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PRINCIPLES

and
STRATEGIES
of TEACHING

A teacher affects
eternity;
no one knows
HENRY
ADAMS
where
his
influence stops.

The learners and the teacher are the key players in a


learning environment.

THE ELEMENTS OF
TEACHING AND

Teach
er

Learn
er

Learning
Environm
ent

THE ELEMENTS OF
TEACHING AND LEARNING

The Learner

The Learner
An embodied spirit
A union of a sentient body and a rational
soul
Body: experiences sensations, pleasure
and pain
Soul: the seat of principles and spiritual
acts, source of intellectual abstraction,
self reflection and free rational volition

The Fundamental Equipment of the


Learner

Cognitive
Faculties

Five senses
Instinct
Imagination
Memory
Intellect

Feelings and Emotions


Appetitiv Rational will

e
Faculties

Five Senses
There is nothing in the mind which
was not first in some manner in the
senses

Instinct
Came from the Latin word
instinctus which means
impulse
The learner has a natural or
inherent capacity or tendency
to respond to environmental
stimuli such as danger signs
for survival or self-preservation
Examples: fleeing in case of
danger, fighting when attacked,
rationalize to defend himself
when ego is hurt

Imagination
The ability to form a
mental image of
something that is not
perceived through the
senses
Thinking outside the
box
Being creative, forming
new ideas, exploring
old ideas

Memory
This is the cognitive faculty of
retaining and recalling past
experiences

Intellect
By his/ her intellect, the learner can
engage in cognitive processes such
as forming ideas or concepts,
reasoning out and making
judgement.

Feelings and Emotions


Positive feelings and
emotions make the
teaching-learning
process an exciting and
a joyful, fruitful affair
Negative feelings and
emotions make
teaching-learning
process a burden
The lessons that we learn
and remember the most
are those that struck us in
one way or another.

Rational Will
The guiding force
and integrating
force of the
learners character.
This will makes the
learner free to
choose or not to
choose to do good
as presented by his
intellect.

Factors that contribute to


differences among learners:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Ability
Aptitude
Interests
Family and cultural background
Attitudes and values

Factors that contribute to


differences among learners:
1) Ability
Determines the capacity to understand and
assimilate information for their own use and
application

2)
3)
4)
5)

Aptitude
Interests
Family and cultural background
Attitudes and values

Factors that contribute to


differences among learners:
1) Ability
2) Aptitude
Refers to the learners innate talent or gift
It indicates a natural capacity to learn certain
skills

3) Interests
4) Family and cultural background
5) Attitudes and values

Factors that contribute to


differences among learners:
1) Ability
2) Aptitude
3) Interests
Learners interest in learning makes learning
no longer a task but a pleasure
Interests are not innate but developed

4) Family and cultural background


5) Attitudes and values

Factors that contribute to


differences among learners:
1) Ability
2) Aptitude
3) Interests
4) Family and cultural background
Students who come from different
socioeconomic background manifest a wide
range of behavior due to differences in
upbringing practices.

5) Attitudes and values

Factors that contribute to


differences among learners:
1) Ability
2) Aptitude
3) Interests
4) Family and cultural background
5) Attitudes and values
Attitude refers to an individual perspective and
disposition. Some positive attitudes are
curiosity, responsibility, creativity & persistence.
Learners with positive attitude will demonstrate
the value of persistence in their studies

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Howard Gardner, a
Harvard professor, has
identified eight different
types of intelligences
that each individual has
the capacity to possess.
The idea of multiple
intelligences is
important because it
allows for educators to
identify differing
strengths and
weaknesses in students

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/ Spatial
Verbal/ Linguistic
Logical/
Mathematical
Bodily/
Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
involves visual perception of the environment, the ability to create and
manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space.
think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very
aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read
maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and
physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs,
drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television,
multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

Verbal/Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal/ Linguistic
involves reading, writing, speaking, and conversing in one's own or
foreign languages.
Involves using words effectively. These learners have highly
developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading,
playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught
by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together.
Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders,
and lecture.

Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
involves number and computing skills, recognizing patterns and
relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different
kinds of problems through logic.
reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able
to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to
experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be
taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to
learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.

Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
involves physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross
motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical
activities.
use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of
body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They
communicate well through body language and be taught through
physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools
include equipment and real objects.

Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
involves understanding and expressing oneself through music and
rhythmic movements or dance, or composing, playing, or conducting
music.
show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are
also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better
with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons
into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include
musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
involves understanding how to communicate with and understand
other people and how to work collaboratively.
understanding, interacting with others. These students learn
through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others,
street smarts. They can be taught through group activities,
seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio
conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video
conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.

Intrapersonal
Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
involves understanding one's inner world of emotions and thoughts, and
growing in the ability to control them and work with them consciously.
understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy
away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have
wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence
and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and
introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy
and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

Naturalist

Howard Gardners Multiple


Intelligence Theory
Visual/Spatial
Verbal Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
involves understanding the natural world of plants and
animals, noticing their characteristics, and categorizing
them; it generally involves keen observation and the
ability to classify other things as well.

Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligence


Theory

Learning Styles

Learning style is the way in which


each individual learner begins to
concentrate on, process, absorb and
retain new and difficult material.
Dr Rita Dunn

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style


Model
Environmental
Refer to the elements, lighting, sound,
temperature, and seating arrangement
Example: Some people need to study in a cool
and quiet room, while others cannot focus
unless there is a background music.

Emotional
Sociological
Physiological
Psychological

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style


Model
Environmental
Emotional
Includes the following elements: motivation,
persistence, responsibility, and structure
Example: Some people prefer to finish one task
before going to another, while others work best
n multiple tasks at the same time

Sociological
Physiological
Psychological

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style


Model
Environmental
Emotional
Sociological
Represents elements related to how individuals
learn in association with other people: 1)alone
or with peers; 2) an authoritative adult or with
a collegial colleague; and 3) learning in a
variety of ways or in routine patterns

Physiological
Psychological

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style


Model
Environmental
Emotional
Sociological
Physiological
Elements in this strand are: perceptual (visual,
auditory, tactile/ kinesthetic), time of day energy
levels, intake (eating or not while studying) and
mobility (sitting still or moving around)
Example: many people refer to themselves as
night owls or early birds because they function
best at night or in the morning

Psychological

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style


Model
Environmental
Emotional
Sociological
Physiological
Psychological
Correspond to the following psychological
processing: hemispheric (left and right brain
processing modes), impulsive (leaping before
thinking) or reflective (scrutinizing before
moving), and global vs. analytic.

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model

Harvey Silvers Learning


Styles
Mastery Learner
Sensing-thinking

Understanding
Learner
Intuitive thinking

Self-Expressive
Learner
Intuitive-Feeling

Interpersonal Learner
Sensing-Feeling

The Sensing-Thinking (ST) or


Mastery Learning
Prefers to learn by:
Seeing tangible results
Practicing what he has
learned
Following directions one
step at a time
Being active rather than
passive
Knowing exactly what is
expected of her, how will
the task must be done
and why

Learns best from:

Drill
Demonstration
Practice
Hands-on experience

The Sensing-Thinking (ST) or


Mastery Learning
Likes

Dislikes

Doing things that have


immediate, practical
use
Being acknowledge for
thoroughness and detail
Praise for prompt and
complete work
Immediate feedback
(rewards, privileges,
etc.)

Completing tasks for which


there are no practical use.
Activities that require
imagination and intuition
Activities with complex
directions
Open-ended activities
without closure or pay-off
Activities that focus on
feelings or other intangible
results)

The Sensing-Feeling (SF) or


Interpersonal Learner
Prefers to learn by:
Studying about things that
directly affect peoples lives
rather than impersonal facts
or theories
Receiving personal attention
and encouragement from his
teachers
Being apart of a teamcollaborating with other
students.
Activities that help her learn
about herself and how she
feels about things.

Learns best from:


Group experiences
and projects
Loving attention
Personal expression
and personal
encounters
Role playing

The Sensing-Feeling (SF) or


Interpersonal Learner
Likes
Receiving personal
attention and
encouragement
Opportunities to be
helpful in class
Personal feedback
Sharing personal
feelings and
experiences with
others

Dislikes
Long periods of
working alone silently
Emphasis on factual
detail
Highly competitive
games where
someone looses
Detailed and
demanding routines

The Intuitive-Thinking (NT) or


Understanding Learner
Prefers to learn by:
Studying about ideas and
how things are related
Planning and carrying out a
project of his own making
and interest
Arguing or debating a point
based on logical analysis
Problem solving that
requires collecting,
organizing, and evaluating
data.

