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SIX MAJOR METHODS OF

DATA COLLECTION
Lauren Smalley

SIX MAJOR METHODS OF DATA


COLLECTION
Tests
Questionnaires
Interviews
Focus groups
Observation
Constructed and secondary or existing data

AS A RESEARCHER

Research
problems/questio
ns

Research Method
(experimental,
correlation,
ethnograpy, etc)

Method of Data
Collection

TESTS
This study method is commonly used in
quantitative research.
Measure attitudes, personality, selfperceptions, aptitude, and performance of
research participants.
Examples: standardized tests, diagnostic
tests

(Gambari, Yusuf, Balogun


2015)

http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1085923.pdf

QUESTIONNAIRES
A self-report data-collection instrument that
each research participant fills out as part of a
research study.
Obtain information about the thoughts,
feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values,
perceptions, personality, and behavioral
intentions of research participants.

QUESTIONNAIRES

(Martn - SanJos, Juan, Viv,


Abad 2015)

INTERVIEWS
Method in which an interviewer asks
questions of an interviewee
In-person interview
Telephone interview
Probe
Example: Jessica Hunt explores the use of clinical interviews to gain a
deep understanding of students' mathematical knowledge. (Hunt, 2015)

TWO TYPES OF INTERVIEWS


Quantitative interview Must follow interview protocol
Goal is to standardize what is presented to the interviewees
Qualitative Interview
Open-ended questions
Informal conversational interview- loosely structured
Interview guide approach- Interviewer has plan to gain
specific information
Standardized open-ended interview- Has interview protocol

FOCUS GROUPS
A type of group interview in which a moderator leads a discussion
with a small group of people
Example: (Scott, Grant, Nippolt 2015)

SEVEN USES OF FOCUS GROUPS


Stewart, Shamdasani, and Rook (2009) identified:
1. Obtaining general information about a topic of interest
2. Gernerating research hypotheses that can be submitted to further
research and testing using more quantitative approaches
3. Stimulating new ideas and creative concepts
4. Diagnosing the potential for problems with a new program, service,
or product
5. Generating impressions of products, programs, services, and
institutions
6. Learning how respondents talk about the phenomenon of interest
7. Interpreting previously obtained quantitative results (p.591)

OBSERVATION
The watching of behavioral patterns of people in certain situations
to obtain information
Laboratory Observation- Carried out in settings set up by the
researcher
Naturalistic Observation- carried out in the real world
Example:
(Lewis, Scott, Wehby, Wills 2014)

OBSERVATION
Quantitative Observatiion
Standardization
Time-interval sampling- observing participants during time intervals
Event sampling- Involves making observations after something already
occurred

Qualitative Observation
Complete participant- insider
Participant-as-observer take on the role of an insider

CONSTRUCTED AND SECONDARY OR


EXISTING DATA
Constructed Data- Produced by your research participants during
the research study (ex. Diaries, recordiings, videos, etc.)
Secondary/existing data- Data that were collected at an earlier
time

Personal documents
Official documents
Physical data
Archived research data

REFERENCES
Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, H. T., & Balogun, S. A. (2015). Effectiveness of Powerpoint
Presentation On Students' Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing.
Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 3(4), 1-12.
Hunt, J. (2015). How to Better Understand the Diverse Mathematical Thinking of
Learners. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 20(2), 15-21.
Lewis, T. J., Scott, T. M., Wehby, J. H., & Wills, H. P. (2014, August). Direct
Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues
and Future Directions. Behavioral Disorders, 39(4), 190-200.
Martn - SanJos, J., Juan, M., Viv, R., & Abad, F. (2015, December). The Effects
of Images on Multiple-Choice Questions in Computer-Based Formative
Assessment. Digital Education Review, 123-144.
Scott, S., Grant, S., & Nippolt, P. G. (2015, October). Engaging Focus Group
Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study.
Journal of Extension, 53(5).