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Power system lecture 4

- Transformer
- Preguntas Instalaciones Electricas Industriales Conocimientos Basicos
- 7-Transformers-Illustrated
- Autotransformer Basics
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Seminar 4:

Power Transformers

Textbook Reading: Chapter 3

Power systems are characterized by many different voltage levels,

ranging from 765 kV down to 240/120 volts.

Transformers are used to transfer power between different voltage

levels.

The ability to inexpensively change voltage levels is a key

advantage of ac systems over dc systems.

In this lecture we will develop transformer models and discuss

various ways of connecting power transformers.

2

Overview

Topics covered in this lecture:

and three-phase three-winding transformers

Ideal

Transformer

no real power losses

magnetic core has infinite permeability

no leakage flux

Well define the primary side of the transformer as the side that usually

takes power, and the secondary as the side that usually delivers power.

primary is usually the side with the higher voltage, but may be the low

voltage side on a generator step-up transformer.

Faradays law:

Lossless transformer:

Example 3.1

Real Transformers

Real transformers

have losses

have leakage flux

have finite permeability of magnetic core

Real power losses

resistance in windings (i2 R)

core losses due to eddy currents and

hysteresis

Eddy currents arise because of

changing flux in core

Eddy currents are reduced by

laminating the core

Hysteresis losses are proportional

to area of BH curve and the

frequency

Hysteresis losses are reduced by

using material with a thin BH curve

The parameters of the model are determined based upon:

nameplate data: gives the rated voltages and power.

short circuit test: with secondary shorted, apply voltage to primary to get

rated current to flow; measure voltage and losses. Neglect shunt

admittance and determine series impedance.

open circuit test: rated voltage is applied to primary with secondary open;

measure the primary current and losses (the test may also be done

applying the voltage to the secondary, calculating the values, then

referring the values back to the primary side). Neglect series impedance

and determine shunt admittance.

10

Transformer Example

A single phase, 100 MVA, 200/80 kV transformer has the following test data:

short circuit: 30 kV, with 500 kW losses

open circuit: 20 amps, with 10 kW losses

Determine the model parameters.

From the short circuit test

100 MVA

30 kV

I sc

500 A, R e jX e

60

200kV

500 A

2

Psc Re I sc

500 kW R e 2 ,

Hence X e 602 22 60

From the open circuit test

Gc

-jBm

rc 2002 kV 4 M 10kW

8

R

Poc c GcV

25

10

S

2

10ockW c

200kV

200 kV

20

A

8 10, 000 16

R

jX

jX

Xm

m

Gc e jBm e

2010A 4 S 10,

000

Bm 10

625 10 10 4 S

200kV

11

Example 3.2

12

Example 3.2

(cont.)

13

Per-Unit Calculations

A key problem in analyzing power systems is the large number

of transformers.

It would be very difficult to continually have to refer

impedances to the different sides of the transformers

This problem is avoided by a normalization of all variables.

This normalization is known as per unit analysis.

actual quantity

quantity in per unit

base value of quantity

14

1.

2.

Voltage bases are related by transformer turns ratios.

Voltages are line to neutral.

3.

4.

5.

Note: per unit conversion affects magnitudes, not

the angles. Also, per unit quantities no longer have

units (i.e., a voltage is 1.0 p.u., not 1 p.u. volts)

15

Example 3.3

16

Two-Winding Transformer

17

Per-Unit Solution

Advantages of using the normalization and per-unit system are:

The transformer turn-ratio equivalent circuit can be eliminated;

Device parameters fall into a narrow range;

The voltage throughout the power system is normally close to unity.

Rules for base quantities:

The value of Sbase is the same for the entire power system of concern.

The ratio of voltage bases on either side of a transformer is selected to

be the same as the ratio of the transformer voltage ratings.

When several components are involved, the individual ratings may be

different. To convert a given impedance into the equivalent impedance:

1. Convert to per unit (p.u.) (many problems are already in p.u.)

2. Solve

3. Convert back to actual as necessary

18

Examples

reactance on a 100 MVA base?

100

X e 0.0369

0.0683 p.u.

54

a per unit value (divide by 100) on the power base of the transformer.

Example: A 350 MVA, 230/20 kV transformer has a leakage reactance of

10%. What is the p.u. value on a 100 MVA base? What is the value in

ohms (230 kV)?

100

X e 0.10

0.0286 p.u.

350

230 2

0.0286

15.1

100

actual quantity

base value of quantity

ZB = (VB)2/SB

19

Per-Unit Example

Solve for the current, load voltage and load power in the circuit shown

below using per unit analysis with an SB of 100 MVA, and voltage bases of

8 kV, 80 kV and 16 kV.

8kV 2

Left

ZB = (VB)2/SB

ZB

0.64

100 MVA

Z BMiddle

IB = VB/ZB = SB/VB

80kV 2

64

100 MVA

16kV 2

2.56

100 MVA

0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)

Z BRight

Original Circuit

1.00

3.91 j 2.327

VL 1.00 0.22 30.8

I

p.u.

2

V

SL

L 0.189 p.u.

Z

SG 1.00 0.2230.8 30.8p.u.

