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Whats New with ACI 440

Fyfe Company Seminar


San Diego, CA
February 9, 2009
Sarah Witt

ACI440.2R - 08

Guide for the Design and


Construction of Externally
Bonded FRP Systems for
Strengthening Concrete
Structures
Published in July 2008

Strengthening Limits

Loss of FRP should not result in immediate


collapse

Rn existing 1.1 S DL 0.75 S LL new

(9-1)

Structural Fire Endurance

Glass Transition Temperatures of most FRP


systems is typically in the range of 140 - 180oF
(60 - 80oC)
Use of an insulation system can improve the
overall fire rating of the strengthened
reinforced concrete member
Insulation system can delay strength
degradation of concrete and steel, increasing
the fire rating of the member
The contribution of the FRP system can be
considered if it is demonstrated that the FRP
temperature remains below a critical
temperature

Limitation on Strain in FRP


To prevent debonding in regions away from FRP Termination

fd

f c'
0.083
0.9 fu
nE f t f

fd

f c'
0.41
0.9 fu
nE f t f

hc
fe cu
bi fd
c
5

(10-2) US

(10-2) SI

(10-3)

Prestressed Concrete Members

Assumptions for concrete members apply


strain compatibility for strain or change in
strain in the prestressing steel
prestressing steel rupture mode should be
investigated
where prestressing steel is draped several
sections should be evaluated

FRP Confined Concrete

Lam and Teng Model of


Confinement

FRP Jacket

Circular Sections
Confining pressure:

fl

fl

fl

Ef fe

Ef fe

2 E f n t f fe
D

Shape factors:

a b 1.0
Concrete

fl
8

(12-4)

Rectangular Sections
Equivalent circular
column

b
D
D b2 h2

Confining pressure:

fl
h
9

2 E f n t f fe
D

(12-4)

Rectangular Sections
Shape factors:

Effective confinement
area, Ae

Ae b
a
Ac h

Ae h
b
Ac b

0.5

(12-9)

h
Confining stress
concentrated at corners

10

(12-10)

Detailing Requirement
s f ,max

d
wf
4

Section 11.1, Guide:

Based on ACI 318-05, Section 11.5.6.9:

Vs V f 8 f 'c bw d
Vs V f 0.66 f cbd
11

(11-11) US

(11-11) SI

Allowable Termination Points


Simply Supported Beams
Section 13.1.2, Guide

Plies should extend a


distance equal at least to
ldf past the point along the
span corresponding to the
cracking moment, Mcr,

If Vu > 0.67Vc at the


termination point the FRP
laminate should be
anchored with transverse
(clamping)
reinforcement
12

Bond and Delamination


Transverse (clamping) reinfocement

Area of transverse (clamping) FRP U-Wrap


reinforcement to prevent concrete cover layer
from splitting:

A f anchor

f
f

f fu longitudinal

v fu anchor

(13-1)

13

Development Length

The bond capacity of FRP is developed over a


critical length:

ldf 0.057

ldf

nE f t f
f c'

nE f t f
f c'

in in.-lb units
(13-2)

in SI units

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Still Missing from ACI 440.2R - 08


Wall Strengthening still in development
Seismic Design draft document in the final

stages before going to sub-committee vote


Masonry has been voted on through the
committees and going to TMS for review. To
be published in the near future

Other New Documents

440.5-08: Specification
for Construction with
Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Reinforcing Bars

Other New Documents

440.6-08: Specification
for Carbon and Glass
Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Bar Materials for
Concrete Reinforcement

Research and Development

Testing at University of Miami with Dr. Toni


Nanni
Large NSF Project
Rectangular column strengthening
Improve design equations
Update
Columns are wrapped and being sent to

Maryland for testing

ASSHTO Specifications

Working with Dr. Nanni


Develop ASSHTO Specifications for FRP
Strengthening

THANK YOU
Fyfe Company LLC
8380 Miralani Drive
San Diego, CA 92126
Ph: 858-642-0694, Fax: 858-642-0947
www.fyfeco.com