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Analysis of Occupation

from Multicultural
Aspect
Karin Lilienberg,
exchange lecturer
Tallinn Health College,
Estonia

Riga 2006

Culture
State of manners, taste and
intellectual development at a time
or place
Customs
Achievements
Products
Outlook
Hygiene, nutrition, exercise

Culture
Leadership in the family
Attitudes towards work
Values, roles
Issue of language
Differing etnicity
Health beliefs and practices

Multicultural

More than one culture


Supporting integration of people of
different countries, ethnic groups,
and religions into all areas of society

Occupation
Daily performance of purposeful
activities
Includes activities that are playful,
restful, serious, and productive
Reflects the unique characteristics
(beliefs, preferences, experiences,
environments, the specific patterns of
behaviours) of the person
Have some degree of personal
meaning

Occupation
A group of activities that has
personal and sociocultural meaning,
is named within a culture and
supports participation in society.
Occupations can be categorized as
self-care, productivity and/ or leisure

Occupation
- Occupying or being occupied
- what occupies one, means of filling up
ones time, temporary or regular
employment, business, calling, pursuit
- refers to all purposeful human activity
Wilcock (1998)

Occupation
Generic term encompassing
all aspects of a persons
engagement in roles,
processes, activities or tasks
in the course of daily life
Hagedorn (1995)

Activity
The execution of a structured
series of tasks that
contributes to occupations

(http://www.enothe.hva.nl)

Purposeful activity

Have personal meaning combined


with a goal-directed quality
Involve active engagement that
meets personal goals or needs
Therapeutic, purposeful activities are
used to evaluate, facilitate, restore or
maintain an individual's abilities to
meet demands in his or her life to
engage in occupations

Meaning
Entire interpretive process in which an
individual engages

Figuring things out or making


sense out
Depends on the interaction of the
person's developmental structure
and occupational form

Purpose
Experience of wanting an outcome to
result from occupational performance

Link between meaning,


developmental structure, and
occupational performance
(Nelson 1994:23)

Task

1.
2.

A series of structured steps


(actions and/or thoughts)
intended to accomplish a
specific goal. This goal could
either be:
The performance of an activity
or
A piece of work the individual is
expected to do
(http://www.enothe.hva.nl)

Function
The underlying physical and
psychological components that
support occupational performance
The capacity to use occupational
performance components to carry
out a task, activity or occupation
(http://www.enothe.hva.nl)

Connection between occupation,


activity, action and function
Life

course repertoire of
occupations
Maintenance

(self-care), productivity
(work, play), rest/ free time (leisure)

Activity
To

have a breakfast

Action
To

drink coffee

Function
To

/ operation

grip the cup

PLAY

DIGGING
TUNNELS

WETTING
THE
BRUSH
CHOOSING
THE COLOR

PAINTING
WATERCOLOURS

SPREADING
THE GROUND
COLOR TO
PAPER
HOLDING
THE
BRUSH

OCCUPATION

DANCING

PLANNING
THE
PICTURES

SITTING
IN A
CHAIR

PLAYING
WITH
DOLLS

PAINTING
THE
PICTURES

SEEING
THE
COLOURS

ACTIVITY

ACTION

FUNCTION

Occupational analysis
Hagerdorn (1997) describes
occupational analysis as the ability
to "understand the nature of an
individual's participation and
performance and what it means to
him
(focused on the person as doer)

Occupational analysis
Understanding the nature of the
occupation, activity or task.
(focused on the thing to be done).

Requirements to
occupational analysis

Participation analysis
existential analysis
performance analysis
occupational analysis
activity analysis
task analysis
applied analysis
Hagedorn (1997)

Concepts connected to
activity analysis

Assessment:
Process

that is based on the


knowledge about client

Analysis
Logical,

reductive process in the


course of which something is
minutely examined and broken
down into simple components

Activity analysis

Basic analysis

Demand analysis

Describes part of an occupation


What is done, the order in which it is done and
the essential tools and materials
describes the demand which the task or activity
places on the participant

Applied analysis
Considers the potential remedial benefits and
application for a specific condition or particular
individual and how the task or activity might be
adapted to promote or enhance performance

Task focused
activity analysis

Step 1
Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6
Step 7

Step 8

Describe the activity


Describe the typical age range of people
who are engaged in this activity
Describe the environmental aspects of
the performance context
List supplies and equipment needed to
carry out the activity
Describe the safety hazards inherent in
this activity
List the sequential steps of the activity
What performance components are
needed for the activity
Grading and adapting activity

Client-centered analysis
1.
2.
3.
4.

analysis of an occupational history


analysis of patterns of participation
analysis of performance demands and
ability to respond
analysis of interests

Analysis of patterns of
participation
participation analysis
interests and patterns of engagement

routine or habit analysis


degree of flexibility or rigid of such patterns

References:
www.enothe.hva.nl
Hagedorn, R. 2000. Tools for
Practice in Occupational
Therapy: A Structured
Approach to Core Skills.
Churchill Livingstone.