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Exp (9)

Transformers

Main Objectives
Investigatetherelationbetweentheprimaryandsecondary
voltageofatransformer.
Analyzetherelationbetweentheefficiencyofatransformerand
theresistiveload.

Transformer
Atransformerisadevicethattransferspowerbetween
twounconnectedelectricalcircuit.

Secondarycoil
thisprovides
theoutput
voltage

connectedto

thepower
supply
(

Ironcore

thislinksthetwocoilsmagnetically

FaradaysLaw
Mutuallyinducedvoltage
Voltageisinducedacrossthesecondarycoilwhen
thecurrentacrosstheprimarycoilischanging.

Howitworks
Tounderstandhowitworks,itisimportanttolookateachside
separately.
Theprimarysideissimplyanelectromagnet.
By passing an electric current
throughacoilofwire,wemake

a magnetic field, just like the


fieldaroundabarmagnet.

Howitworks
Thesecondarysideisnotconnecteddirectlytoanypowersupply.
Itisjustapieceofironwithsomewirewrappedaroundit.
Whenthereisanalternatingcurrentin
theprimaryside.
Thedirectionofthemagneticfield
aroundthetransformeralternates.
Thisinducesasecondalternatingcurrent
inthesecondaryside.

Propertiesoftransformers
Thevoltageineachcircuitisrelatedtothenumberofcoilson
eachsideofatransformerbythefollowingequation:
secondary voltage
primary voltage
Vs
Vp

secondary turns
primary turns

Ns
Np

Theefficiencyofthetransformer
Efficiencyisdefinedastheratiooftheoutputpower

andtheinputpower

Stepuptransformers
Astepuptransformerisusedtoincreasevoltage.Ithasmoreturnsonits
secondarysidethanonitsprimaryside.
Stepuptransformersareusedtoincreasethe

voltagegeneratedinpowerstations.
Sothatitcanbetransportedaroundthecountryat
extremelyhighvoltages.

Stepdowntransformers
Astepdowntransformerisusedtodecreasevoltage.Ithas
fewerturnsonitssecondarysidethanonitsprimaryside.
Thiskindoftransformercanbefoundin
manyplacesaroundthehome,asalotof
appliancesuselowervoltagesthanthe
voltagesprovidedbytheNationalGrid. +

Amobilecharger,forinstance,
containsastepdowntransformer.

Equipmentneeded
1. PowerSupply.
2. Transformer.
3. Multimeters.
4. Wires

Experimentalprocedure
theefficiencyofthetransformerinfunctionofaresistiveload.

1) Theefficiencyofthetransformerisdefinedastheratiooftheinputpower()
andtheoutputpower():.
2) Weneedthereforetomeasuretheinputandoutputcurrentsaswellasthe
inputandoutputvoltages.
3) Notethattwoammeters,tomeasurethecurrents,andaresistiveloadhave
beenintroduced.(Checkitouttheinstructor).
4) Givetheloadresistancethevalueslistedinfollowingtable,measurethe
inputandoutputcurrentsandvoltagesandfillthetable.Estimatetheerror
onyourmeasurements.

Experimentalprocedure
Part2:theefficiencyofthetransformerinfunctionofaresistiveload.

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20
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80
120
140
160
200
280

Experimentalprocedure
Part2:theefficiencyofthetransformerinfunctionofaresistiveload.

Thank
you