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ENS6143 POWER SYSTEMS 1

Seminar 4:

Power Transformers
Textbook Reading: Chapter 3

Purpose of This Seminar


Power systems are characterized by many different voltage levels,
ranging from 765 kV down to 240/120 volts.
Transformers are used to transfer power between different voltage
levels.
The ability to inexpensively change voltage levels is a key
advantage of ac systems over dc systems.
In this lecture we will develop transformer models and discuss
various ways of connecting power transformers.
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Overview
Topics covered in this lecture:

Basic transformer theory

Equivalent transformer circuits

Single-phase two-winding, three-phase two-winding,


and three-phase three-winding transformers

Autotransformers and regulating transformers

The per-unit system

Ideal
Transformer

First we review the voltage/current relationships for an ideal transformer


no real power losses
magnetic core has infinite permeability
no leakage flux
Well define the primary side of the transformer as the side that usually
takes power, and the secondary as the side that usually delivers power.
primary is usually the side with the higher voltage, but may be the low
voltage side on a generator step-up transformer.

Ideal Transformer Relationships


Faradays law:

Lossless transformer:

Load impedance referred to primary:

Example 3.1

Conceptual Single-Phase, Phase-Shifting Transformer

Real Transformers
Real transformers
have losses
have leakage flux
have finite permeability of magnetic core
Real power losses
resistance in windings (i2 R)
core losses due to eddy currents and
hysteresis
Eddy currents arise because of
changing flux in core
Eddy currents are reduced by
laminating the core
Hysteresis losses are proportional
to area of BH curve and the
frequency
Hysteresis losses are reduced by
using material with a thin BH curve

Transformer Equivalent Circuit

Calculation of Model Parameters


The parameters of the model are determined based upon:
nameplate data: gives the rated voltages and power.
short circuit test: with secondary shorted, apply voltage to primary to get
rated current to flow; measure voltage and losses. Neglect shunt
admittance and determine series impedance.
open circuit test: rated voltage is applied to primary with secondary open;
measure the primary current and losses (the test may also be done
applying the voltage to the secondary, calculating the values, then
referring the values back to the primary side). Neglect series impedance
and determine shunt admittance.

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Transformer Example
A single phase, 100 MVA, 200/80 kV transformer has the following test data:
short circuit: 30 kV, with 500 kW losses
open circuit: 20 amps, with 10 kW losses
Determine the model parameters.
From the short circuit test
100 MVA
30 kV
I sc
500 A, R e jX e
60
200kV
500 A
2
Psc Re I sc
500 kW R e 2 ,

Hence X e 602 22 60
From the open circuit test

Gc

-jBm

rc 2002 kV 4 M 10kW
8
R
Poc c GcV

25

10
S
2
10ockW c

200kV

200 kV
20
A
8 10, 000 16
R

jX

jX

Xm
m
Gc e jBm e
2010A 4 S 10,
000
Bm 10
625 10 10 4 S

200kV

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Example 3.2

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Example 3.2
(cont.)

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Per-Unit Calculations
A key problem in analyzing power systems is the large number
of transformers.
It would be very difficult to continually have to refer
impedances to the different sides of the transformers
This problem is avoided by a normalization of all variables.
This normalization is known as per unit analysis.

actual quantity
quantity in per unit
base value of quantity
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Per-Unit Conversion Procedure, 1


1.

Pick a 1 VA base for the entire system, SB

2.

Pick a voltage base for each different voltage level, VB.


Voltage bases are related by transformer turns ratios.
Voltages are line to neutral.

3.

Calculate the impedance base, ZB = (VB)2/SB

4.

Calculate the current base, IB = VB/ZB = SB/VB

5.

Convert actual values to per unit.


