
Infiltration and
percolation

Surface runoff
(rapid)

Groundwater movement (slow)

Ocean storage

Groundwater movement (slow)

What type of System is this?

Name the inputs, outputs, transfers and transformation

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

The cycling of matter. Because there are only finite amounts of


nutrients available on the earth, they must be recycled in order to
ensure the continued existence of living organisms.
Examples are the:
Water Cycle

http://www.yout
ube.com/watch?v
=0_c0ZzZfC8c

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

The cycling of matter. Because there are only finite amounts of


nutrients available on the earth, they must be recycled in order to
ensure the continued existence of living organisms.
Examples are the:
Carbon Cycle

http://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=OByqd
UhWERk

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

The cycling of matter. Because there are only finite amounts of


nutrients available on the earth, they must be recycled in order to
ensure the continued existence of living organisms.
Examples are the:
Nitrogen Cycle

http://www.you
tube.com/watch
?v=w03iO_Yu9Xw

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

The cycling of matter. Because there are only finite amounts of


nutrients available on the earth, they must be recycled in order to
ensure the continued existence of living organisms.
Examples are the:
Phosphorus Cycle
http://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=Au0ZaqXy1wM

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

The flow of solar energy into the earth's systems. As radiant


energy, it is used by plants for food production. As heat, it warms
the planet and powers the weather system. Eventually, the energy is
lost into space in the form of infrared radiation. Most of the energy
needed to cycle matter through earth's systems comes from the sun.

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Thermodynamics is the study of the energy transformations that


occur in a system.
2 Laws of thermodynamics:
1. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be
created or destroyed. It follows the law of conservation of
energy (physics) and it describes how the energy of the
universe is constant.
2. In an isolated system, the total amount of entropy (disorder)
will tend to increase. (This results in the loss of het energy)

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Any conversion of energy is less than 100% efficient and therefore


Some energy is wasted or lost.
Usually this energy is lost in the form of heat.

Only 25% of the energy


stored in gasoline is
transformed in the
motion of a car, 75% is
lost as heat.

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Pyramid of energy is always upright. It is so because at each transfer


about 80 - 90% of the energy available at lower trophic level is used up
to overcome its entropy and to perform metabolic activities. Only 10%
of the energy is available to next trophic level (as per Lindemann's ten
percent rule).

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Equilibrium: a state of balance between parts of a system


There are fluctuations in a system, however most systems
return to a balanced state after a disturbance.
Steady-state equilibrium allows system to go to a steady
state after disturbance (ex: mammals regulate body
temperature, population of animals in an ecosystem, tree
falling in forest)
Steady-state equilibrium

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Static Equilibrium:
no changes over time
no inputs or outputs to system
non-living
ex: rock formations over time, bottle sitting on
table

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Homeostasis = The property of a system, that regulates its


internal environment and tends to maintain a
stable, constant condition.
Negative Feedback = The way living systems maintain
homeostasis.
Negative feedback systems include a sequence of events that
will cause an effect that is in the opposite direction to the original
stimulus and thereby brings the system back to its equilibrium
position.

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Predator Prey relationships are usually controlled by


negative feedback where:
Increase in Prey Increase in Predator
Decrease in Prey Decrease in Predator
Increase in Prey and so on in a cyclical
manner

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Positive feedback systems include a sequence of events that


will cause an effect that is in the same direction to the original
stimulus and thereby brings the system further away from
equilibrium.
Example: Exponential population growth
Eventually the positive feedback reaches a tipping point and
is unstable. At this point a new equilibrium must form.

Which of the populations show positive


feedback?

Positive or Negative
Feedback?
If a pond ecosystem
became polluted with
nitrates, washed off
agricultural land by
surface runoff, algae
would rapidly grow in the
pond. The amount of
dissolved oxygen in the
water would decrease,
killing the fish. The
decomposers that would
increase due to the dead
fish would further
decrease the amount of
dissolved oxygen and so
on...

A good supply of grass for


rabbits to eat will attract
more rabbits to the area,
which puts pressure on
the grass, so it dies back,
so the decreased food
supply leads to a
decrease in population
because of death or out
migration, which takes
away the pressure on the
grass, which leads to
more growth and a good
supply of food which
leads to a more rabbits
attracted to the area
which puts pressure on
the grass and so on and
on....

Equilibrium generally maintained by negative


feedback inputs should equal outputs

Thermodynami
cs

Students will be able to:


-outline the concept and characteristics of a system
-apply the systems concept to ecosystems
-describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics are relevant to environmental
systems
-explain the nature of equilibria
-define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback, homeostasis and selfregulating mechanisms
-define the terms open system, closed system, and and isolated system

Systems are defined by the source and ultimate destination of


their matter and/or energy.
Open system = A system in which both matter and energy are
exchanged across boundaries of the system.
Closed system = A system in which energy is exchanged across
boundaries of the system, but matter is not.
Isolated system = A system in which neither energy or matter
is exchanged across boundaries of the system.
No such system exists.