SIX MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING MID TERM PRESENTATION ON EMBEDDED SYSTEM

NOIDA,INDIA

TRAINING OUTLINES

C PROGRAMMING

MICROCONTROLLER 8051

EMBEDDED SYSTEM
Defination:
Any device that includes a computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer Hardware and Software-part of some larger systems and expected to function without human intervention Respond ,monitor , control external environment using sensors and actuators

EXAMPLES
Personal Printer. Cell

digital assistant(PDA).

Phone. Engine ,Brakes etc.

Automobile: Television Household

appliances Systems

Surveillance

PRODUCT: PALM VX HANDHELD
Microprocessor: 32-bit motorola

AUTOMOTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Today’s high-end automobile may have 100 microcontrollers: 4-bit microcontroller checks seat belt;
Microcontrollers

run dashboard devices;

16/32-bit

microprocessor controls

engines.

EXAMPLE : AUTOMOBILE
SENSOR SENSOR

BREAK

BREAK

AUTOMATED BREAKING SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC PUMP

BREAK SENSOR

BREAK

SENSOR

CHARACTERISTICS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Sophisticated

functionallity. Real-time operations(always?). Low manufacturing Cost. Application dependent Processors(?). Restricted Memory Low Power
Power consumption is critical in battery- powered devices. Excessive power consumption increases system cost in wallpowered devices.

MANUFACTURING COST
Manufacturing

cost depends on different components used.
Non-recurring Cost

Engineering cost for design and development; of production and marketting each unit;

Best

technology choice will depend on the number of units we plan to produce

REAL-TIME OPERATIONS
Must

finish operations by deadlines.
failure.

Hard real Time: missing deadlines couses

Soft real Time: missing deadlines results in degraded performance.

Many systems are multi-rate:must handle operations at widely varying rated

        THE COMPONENTS OF A

COMPUTER

INTO FOUR TYPES

Microcomputers - desktop, laptop, notebook and palmtop personal computers (PCs) - used in businesses, schools/colleges and homes - cost from a few hundred pounds to a few thousand Minicomputers - often used as multi-user systems, with 100’s of workstations or terminals attached to a central minicomputer, - cost from £10,000 to about £150,000. Mainframe computers - used by large organisations which may have 1000’s of terminals, often remote - cost ££ hundreds of thousands Supercomputers - largest category of computer used mostly by scientific & industrial research departments, NASA, the Weather Centre, stock exchanges - cost ££ millions

“C” PROGRAMMING
High level languagesCOBOL,PASCAL etc Low level LanguageAssembly

C Language

PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES

ALGORITHMS PSEUDOCODE

HUMAN THOUGHT

NATURAL LANGUAGE HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE COMPILER MACHINE CODE

pro ble m

File System of OS:

File system of Windows OS  Windows 98 and Windows ME

Support FAT16, FAT32

 Windows

2000 XP

Support FAT16,FAT32, NTFS Support FAT32, NTFS

 Windows

File system of BSD Family OS  FFS (Fast File System)

8051 PIN DIAGRAM

PROJECT REPORT ON
SUBMITTED BY:
NAME ROLL NO. SURINDER SINGH EC/06/6306

GUIDED BY:

Mr. Sonu Verma Department of Embedded System Technologies NOIDA,INDIA

INTRODUCTION

Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remotely control a device. The term is used frequently to refer to the control of modern vehicles from a hand-held radio transmitter. Industrial, military, and scientific research organizations make [traffic] use of radio-controlled vehicles as well. A remote control vehicle is defined as any mobile device that is controlled by a means that does not restrict its motion with an origin external to the device. This is often a radio control device, cable between control and vehicle, or an infrared controller. A remote control vehicle (Also called as RCV) differs from a robot in that the RCV is always controlled by a human and takes no positive action autonomously.

TECHNOLOGY USED
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone (canceled March 13, 1984), and is standardized by ITU-T Recommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.  

A DTMF TELEPHONE KEYPAD
The contemporary keypad is laid out in a 3×4 grid, although the original DTMF keypad had an additional column for four now-defunct menu selector keys. When used to dial a telephone number, pressing a single key will produce a pitch consisting of two simultaneous pure tone sinusoidal frequencies. The row in which the key appears determines the low frequency, and the column determines the high frequency. For example, pressing the '1' key will result in a sound composed of both a 697 and a 1209 hertz (Hz) tone. The original keypads had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed.

A DTMF Telephone Keypad

DTMF KEYPAD FREQUENCIES
1209 Hz 697 Hz 770 Hz 852 Hz 941 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz

1 4 7 *

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

A B C D

Tones #, *, A, B, C, and D The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers, and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. This led to the addition of the number sign (#, sometimes called 'octothorpe' in this context) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A, B, C and D. In the end, the lettered keys were dropped from most phones, and it was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppress caller ID.

