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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
ME 687 Lecture #16
Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence
(PLIF)
Prof. Robert P. Lucht
Room 86, Mechanical Engineering Building
School of Mechanical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
Lucht@purdue.edu, 765-494-5623 (Phone)

October 12, 2006
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Purdue University
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Outline of the Lecture

Early Applications of Planar
Laser-Induced Fluorescence
(PLIF)

Modern Array Detectors
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF)
Advantages
• 2-D (or in a couple of cases 3-D) information acquired on
single laser shot
• Gradient and spatial structure information can be obtained,
especially important in turbulent flames
• Data can be acquired very rapidly

Disadvantages
• Quantitative planar LIF is reacting flows is difficult or
impossible to achieve due to the collisional quenching - not
such a big problem in non-reacting flows
• Spectral information difficult or impossible to acquire for 2-D
imaging
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Types of Array Detectors Used in Early (1980-
1995) PLIF Experiments
Vidicon
• Two-dimensional array of p-n junctions
• Electrosatic intensifier produces photoelectrons that bombard
phospor, illuminate p-n junctions
• Array is read out by a scanning electron beam
• Lag (image persistence), image distortion due to intensifier, and
cross-talk between pixels are main problems with vidicon
Self-Scanned Photodiode Array
• Two-dimensional array of p-n junctions
• Typically fiber-optically coupled with microchannel plate
(MCP) intensifier
• Photodiodes are read out by connection to external
circuit, re-charging current required is the signal level
• Main disadvantage: high read noise (hundreds to
thousands of electrons)
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PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Kychakoff et al., Appl. Opt., Vol. 21, 3225-3227 (1982).
Stanford PLIF
system.
SRI and Stanford
race to acquire
first PLIF images
from flames.
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Kychakoff et al., Appl. Opt., Vol. 21, 3225-
3227 (1982).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
SRI PLIF system.
SRI and Stanford
race to acquire
first PLIF images
from flames.
Dyer and Crosley,
Opt. Lett., Vol. 7,
382-384 (1982).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
SRI PLIF system.
SRI and Stanford
race to acquire
first PLIF images
from flames.
Dyer and Crosley,
Opt. Lett., Vol. 7,
382-384 (1982).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Kychakoff et al., Science, Vol. 2224, 382-384 (1984).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Kychakoff et al., Appl. Opt., Vol. 21, 3225-3227 (1982).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Kychakoff et al.,
Appl. Opt., Vol.
21, 3225-3227
(1982).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Cattolica and Vosen, 20
th
Symp. (Intl.) on Combustion, p. 1273 (1984).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Cattolica and
Vosen, 20
th
Symp.
(Intl.) on
Combustion, p.
1273 (1984).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Cattolica and
Vosen, 20
th
Symp.
(Intl.) on
Combustion, p.
1273 (1984).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
PLIF Measurements: Early 1980’s
Cattolica and
Vosen, 20
th
Symp.
(Intl.) on
Combustion, p.
1273 (1984).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – The CCD Array
Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Array
• CCD is a charge transfer device, read out by shifting charge
from each pixel on the array to a serial register
• Charge transfer efficiencies are ~ 0.99999
• Can have very low read noise (2-6 electrons), unintensified
operation is possible and in most cases preferable
• CCD cameras were developed for astronomical imaging
applications, they have very low dark noise, typically
negligible for combustion imaging experiments
• Can also be used for spectroscopic measurements, binned
array detectors at spectrometer exit slit
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Modern Array Detectors – The CCD Array
E. Dereniak and D. Crowe,
Optical Radiation Detectors,
John Wiley (1984).
Front-illuminated versus
back-illuminated CCD
arrays.
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Modern Array Detectors – The CCD Array
K. Pettyjohns,
Laser Focus
World, pp. 127-
136 (October
1992).
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – The CCD Array
K. Pettyjohns, Laser Focus World, pp. 127-136 (October 1992).
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School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- BICCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-
electrically Cooled
CCD Array
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- BICCD
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- BICCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-
electrically Cooled
CCD Array
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- BICCD
Andor Back-llluminated, Thermo-electrically
Cooled CCD Array
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- BICCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-
electrically Cooled
CCD Array
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- BICCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-
electrically Cooled
CCD Array
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- EMCCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-electrically
Cooled, Electron
Multiplying CCD
Array (Ixon DV887)
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- EMCCD
Andor Back-llluminated, Thermo-electrically Cooled, Electron
Multiplying CCD Array (Ixon DV887)
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- EMCCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-electrically
Cooled, Electron
Multiplying CCD
Array (Ixon DV887)
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors- EMCCD
Andor Back-
llluminated,
Thermo-electrically
Cooled, Electron
Multiplying CCD
Array (Ixon DV887)
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – SNR Calculations
From Phil Paul, AIAA-91-2315 (similar analysis in Seitzman and Hanson
[AIAA Journal, 513-519 (1993)]), the signal-to-noise ratio for a single pixel on
an array detector with a multichannel plate (MCP) intensifier is given by
( ) ( )
,
2
, , ,
1 /
p pc e mcp
p pc e mcp e mcp x e phos
N G
SNR
N G G N G
n
n x
·
+ +
where N
p
is the number of photons incident on the pixel,
η
pc
is the quantum efficiency of the MCP photocathode or the
semiconductor material,
G
e,mcp
is the electron gain of the MCP,
κ is a noise factor associated with the MCP intensification (decreases
with increasing gain),
G
e,phos
is the conversion efficiency of electrons at the output of the MCP to
electrons in the array pixel,
and N
x
is the sum of noise electrons due to the read process, dark noise,
charge transfer inefficiency, etc.      
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – MCP Intensifier
G
e,mcp
G
e,phos
η
pc κ
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – MCP Intensifier
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – SNR Calculations
For detection on an unintensified CCD,
, ,
2
1, 0, 1
p pc
e mcp e phos
p pc x
N
G G SNR
N N
n
x
n
· · · = ·
+
For detection of high light levels with an intensified CCD,  
( )
2
, , ,
1 , 1
p pc
p pc e mcp e mcp x e mcp
N
N G G N G SNR
n
n x x
x
+ >> >> = ·
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – Dynamic Range
For the unintensified CCD, dynamic range under ideal conditions,
100, 000
Number of Electrons in CCD Potential Well
DR
Noise Electrons
· =
Read
For an array detector with MCP intensifier, DR is reduced greatly,
(Reference Phil Paul, AIAA-91-2315)
,
, 1
e sat
e SNR
N
DR
N
·
·
N
e
= # electrons at ouput face of MCP
( )
( )
, , ,
,
/
e sat mp e mcp e mcp
e mcp
N N S G G
S G
·
determined expt for given MCP
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Typically, can get about 10
4
electrons per microchannel at full gain of
10
3
, N
mp
= 3-4 microchannels per pixel.
Can show that for SNR = 1,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
, 1 , , , ,
, 1
2 2
, , ,
1
1 1 4 /
2
1
4 /
2
e SNR p p e mcp e mcp e mcp x e phos
e SNR
e mcp e mcp x e phos
N N G G G N G
G G N G
n x x
x x
·
·
| `
· · + + + +
÷
. ,
| `
e + +
÷
. ,
Modern Array Detectors – Dynamic Range
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Purdue University
School of Mechanical Engineering
Modern Array Detectors – MCP Intensifier