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BASICS

CONTENTS
Impurities
Concept

and charecterisation

of CaCO3 equivalence

Scaling

and corrosivity

Surface

and ground water

FACTS
70%

of the earths crust is water but only 3% is fresh

75%

of fresh water is locked up in glaciers and polar

ice
<0.01%

is easily accessible for use

USAGE
Agriculture

>70%

Domestic

>15%

Industry

balance

INDUSTRIAL
USAGE

Cooling tower make-up


Boiler feed
Process (raw material)
Solvent

Washing (filter cake, materials, etc)

UNIVERSAL SOLVENT

Gets easily contaminated

Net effect:

Corrossion

Scaling

Interference with process

TYPES OF
IMPURITIES
Dissolved solids (TDS)
Suspended solids (TSS)
Organic matter
Dissolved gases
Micro-organisms

DISSOLVED
SOLIDS

Hardness

Alkalinity

Chlorides

Silica

Others

HARDNESS
Caused

by

salts

of

Calcium

and

Magnesium
Temporary hardness bicarbonates
Permanent

hardness

chlorides

and

sulphates
Leads

to

equipment

scaling

of

heat

transfer

DEGREES OF HARDNESS
PPM

GRADE

0 17
17 60
60 120
hard
120 180
>180

Soft
Medium
Moderately
Hard
Very hard

ALKALINITY
Ability to neutralize acid
Exists at pH > 4
HCO3 + H+ = H2O + CO2
Measure of bicarbonate, carbonate and
hydroxide
P alkalinity (titration with Phenolphthalein)
PA gives hydroxide and half of carbonates
M alkalinity (titration with Methyl Orange
MA
gives hydroxide, carbonates and
bicarbonates

OTHER SOLIDS
Silica
Sodium
Iron
Sulphate
Nitrate
Heavy Metals

SILICA
Present in all waters
Causes scaling
Has complex chemistry
Exists in ionic(reactive) and colloidal
(nonreactive) forms
Colloidal is more difficult to remove

IRON
Common in deep ground water
Changes from soluble (ferrous) to insoluble
(ferric) in contact with air

NITRATES
Normally absent
Comes from a polluting source nearby
Limits for potability

TDS
Determined in lab by gravimetric method
Field measure is by conductivity (microsiemens)
TDS (ppm) is approx. 0.5 times conductivity

TURBIDITY
Suspended matter
Leads to cloudy appearance and opacity
Reported in empirical units which are indicative
only
Jackson turbidity units (JTU) or Nephelometric
units (NTU)
No direct correlation between JTU, NTU and

MICRO-ORGANISMS
Bacteria and pyrogen

MICRO-ORGANISMS
Bacteria
Expressed in Colony Forming Units (CFU)
Is a measure of total population estimated by
standard plate count Expressed as Most
Probable Number a statistical probability

MICRO-ORGANISMS
Pyrogen
Expressed by Endotoxin units per ml (EU)
Water for injection (WFI) < 0.25 EU

DISSOLVED GASES
Carbon di oxide
Oxygen
Hydrogen Sulphide

EXPRESSION OF IONIC LOAD


(As
Calcium
equivalent)

Carbonate

Species

Ratio

Multiplier

Na+

100/46

2.1

Mg++

100/24

4.1

Ca++

100/40

2.5

Cl-

100/71

1.41

SO4--

100/96

1.04

OH-

100/34

2.94

HCO3-

100/122

0.82

pHs
It is the pH at which a water with a
calcium content and alkalinity is in
equilibrium with CaCO3
It is a function of :
Calcium hardness
M alkalinity
TDS
Temperarture

Langelier Saturation Index


LSI = pHa pHs
(pHa is the measured pH of the sample)

Positive indicates CaCO3 depositing


Negative indicates a CaCO3 dissolving
tendency

Ryznar Stability Index


RSI = 2pHs pHa
(pHa is the measured pH of the sample)

<6 incicates potential for scaling and


reduced corrosivity
>7 scaling will not occur
>7.5 indicates tendency to corrossion