Learns best from:


Lectures
Reading
Logical discussions
and debates
Projects of personal
interest

The Intuitive-Thinking (NT) or


Understanding Learner
Likes
Time to plan and
organize her work
Working independently
or with other intuitivethinking types
Working with ideas and
things that challenge
him to think, to
explore, to master.

Dislikes
Routine or rote
assignments
Memorization
Concern for details
Rigid rules and
predetermined
procedures

The Intuitive-Feeling (NF) or


Expressive Learner
Prefers to learn by:
Being creative and using his
imagination
Planning and organizing her
work in her own creative ways
Working on a number of
things at one time
Searching for alternative
solutions to problems beyond
those normally considered
Discussing real problems and
looking for real solutions.

Learns best from:


Creative and artistic
activities
Open-ended
discussions of personal
and social values
Activities that enlighten
and enhance-myths,
human achievement,
dramas etc.

The Intuitive-Feeling (NF) or


Expressive Learner
Likes
Contemplation
Being able to learn
through discovery
Opportunity to plan
and pursue his own
interests
Recognition for
personal insights and
discoveries

Dislikes
Too much attention to
detail
Facts memorization,
rote learning
Tasks with
predetermined correct
answers
Detailed and
demanding routines.

The Teacher

Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e), Article 11, of R.A. No.


7836,
otherwise
known
as
the
Philippine
Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a), section 6, P.D.
No. 223, as amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby
adopt the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers.

THE CODE OF ETHICS


FOR PROFESSIONAL
TEACHERS

The Preamble of the


Code of Ethics for
Professional
Teachers
Teachers are duly licensed professionals who
possesses dignity and reputation with high
moral values as well as technical and
professional competence in the practice of
their noble profession, and they strictly adhere
to, observe, and practice this set of ethical and
moral principles, standards, and values.

Article I: Scope and Limitations


Section 1. The Philippine Constitution
provides that all educational institution
shall offer quality education for all
competent teachers. Committed to its
full realization, the provision of this
Code shall apply, therefore, to all
teachers in schools in the Philippines.

Article I: Scope and Limitations


Section 2. This Code covers all public and
private school teachers in all educational
institutions at the preschool, primary, elementary,
and
secondary
levels
whether
academic,
vocational, special, technical, or non-formal. The
term teacher shall include industrial arts or
vocational teachers and all other persons
performing supervisory and /or administrative
functions in all school at the aforesaid levels,
whether on full time or part-time basis.

The Professional Teacher


The professional teacher is the licensed
professional who possesses dignity with high
moral values as well as technical and
professional competence...he adheres to,
observes, and practices a set of ethical and
moral principles, standards, and values.
(Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers,
1997).

The Professional Teacher


The professional teacher is the one who went
through four to five year period of rigorous
academic preparation in teaching and one who
is given a license to teach by the Board of
Professional Teachers of the Professional
Regulation Commission after fulfilling
requirements prescribed by law such as the
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). He or
she is registered in the roster of professional
teachers at the Professional Regulation
Commission and undergoes continuing
professional education.

Professional Attributes
A professional teacher possesses the following attributes:
Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning
and use this knowledge to guide the science and art of
his/her teaching practice.
Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use these to
instruct children in classrooms and to work with adults in
the school setting.
Disposition and skills to approach all aspects of his/her
work in a reflective, collegial, and problem-solving
manner.
View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and
dispositions and skills for working towards improving
his/her own teaching as well as improving schools.

Personal Attributes
Personality is the sum of ones personal
characteristics. It is ones identity.
Teachers are judged more strictly than any
other professionals. The personality they project
determines they make upon students and
colleagues.
Personalities may be described as authoritative,
weak, dynamic, or magnetic. Teachers
personality must be natural and genuine,
devoid of pretences and artificiality. They must
be consistent, true and authentic.