Note: per unit conversion affects magnitudes, not
the angles. Also, per unit quantities no longer have
units (i.e., a voltage is 1.0 p.u., not 1 p.u. volts)

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Example 3.3

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Per-Unit Equivalent Circuits of a Single-Phase


Two-Winding Transformer

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Per-Unit Solution
Advantages of using the normalization and per-unit system are:
The transformer turn-ratio equivalent circuit can be eliminated;
Device parameters fall into a narrow range;
The voltage throughout the power system is normally close to unity.
Rules for base quantities:
The value of Sbase is the same for the entire power system of concern.
The ratio of voltage bases on either side of a transformer is selected to
be the same as the ratio of the transformer voltage ratings.
When several components are involved, the individual ratings may be
different. To convert a given impedance into the equivalent impedance:

Per-unit solution procedure:


1. Convert to per unit (p.u.) (many problems are already in p.u.)
2. Solve
3. Convert back to actual as necessary

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Transformer Reactance Per-Unit Change of Base


Examples

A 54 MVA transformer has a leakage reactance or 3.69%. What is the


reactance on a 100 MVA base?

100
X e 0.0369
0.0683 p.u.
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Transformer reactance is often specified as a percentage, say 10%. This is


a per unit value (divide by 100) on the power base of the transformer.
Example: A 350 MVA, 230/20 kV transformer has a leakage reactance of
10%. What is the p.u. value on a 100 MVA base? What is the value in
ohms (230 kV)?

100
X e 0.10
0.0286 p.u.
350
230 2
0.0286
15.1
100

quantity in per unit

actual quantity
base value of quantity

ZB = (VB)2/SB

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Per-Unit Example
Solve for the current, load voltage and load power in the circuit shown
below using per unit analysis with an SB of 100 MVA, and voltage bases of
8 kV, 80 kV and 16 kV.
8kV 2
Left
ZB = (VB)2/SB
ZB
0.64
100 MVA

Z BMiddle

IB = VB/ZB = SB/VB

80kV 2

64
100 MVA

16kV 2

2.56
100 MVA
0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)
Z BRight

Original Circuit

1.00
3.91 j 2.327
VL 1.00 0.22 30.8
I

p.u.
2

V
SL
L 0.189 p.u.
Z
SG 1.00 0.2230.8 30.8p.u.
VL I L*

To convert back to actual values


just multiply the per unit values
by their per unit base:

Same circuit, with values expressed in per unit


V LActual 0.859 30.8 16 kV 13.7 30.8 kV
S LActual 0.1890 100 MVA 18.90 MVA
SGActual 0.2230.8 100 MVA 22.030.8 MVA
100 MVA
1250 Amps
80 kV
20
I Actual

0.22

30.8

Amps

275

30.8

Middle
I Middle

Example 3.4

quantity in per unit

actual quantity
base value of quantity

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Example 3.4 (cont.)

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Example 3.4 (cont.)

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Three-Phase Per-Unit
Procedure is very similar to 1 except we use a 3 VA base, and use line to
line voltage bases:
1.

Pick a 3 VA base for the entire system, S 3


B

2.

Pick a voltage base for each different voltage level, VB. Voltages are
line to line.

3.

Calculate the impedance base:

ZB

VB2, LL
S B3

( 3 VB ,LN ) 2
3S 1B

VB2, LN
S 1B

Exactly the same impedance bases as with single phase!


4.

5.

Calculate the current base, IB:

3
1
1
S
3
S
S
B
B
B I1
I3B

B
3 VB , LL
3 3 VB , LN VB , LN
Exactly the same current bases as with single phase!

Convert actual values to per-unit.


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Three-Phase Per-Unit Example


Solve for the current, load voltage and load power in the circuit of slide 20,
assuming a 3 power base of 300 MVA, and line to line voltage bases of
13.8 kV, 138 kV and 27.6 kV (square root of 3 larger than the 1 example
voltages). Also assume the generator is Y-connected so its line to line
voltage is 13.8 kV.
Convert to per unit as before. Note the system is exactly the same!
1.00
0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)
3.91 j 2.327
VL 1.00 0.22 30.8
I

p.u.
2

V
SL
L 0.189 p.u.
Z
SG 1.00 0.2230.8 30.8p.u. V Actual 0.859 30.8 27.6 kV 23.8 30.8 kV
L
VL I L*

Again, analysis is exactly the


same!
Differences appear when we
convert back to actual values:
actual quantity
quantity in per unit
base value of quantity

S LActual 0.1890 300 MVA 56.70 MVA


SGActual 0.2230.8 300 MVA 66.030.8 MVA
I Middle

300 MVA
1250 Amps (same current!)
3 138 kV

I Actual
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Middle 0.22 30.8 Amps 275 30.8

Example 3.5

quantity in per unit

actual quantity
base value of quantity

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Three-Phase Two-Windings Transformers


There are 4
different ways to
connect 3
transformers.
Usually 3
transformers are
constructed so
all windings
share a common
core.

