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Vegetables

Foods I: Fundamentals

8 Classifications of Vegetables

1. Tubers
Potatoes

2. Roots
Beets, turnips, carrots, radishes

3. Bulbs
Onions, garlic, leeks, chives

4. Stems
Celery, mushroom, asparagus

5. Seeds
Beans, peas, corn

6. Flowers
Artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli

7. Leaves
Brussel sprouts, cabbage, lettuce, spinach

8. Fruits
Cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash

Fun Fact
Which of the following contains the
most vitamin C?
A. An orange
B. A red pepper
C. A potato
Answer: B.
a red pepper contains more vitamin C than
both an orange and potato combined

Color Says It ALL!

Green
Chlorophyll
Dark leafy greens (spinach) contain a lot of the b vitamin folate as well as iron
Cruciferous veggies (broccoli, cabbage) may protect against cancer
Cook in small amount of water for short time

Yellow/Orange
Carotenoids
Carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes are great source of beta carotene which is
converted to vitamin A which helps eyes
Cook covered in small amount of water

Color Says It ALL!

Red/Purple
Anthocyanins
Tomatoes contain LYCOPENE which may reduce the chance of cancer
(especially prostate)
Red veggies (beets, radishes, cabbage) also contain a lot of vitamin C and
iron
Antioxidants produced by anthocyanins protect from cell damage.
Cook covered in small amount of water
Add acid (VINEGAR) to keep foods red color (beets, red cabbage especially!)

White
Flavones

Potatoes, mushrooms, onions, cauliflower, garlic


Offer vitamin B & C as well as iron and calcium
Lower blood pressure, cholesterol and reduce risk of heart disease
Overcooking can cause color change

Nutrients in Vegetables
Like fruits, vegetables are
made up of a mixture of water
and carbohydrates.
Vegetables with a:
High water content are crisp,
juicy and succulent.
Ex. Flowers, Stems, Fruits,
Leaves
Tomatoes, Celery,
Cucumbers, Broccoli,
Lettuce

High carbohydrate content are


starchy.
Ex. Roots, Tubers, Seeds,
Bulbs
Potatoes, Lima Beans,
Corn, Squash

Nutrients in Vegetables

Vitamins
Chlorophyll - green substance of plant cells that gives their green
color.
Vitamin A - eyes
Leafy green and deep yellow vegetables contain carotene which
converts to Vitamin A

Vitamin C Most vegetables contain vitamin C - broccoli, peppers, tomatoes,


cabbage

Vitamin B
Lima beans and peas

Minerals
Calcium
Iron

Carbohydrates
Cellulose, starch and sugar

Proteins
Incomplete protein - dried beans and peas

ANTIOXIDANTS
Linked with lowering the risk of cancer & heart disease

Choosing Vegetables

Canned

Frozen

label information is your


guide

Dried

more water, cooked at


processing time
liquid can be drained before
cooking to reduce sodium
levels

soak beans, peas, legumes


before cooking

Fresh

more nutritious,
look for crisp, firm, bright
color, absence of bruises

Selecting Fresh Vegetables

Preparing Vegetables

Always wash in COLD water before consuming to remove pesticides


& dirt
Tough-skinned veggies that are dirty can be washed with a stiff brush.

Leafy greens should be washed before storage.


To do this, pull the leaves away from the core and run under cold water.

Cut vegetables to the same size so that they can cook equally
throughout
Cut potatoes can be kept in ice water to prevent browning.

Skins contain fiber and added nutrients but may be pared or peeled
away to remove wax coating

WHOA! Note Overload


Take a 5 minute break

Journal
Review: Classification Mix-Up
Match the following veggies to their classification
1. Eggplant
2. Garlic
3. Brussel sprouts
4. Corn
5. Squash

A. Bulb
B. Seed
C. Tuber
D. Leaves
E. Fruit

Reflection: Eat Your Vegetables!


For decades, vegetables have been portrayed as
the gross food that you have to get through in order
to get dessert. Some are not even aware that
vegetables can be prepared in a way that makes
them appetizing. Truth is that they can be both tasty
and extremely beneficial to our health. What is your
take on vegetables? Do you enjoy them or have you
had bad experiences with them in the past?

Fun Facts
True or False
If salad ingredients are
not washed and dried
properly they may dilute
the dressing.
TRUE!
Because nobody likes a
watery salad

Cooking Vegetables

Important Tips:

Goal to retain color, flavor, nutrient,


texture
Cooked veggies should be flavorful,
brightly colored and crisp-tender

Overcooking can:

destroy vitamins
dull colors
mushy texture
Cellulose structure softens, and
they become less crisp
Starch absorbs water, swells, and
become more soluble
unpleasant smell and/or taste

Water-soluble vitamins (B&C) from


vegetables seep out into the cooking
liquid

This liquid can be frozen and used for


soups

Cooking Vegetables

DRY Cooking Methods

Baked

wash thoroughly and place on oven rack


potatoes should be baked between 300-450F

Fry

pan or deep fried

When wrapped in foil, STEAM causes them to cook

usually battered before frying (except potatoes)

Microwave

retain color, flavor, texture, and most nutrients while using very
little water
require a standing time to allow them
to cool and finish cooking
tender parts of veggies should be
arranged toward the center of the
microwave to prevent overcooking

Cooking Vegetables

MOIST Cooking Methods

Boil

boil small amount of water, add


vegetables, return to boil, cover pan,
reduce heat to a simmer
Amount of water

Loss of nutrients is reduced when


cooked in small amount of water
Pan is covered to prevents both
scorching and loss of water due to
evaporation

Steam

water in bottom of pan, basket to hold


food, cook over boiling water
Takes a little more time
Retains the MOST nutrients

Fun Facts
True or False
Potatoes that are stored
in the refrigerator taste
different than ones
stored at room
temperature.
TRUE!!!
Potatoes that are stored
in the refrigerator taste
sweeter because their
starches have turned
to sugar.

Storing Vegetables

Refrigerate most

Roots & Tubers

store in cool, dry, dark place

Canned

examine first before putting


away
make sure they are dry to
prevent mold growth
cut veggies should be kept in
tightly-sealed plastic
containers

on shelf at room temperature,


use within a year

Frozen

use immediately when


thawed

The End