Personal Attributes
Passion
Passion in teaching is a compelling force
that emerges from ones inborn love for
children. Passionate teachers exude
spontaneity in ministering to the needs
of the students especially those
experiencing learning difficulties.

Personal Attributes
Humor
Humor stands for anything funny, which
elicits a smile, laughter or amusing
reaction. It is an essential quality of
teachers that serves a number of
purposes.

Personal Attributes
Values and Attitudes
Teachers are model of values. Values connote
standards, code of ethics and strong beliefs.
1) Open-mindedness is basic in promoting respect
and trust between teachers and students
2) Fairness and impartiality eliminates
discrimination. Teachers must be unbiased and
objective in judging their students work and
performance.
3) Professionalism is highly treasured in the teaching
profession. Teachers are adjudged professional if
they are knowledgeable, skilled and value-laden.

Personal Attributes
Patience
In teaching, patience refers to a
teachers uncomplaining nature, selfcontrol and persistence. Patient teachers
can forego momentous frustrations and
disappointments. They calmly endure
their students limitations and
difficulties.

Personal Attributes
Enthusiasm
Enthusiasm is synonymous to eagerness
and excitement. Enthusiastic teachers
are full of energy and dynamism. With
enthusiastic teachers, students look
forward to any activity they can
participate in with them.

Personal Attributes
Commitment
is a solemn promise to perform the
duties and responsibilities mandated by
the laws and code of ethics of the
profession. It is an unwavering pledge to
perform all teaching and learning
activities with consistency and
selflessness to the best interest of the
students under their care.

To heredity, the child owes his possibilities.


However, to environment, he owes the realization of
these possibilities.

THE LEARNING
ENVIRONMENT

The learning environment is


the place where teaching and
learning can take place in the
most effective and productive
manner. It consists of the
classroom and all the
instructional features and the
non-threatening classroom
climate needed in planning
and implementing all teaching
and learning activities.

Arrangement of
Furniture

The furniture, like the table for demonstration


located in front of the room and the chairs
facing it are neatly arranged with sufficient
spaces in-between for ease in moving around.
Display shelves for safekeeping of projects,
collections and outstanding work are located at
the sides.

Arrangement of
Furniture

Attached to the wall is the bulletin board for


hanging posters, announcements and
illustrations about the unit being undertaken.
During discussions, the board in front is used
for clarifying step-by-step procedures and
making clearer diagrams, illustrations and
figures.

Arrangement of
Furniture

Teaching devices like globes, maps and charts


are kept in nearby cabinets, together with
simple tools and materials. A temporary table
is placed at the right side where supplies,
materials and handled instruments are
arranged, ready for the days lesson.

Physical Condition of the


Classroom
As soon as the students enter they are attracted by a
clean and orderly set-up. Natural light and flowing
fresh air add to their comfort and ease. Free from
noise coming from the surroundings, students
concentration and interest are easily sustained. The
doors and windows could be opened and closed with
less difficulty and noise. The light fixtures are located
where needed.

Interactions
A diverse situation may exist in
the classroom at any given
time. Students differ in abilities
and interests while teachers
likely
employ
different
strategies. Teachers must be
sensitive
to
positive
or
negative interactions and must
immediately
undertake
an
instant revision or adjustment
in the methodology when
necessary. The primary goal is
to be able to motivate them to
work harmoniously, thereafter,
inculcate
the
values
of
cooperation and congeniality.

A Facilitative Learning
Environment
Pine and Horn (1990) described the learning environment that facilitates
learning. It is an environment:
Which encourages people to be
active;
Which promotes and facilitates the
individuals discovery of the personal
meaning of idea;
Which emphasizes the uniquely
personal and subjective nature of
learning in which difference is good and
desirable;

A Facilitative Learning
Environment
Pine and Horn (1990) described the learning environment that facilitates
learning. It is an environment:
Which consistently recognizes
peoples right to make mistakes;
Which tolerates ambiguity;
In which evaluation is a cooperative
process with emphasis on selfevaluation;
Which encourages openness of self
rather than concealment of self;

A Facilitative Learning
Environment
Pine and Horn (1990) described the learning environment that facilitates
learning. It is an environment:
In which people feel they are respected;
In which people feel they are accepted;
Which permits confrontation.