VL I L*

just multiply the per unit values

by their per unit base:

V LActual 0.859 30.8 16 kV 13.7 30.8 kV

S LActual 0.1890 100 MVA 18.90 MVA

SGActual 0.2230.8 100 MVA 22.030.8 MVA

100 MVA

1250 Amps

80 kV

20

I Actual

0.22

30.8

Amps

275

30.8

Middle

I Middle

Example 3.4

actual quantity

base value of quantity

21

22

23

Three-Phase Per-Unit

Procedure is very similar to 1 except we use a 3 VA base, and use line to

line voltage bases:

1.

B

2.

Pick a voltage base for each different voltage level, VB. Voltages are

line to line.

3.

ZB

VB2, LL

S B3

( 3 VB ,LN ) 2

3S 1B

VB2, LN

S 1B

4.

5.

3

1

1

S

3

S

S

B

B

B I1

I3B

B

3 VB , LL

3 3 VB , LN VB , LN

Exactly the same current bases as with single phase!

24

Solve for the current, load voltage and load power in the circuit of slide 20,

assuming a 3 power base of 300 MVA, and line to line voltage bases of

13.8 kV, 138 kV and 27.6 kV (square root of 3 larger than the 1 example

voltages). Also assume the generator is Y-connected so its line to line

voltage is 13.8 kV.

Convert to per unit as before. Note the system is exactly the same!

1.00

0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)

3.91 j 2.327

VL 1.00 0.22 30.8

I

p.u.

2

V

SL

L 0.189 p.u.

Z

SG 1.00 0.2230.8 30.8p.u. V Actual 0.859 30.8 27.6 kV 23.8 30.8 kV

L

VL I L*

same!

Differences appear when we

convert back to actual values:

actual quantity

quantity in per unit

base value of quantity

SGActual 0.2230.8 300 MVA 66.030.8 MVA

I Middle

300 MVA

1250 Amps (same current!)

3 138 kV

I Actual

25

Middle 0.22 30.8 Amps 275 30.8

Example 3.5

actual quantity

base value of quantity

26

There are 4

different ways to

connect 3

transformers.

Usually 3

transformers are

constructed so

all windings

share a common

core.

27

Y-Y Connection

VAn

V

I

1

a, AB a, A

Van

Vab

Ia a

28

3 Detailed Model:

Per-phase model:

single phase transformer.

Y-Y connections are common in transmission systems.

Key advantages are the ability to ground each side and there is no phase

shift introduced.

29

- Connection

Magnetic coupling with AB/ab, BC/bb & CA/ca

VAB

I

1 I

1

a, AB , A

Vab

I ab a I a a

3 Detailed Model:

Per-phase model:

To use the per phase equivalent we need to use the delta-wye load

transformation. Per phase analysis similar to Y-Y except impedances are

decreased by a factor of 3.

Key disadvantage is - connections can not be grounded; not commonly

30

used.

-Y Connection

VAB

V

a, AB Van Vab 3 Van30

Van

a

VAB 30

V 30

and Van 3 An

a

a

For current we get

I AB 1

I a a I AB

I ab a

Hence Vab 3

I A 3 I AB 30 I AB

a a

1

I A30

3

1

I A30

3

Per-phase model:

Common for generator/transmission step-up since there is a neutral on the

high voltage side.

31

Even if a = 1 there is a 3 step-up ratio.

Y- Connection

Per-phase model:

now with a phase shift of -30 degrees.

Common for transmission/distribution

step-down since there is a neutral on the

high voltage side.

32

Example 3.6

33

34

35

Example 3.7

36

37

Example 3.8

38

Three-Winding Transformers

39

Example 3.9

40

Example 3.10

41

Autotransformers

Autotransformers are transformers in which the primary and secondary

windings are coupled magnetically and electrically.

This results in lower cost, and smaller size and weight.

The key disadvantage is loss of electrical isolation between the voltage

levels. This can be an important safety consideration when a is large.

For example in stepping down 7160/240 V we do not ever want 7160 on

the low side!

42

Example 3.11

43

44

45

Example 3.12

46

47

48

LTC transformers have tap ratios that can be varied to regulate bus

voltages.

The typical range of variation is 10% from the nominal values, usually in 33

discrete steps (0.0625% per step).

Because tap changing is a mechanical process, LTC transformers usually

have a 30 second deadband to avoid repeated changes.

Unbalanced tap positions can cause "circulating vars.

49

Distribution Transformer

Radiators

W/Fans

LTC

50

Phase-Shifting Transformers

Phase shifting transformers are used to control the phase angle across the

transformer.

Since power flow through the transformer depends upon phase angle, this

allows the transformer to regulate the power flow through the transformer.

Phase shifters can be used to prevent inadvertent "loop flow" and to prevent

line overloads.

51

Costs about $7 million,

weighs about 0.54

million kilograms

Transformer During factory

testing

52

Example 3.13

53

54

55

230/115 kV Transformer

230 kV

surge

arrestors

115 kV

surge

arrestors

Oil Cooler

Radiators

W/Fans

Oil

pump

56

Summary

The Ideal Transformer

Equivalent Circuits

The Per-Unit System

Three-Phase Transformers

Three-Winding Transformers

Autotransformers

Load Tap Changing Transformers

57

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