1209 HZ ON 697 HZ TO MAKE THE 1 TONE

BLOCK DIAGRAM

L 293D

M -nt

1) RESISTORS: 2)ICs:
VALUE 56K 150K 10K 47K 68K 330K QUANTITY 4 1 6 1 1 1

COMPONENTS USED:
VALUE CM 8870 HD7404 LS P89V51 RD2 L293D NE L7805 CV QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1

4) CAPACITORS 3) OSCILLATORS:
VALUE QUANTITY 1 1 3.57 MHz 12 MHz VALUE 0.1 µF 22 µF 10 µF QUANTITY 3 4 1

COMPONENT 6V ,200 RPM DC MOTOR ZENER DIODE, 5.6V RESET SWITCH 9V DC BATTERY CONNECTING WIRES

5) MISCELLANEOUS: 2
2 1 2 -

QUANTITY

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PCB LAYOUT

SOFTWARES USED:
• •

1. NI BENCHMARK 10.1 ROLE IN THE DESIGN: NI BENCHMARK 10 proved to be a very handy & easy-to-use tool for the PCB layout process. Many of its features were utilized leading to an accurate & efficient design. It has Design Error Check & Electrical Rule Check tools which proved to be helpful in the design. It is loaded with a huge component list that is categorized in various libraries for giving simplicity. Placement of components is also very easy & they can be rotated in 360⁰ to customize the design.  

2. µVision Keil ROLE IN THE DESIGN: µVision Keil provides IDE for 8051 programming & is very easy to use. When starting a new project, simply select the microcontroller you use from the Device Database and the µVision IDE sets all Compiler, Assembler, Linker, and Memory options. It’s device database is large which supports many ICs of the 8051 family. A HEX file can be created with the help of Keil which is required for burning onto chip. It has a powerful debugging tool which detects most of the errors in the program.

 

3. FlashMagic ROLE IN THE DESIGN: Flash Magic is a PC tool for programming flash based microcontrollers from NXP using a serial or Ethernet protocol while in the target hardware.  It has some excellent features like changeable baud rate, erase all flash before programming, setting security bits etc. The HEX file created with the help of keil was selected through it for programming the microcontroller.

 

 

APLLICATIONS
1) Scientific Remote control vehicles have various scientific uses including hazardous environments, working in the deep ocean , and space exploration. The majority of the probes to the other planets in our solar system have been remote control vehicles, although some of the more recent ones were partially autonomous. The sophistication of these devices has fueled greater debate on the need for manned spaceflight and exploration. 2)Military  Military usage of remotely controlled military vehicles dates back to the first half of 20th century. Soviet Red Army used remotely controlled Teletanks during 1930s in the Winter War and early stage of World War II.

3) Search and Rescue  UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the United States. This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs during the 2008 hurricanes that struck Louisiana and Texas.    4)Recreation and Hobby   See Radio-controlled model. Small scale remote control vehicles have long been popular among hobbyists. These remote controlled vehicles span a wide range in terms of price and sophistication. There are many types of radio controlled vehicles. These include on-road cars, off-road trucks, boats, airplanes, and even helicopters. The "robots" now popular in television shows such as Robot Wars, are a recent extension of this hobby (these vehicles do not meet the classical definition of a robot; they are remotely controlled by a human).

FURTHER IMROVEMENTS & FUTURE SCOPE
1. IR Sensors:   IR sensors can be used to automatically detect & avoid obstacles if the robot goes beyond line of sight. This avoids damage to the vehicle if we are maneuvering it from a distant place.     2. Password Protection:   Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it can be operated only if correct password is entered. Either cell phone should be password protected or necessary modification should be made in the assembly language code. This introduces conditioned access & increases security to a great extent.
 

3. Alarm Phone Dialer:   By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a 'DTMF Transceiver IC’ CM8880, DTMF tones can be generated from the robot. So, a project called 'Alarm Phone Dialer' can be built which will generate necessary alarms for something that is desired to be monitored (usually by triggering a relay). For example, a high water alarm, low temperature alarm, opening of back window, garage door, etc. When the system is activated it will call a number of programmed numbers to let the user know the alarm has been activated. This would be great to get alerts of alarm conditions from home when user is at work.  4. Adding a Camera:   If the current project is interfaced with a camera (e.g. a Webcam) robot can be driven beyond line-of-sight & range becomes practically unlimited

REFERENCES 1. Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia
  2. http://www.8051projects.info/   3. http://www.instructables.com/ 4. Schenker, L (1960), "Pushbutton Calling with a Two-Group Voice-Frequency Code", The Bell system technical journal 39 (1): 235–255, ISSN 0005-8580   5. “DTMF Tester” , ‘Electronics For You’ Magazine , Edition (June 2003)   6. http://www.alldatasheet.com/   7. http://www.datasheet4u.com/   8. http://www.datasheetcatalog.com/

THANK YOU

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