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History of Megger

The device is being used since 1889, popularity raised during


1920s, since long back devise is same in its uses and purpose of
testing, few real improvement appeared in recent years with its
design and quality of tester. Now high quality option are available
which are easy to use and quite safe.

What is Megger?
Insulation resistance quality of an electrical system degrades with
time, environment condition i.e. temperature, humidity, moisture
and dust particles. It also get impacted negatively due to the
presence of electrical and mechanical stress, so its become very
necessary to check the IR (Insulation resistance) of equipment at
a constant regular interval to avoid any measure fatal or electrical
shock.

Uses of Megger
The device enable us to measure
electrical leakage in wire, results are
very reliable as we shall be passing
electric current through device while we
are testing. The equipment basically
use for verifying the electrical insulation
level of any device such as motor,
cable, generator winding, etc. This is a
very poplar test being carried out since
very long back. Not necessary it shows
us exact area of electrical puncture but
shows the amount of leakage current
and level of moisture within electrical
equipment/winding/system.

Types of Megger
1.This can be separated into mainly two categories:- Electronic
Type (Battery Operated)
2.Manual Type (Hand Operated)
But there are another types of megger which is motor operated
type which does not use battery to produce voltage it requires
external source to rotate a electrical motor which in turn rotates
the generator of the megger

Note: - this
construction is not
similar for every
megger, it difference
appears manufacture
to manufacture but
basic construction and
operation are same for
all.

Electronic Type Megger


1. Important parts:- Digital Display :- A digital
display to show IR value in digital form.
2.Wire Leads :- Two nos of wire leads for
connecting megger with electrical external
system to be tested.
3.Selection Switches :- Switches use to select
electrical parameters ranges.
4.Indicators :- To indicates various parameters
status i.e. On-Off. For Example Power, hold,
Warning, etc.

Advantages of Electronic Type Megger


>Level of accuracy is very high.
>IR value is digital type, easy to read.
>One person can operate very easily.
>Works perfectly even at very congested space.
>Very handy and safe to use.
Disadvantages of Electronic Type Megger
>Require an external source of energy to >energies i.e. Dry cell.
>Costlier in market.

Hand operated Megger

Important parts:- Analog display: - Analog display provided on


front face of tester for IR value recording. Hand Crank:- Hand
crank used to rotate helps to achieve desired RPM required
generate voltage which runs through electrical system. Wire
Leads :- Used same as in electronic tester i.e. For connecting
tester with electrical system.

Advantages of Hand Operated Megger


Still keeps important in such high-tech world as its an oldest
method for IR value determination.
No external source required to operate.
Cheaper available in market.
Disadvantages of Hand Operated Megger
At least 2 person required to operate i.e. one for rotation of
crank other to connect megger with electrical system to be
tested.
Accuracy is not up to the level as its varies with rotation of
crank.
Require very stable placement for operation which is a little hard
to find at working sites.
Unstable placement of tester may impact the result of tester.
Provides an analog display result.
Require very high care and safety during use of the same.

Construction of Megger
Circuit Construction features :-

Deflecting and Control coil : Connected parallel to the


generator, mounted at right angle to each other and maintain
polarities in such a way to produced torque in opposite direction.
Permanent Magnets: Produce magnetic field to deflect pointer
with North-South pole magnet.
Pointer : One end of the pointer connected with coil another end
deflects on scale from infinity to zero.
Scale : A scale is provided in front-top of the megger from range
zero to infinity, enable us to read the value.
D.C generator or Battery connection : Testing voltage is
produced by hand operated DC generator for manual operated
Megger. Battery / electronic voltage charger is provided for
automatic type Megger for same purpose.
Pressure coil resistance and Current coil resistance : Protect
instrument from any damage because of low external
electrical resistance under test.

Working Principle of Megger


Voltage for testing produced by hand operated megger by rotation of crank in case
of hand operated type, a battery is used for electronic tester.
500 Volt DC is sufficient for performing test on equipment range up to 440 Volts.
1000 V to 5000 V is used for testing for high voltage electrical systems.
Deflecting coil or current coil connected in series and allows flowing the
electric current taken by the circuit being tested.
The control coil also known as pressure coil is connected across the circuit.
Current limiting resistor (CCR and PCR ) connected in series with control and
deflecting coil to protect damage in case of very low resistance in external circuit.
In hand operated megger electromagnetic induction effect is used to produce the
test voltage i.e. armature arranges to move in permanent magnetic field or vice
versa.
Where as in electronic type megger battery are used to produce the testing
voltage.
As the voltage increases in external circuit the deflection of pointer increases and
deflection of pointer decreases with a increases of current.
Hence, resultant torque is directly proportional to voltage and inversely
proportional to current.
When electrical circuit being tested is open, torque due to voltage coil will be
maximum and pointer shows infinity means no shorting throughout the circuit and
has maximum resistance within the circuit under test.
If there is short circuit pointer shows zero, which means NO resistance within
circuit being tested.

Work philosophy based on ohm-meter or ratio-meter. The


deflection torque is produced with megger tester due to the
magnetic field produced by voltage and current, similarly like
Ohm's Law Torque of the megger varies in ration with V/I, (Ohm's
Law :- V = IR or R=V/I). Electrical resistance to be measured is
connected across the generator and in series with deflecting coil.
Produced torque shall be in opposite direction if current supplied to
the coil. 1. High resistance = No current :- No current shall flow
through deflecting coil, if resistance is very high i.e. infinity
position of pointer
2. Small resistance = High current :- If circuit measures small
resistance allows a high electric current to pass through deflecting
coil, i.e. produced torque make the pointer to set at ZERO.
3. Intermediate resistance = varied current :- If measured
resistance is intermediate, produced torque align or set the pointer
between the range of ZERO to INIFINITY .

Connection Diagram of Megger for


Testing