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Aug 27, 2016

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Normal distribution

© All Rights Reserved

15 views

Normal distribution

© All Rights Reserved

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The mean of a normally distributed population lies at the

centre of its normal curve.

Because of the symmetry of the normal distribution, the

median and mode of the distribution are also at the centre; thus,

for a normal curve, the mean, median and mode are the same

value.

The two tails of the normal distribution extend indefinitely and

never touches the horizontal axis.

No matter what the values of Mean and standard

Deviation for a normal probability distribution, the

total are under the normal curve is 1.00

Approximately 68 percent of all the values

normally distributed population lies within 1

from the mean

Approximately 95.5 percent of all the values

normally distributed population lies within 3

from the mean

Approximately 99.7 percent of all the values

normally distributed population lies within 3

from the mean

in a

S.D.

in a

S.D.

in a

S.D.

installed in a new factory and their length of life is

normally distributed with standard deviation of 20 days.

(a)How many bulbs will expire in less than 90 days?

(b)If it is decided to replace all the bulbs together, what

interval should be allowed between replacements if not

more than 10% should expire before replacement?

Case Study

A training programme designed to upgrade the

supervisory

skills

of

production-line

supervisors. Because the program is selfadministered, supervisors require different

numbers of hours to complete the program.

A study of past participants indicate that the

mean length of time spent on the program is

500 hours and that this normally distributed

random variable has a standard deviation of

100 hours.

selected at random will require more than 500 hours to

complete the program?

Question.2: What is the probability that a candidate

selected at random will take between 500 and 650 hours

to complete the training program?

Question.3: What is the probability that a candidate

selected at random will take more than 700 hours to

complete the program?

Question.4 Suppose the training program director wants

to know the probability that a participant chosen at

random would require between 550 and 650 hours to

complete the required work

Question.5: What is the probability that a candidate

selected at random will require fewer than 580 hours to

complete the program?

Question.6: What is the probability that a candidate

chosen at random will take between 420 and 570 hours to

complete the program?

amount of 125 grams and a standards deviation of 20 grams. A quality

control manager took a random sample of filled bottles and found the

sample mean to be 130. The Quality control manager assumed the sample

must not be representative. Is this conclusion correct

Question: No. The mean of a sample usually does not exactly equal the

population mean because of sampling error.

The relationship between the shape of the population distribution and the

shape of the sampling distribution of mean is called the central limit

theorem.

The central limit theorem is the most important in all of statistical

inference.

It assures us that the sampling distribution of the mean approaches normal

as the sample size increases.

The significance of the central limit theorem is that it permits us to use

sample statistics to make inferences about population parameters without

knowing anything about the shape of the frequency distribution of that

population other than what we can from the sample.

Hypothesis Testing

Set up Null and Alternative Hypothesis

Select the level of

Significance

Select the Test Statistics

Rule

Perform Computations

Draw Conclusions

Examples of Developing

Hypothesis

A study claims that mean income of the senior executives in the

manufacturing sector in an industrial state is Rs. 625,000 per annum. To

test this claim, it is decided to take a sample of 200 executives and obtain

their mean income. Set up the appropriate hypothesis

A researcher contends that the mean daily sleep of young babies is 15

hours. A sample of 40 babies is taken randomly and their average sleep is

found to be 13 hours and 48 minutes, with a standard deviation of 80

minutes. Set up the null and the alternative hypothesis to test his claim

A company administered an intelligence test to all its employees for a

long period of time. For all the 80,000 employees, the mean score was

found to be 75 and the standard deviation 12. A researcher wishes to study

the theory that the top line supervisors of the company are intelligent than

average. For that, a sample of 50 supervisors is chosen randomly and their

mean score is found. To test the theory, what should be the null and

alternative ypothesis?

Standard Deviation is Known

Standard Deviation is unknown: Large Samples

Standard Deviation is Known

A manufacture supplies the rear axles for U.S. Postal

Service mail trucks. These axles must be able to withstand

80,000 pounds per square inch stress tests, but an

excessively

strong

axle

raises

production

costs

significantly. Long experience indicates that the standard

deviation of the strength of the axles is 4000 pounds per

square inch. The manufacture selects a sample of 100

axles from production and tests them, and finds that mean

stress capacity of the sample is 79,600 pounds per square

inch

If the axle manufacturer uses a significance level of

0.05 in testing, will the axles meet his stress

requirements?

Random

Variable

as a result of the outcomes of a random

experiment

Probability

Distribution

the probabilities we would expect to see

associated with these outcomes

Continuous

Random

Variable

any value within a given range

Discrete

Random

Variable

Continuous

Probability

Distribution

only a limited number of values, which

can be listed

A probability distribution in which the

variable is allowed to take any value

within a given range.

Expected Value

Expected value

of a random

variable

Normal

Distribution

Standard

Normal

Probability

Distribution

experiment

the random variable with that values

probability of occurrence.

A distribution of a continuous random

variable with a single-peaked, bell-shaped

curve. The mean lies at the center of the

distribution, and the curve is symmetrical

around the vertical line. The two tails

extend indefinitely, never touching the

horizontal line

standard deviation 1.

average refund of Rs 1200. Consider the population of last minute

filers who file their returns during last week of June. For a random

sample of 400 individuals who filed a returns between 25 and 30

June, the sample mean refund was Rs. 1054 and the sample s.d

was Rs. 1600. Using 5 percent level of significance, test the belief

that the individuals who wait until the last week of June o file

their returns to get a higher refund than early the fliers

A packaging device is set to fill detergent power packets with a

mean of weight of 5 kg, with a sd of 0.21 kg. the weight of packets

can be assumed to be normally distributed. The weight of packets

is known to drift upwards over a period of time due to machine

fault, which is not tolerable. A random sample of 100 packet is

taken and weighted. This sample has mean weight of 5.03 kg. Can

we conclude that the mean weight produced by the machine has

increased? Use a 5 percent level of significance?

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