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Y-Y Connection

Magnetic coupling with An/an, Bn/bn & Cn/cn


VAn
V
I
1
a, AB a, A
Van
Vab
Ia a

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Y-Y Connection Models


3 Detailed Model:

Per-phase model:

Per phase analysis of Y-Y connections is exactly the same as analysis of a


single phase transformer.
Y-Y connections are common in transmission systems.
Key advantages are the ability to ground each side and there is no phase
shift introduced.

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- Connection
Magnetic coupling with AB/ab, BC/bb & CA/ca
VAB
I
1 I
1
a, AB , A
Vab
I ab a I a a

3 Detailed Model:

Per-phase model:

To use the per phase equivalent we need to use the delta-wye load
transformation. Per phase analysis similar to Y-Y except impedances are
decreased by a factor of 3.
Key disadvantage is - connections can not be grounded; not commonly
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used.

-Y Connection

VAB
V
a, AB Van Vab 3 Van30
Van
a
VAB 30
V 30
and Van 3 An
a
a
For current we get
I AB 1
I a a I AB
I ab a
Hence Vab 3

I A 3 I AB 30 I AB
a a

1
I A30
3

1
I A30
3

Magnetic coupling with AB/an, BC/bn & CA/cn


Per-phase model:

Note: Connection introduces a 30 degree phase shift!


Common for generator/transmission step-up since there is a neutral on the
high voltage side.
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Even if a = 1 there is a 3 step-up ratio.

Y- Connection
Per-phase model:

Exact opposite of the -Y connection,


now with a phase shift of -30 degrees.
Common for transmission/distribution
step-down since there is a neutral on the
high voltage side.

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Example 3.6

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Common Three-Phase Core Configurations

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Per-Unit Equivalent Circuits of Three-Phase TwoWinding Transformers

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Example 3.7

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Example 3.7 (cont.)

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Example 3.8

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Three-Winding Transformers

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Example 3.9

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Example 3.10

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Autotransformers
Autotransformers are transformers in which the primary and secondary
windings are coupled magnetically and electrically.
This results in lower cost, and smaller size and weight.
The key disadvantage is loss of electrical isolation between the voltage
levels. This can be an important safety consideration when a is large.
For example in stepping down 7160/240 V we do not ever want 7160 on
the low side!

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Example 3.11

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Example 3.11 (cont.)

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Transformers with Off-Nominal Turns Ratios

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Example 3.12

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Example 3.12 (cont.)

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Example 3.12 (cont.)

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Load Tap Changing Transformers


LTC transformers have tap ratios that can be varied to regulate bus
voltages.
The typical range of variation is 10% from the nominal values, usually in 33
discrete steps (0.0625% per step).
Because tap changing is a mechanical process, LTC transformers usually
have a 30 second deadband to avoid repeated changes.
Unbalanced tap positions can cause "circulating vars.

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Distribution Transformer

Radiators
W/Fans

LTC

115 35 kV distribution transformer


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Phase-Shifting Transformers
Phase shifting transformers are used to control the phase angle across the
transformer.
Since power flow through the transformer depends upon phase angle, this
allows the transformer to regulate the power flow through the transformer.
Phase shifters can be used to prevent inadvertent "loop flow" and to prevent
line overloads.

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Phase Shifting Transformer Picture


Costs about $7 million,
weighs about 0.54
million kilograms

230 kV 800 MVA Phase Shifting


Transformer During factory
testing
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Example 3.13

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Example 3.13 (cont.)

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Example 3.13 (cont.)

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230/115 kV Transformer
230 kV
surge
arrestors

115 kV
surge
arrestors

Oil Cooler
Radiators
W/Fans

Oil
pump
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Summary
The Ideal Transformer
Equivalent Circuits
The Per-Unit System
Three-Phase Transformers
Three-Winding Transformers
Autotransformers
Load Tap Changing Transformers
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