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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science


1.1 What is Science?
What is science?
Importance of science
Career in science
1.2 A Science Laboratory
Common laboratory apparatus
Safety hazards
1.3 The Steps in a Scientific Investigation
The steps in a scientific investigation
1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units
Physical quantities and their units
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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science


1.5 Weight and Mass
Weight
Mass
1.6 Measuring Tools
Measuring length
Measuring area
Measuring volume
1.7 The Importance of Standard Units
The importance of standard units

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1.1 What is
Science?

Science is the systematic


study of nature and how it
affects us and our
environment
Science covers a broad
field of knowledge that
deals with observed facts
and the relationship
among those facts
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1.1 What is Science?


Importance of science
Improve our standard of living
Improve the quality of the environment
Understand the world around us
Increase food supply
Prevention and treatment
of diseases
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1.1 What is Science?

Career in science
Doctor
Architect
Engineer
Astronaut
Veterinarian
Pharmacist
Chemist
Computer
programmer
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Areas of science are


biology, physics,
chemistry, astronomy,
geology, meteorology
and biochemistry

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1.2 A Science
Laboratory
Common laboratory apparatus
Apparatus

Uses

Crucible

Heating chemicals

Test tube

Used to contain chemicals

Stopwatch

To measure time

Caliper

To measure diameters

Thermometer To measure temperature


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1.2 A Science Laboratory

Common laboratory apparatus


Apparatus
Evaporating
dish

Uses
Evaporating liquid from a solution

Use as a stopper for test tubes or


conical flasks
Hold specimen for observation
under a microscope
Test tube holder Hold test tubes
Cork and rubber
stopper
Glass slide

Syringe

Transfer small quantities of liquids


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1.2 A Science Laboratory


Safety hazards

Corrosive

Harmful/irritant

Radioactive

Toxic/poisonous

Explosive

Highly flammable

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1.3 The Steps in a Scientific


Investigation
Determine
what to
find out
Analysing the
data that has
been collected

Interpreting
the data

Plan a systematic
experiment for the
hypothesis

Form a
hypothesis

Write down the


data that has
been observed
Making
conclusion to
decide whether
the data is true
or not
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Controlling of
variables

Write a report
on the scientific
investigation

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1.4 Physical Quantities and


A physical quantity is a quantity that can be
Their
Units
measured
Physical quantity
SI unit
Length ()
metre (m)
Mass (m)
kilogram (kg)
Time (t)
Temperature (T)

second (s)
kelvin (K)

Electric current (I) ampere (A)


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Instrument
Metre rule
Lever/beam
balance
Stopwatch
Thermometer
Ammeter

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1.4 Physical Quantities and


Their Symbol
Units
Prefix
G
giga
M
mega
kilo
k
c
centi
milli
m

micro
n
nano
p
pico
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Value
1 000 000 000
1 000 000
1 000
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001
0.000 000 000 001
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1.5 Weight and Mass


Weight
The pull of the Earth on an object
The force that pulls the body towards
the centre of the Earth is called
gravitational force
SI unit is Newton (N)
The weight of an object
is not always the same
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Type of tools for measuring weight

A spring
balance
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A compression
balance
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1.5 Weight and Mass


Mass
The quantity of matter in an object
The mass of an object is constant and
not affected by gravitational forces
SI unit is kilogram (kg)
The mass of an object does not change

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Type of tools for measuring mass

A beam
balance

A lever balance
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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring length
Length is the distance between two points
Its SI unit is the metre (m)
Other units that can be used for length are
kilometre (km), centimetre (cm) and
millimetre (mm)
The relationship between the units of length
1 cm = 10 mm
1 m = 100 cm = 1 000 mm
1 km = 1 000 m = 100 000 cm
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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring the length
of a straight line

Measuring the length


of a curve

Correct

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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring the external diameter

Measuring the internal diameter

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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring area
Area is a measure of
the amount of a
surface. Its SI unit is
square metres (m2)
The area of regular
and irregular shapes
can be estimated by
tracing the shapes
onto a piece of graph
paper
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Estimating the area


of a leaf
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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring volume
R
S
T
S is the correct
eye position

Volume is a measure
of the space
occupied by a
substances
Its SI unit is cubic
metres (m3)
Tools for measuring
volume of liquid are
measuring cylinder,
burette and pipette
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1.7 The Importance of


Standard Units
Makes it easier for people
from different countries to
communicate with each other
A measurement in that unit
has the same value anywhere
in the world
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THE END

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Bab 1 : Pengenalan kepada


Sains
1.1 Apakah itu Sains?
Apakah itu sains?
Kepentingan sains
Kerjaya dalam sains
1.2 Makmal Sains
Alat radas makmal
Simbol berbahaya
1.3 Langkah-langkah dalam Penyiasatan Saintifik
Langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik
1.4 Kuantiti Fizik dan Unitnya
Kuantiti fizik dan unitnya
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Bab 1 : Pengenalan kepada Sains


1.5 Berat dan Jisim
Berat
Jisim
1.6 Alatan Pengukuran
Mengukur panjang
Mengukur luas
Mengukur isipadu
1.7 Kepentingan Unit Piawai
The importance of standard units

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1.1 Apakah itu Sains?


Sains adalah susunan pembelajaran ke
atas alam sekeliling dan bagaimana
kesannya kepada kita dan persekitaran
Sains meliputi pelbagai bidang ilmu
pengetahuan

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1.1 Apakah itu Sains?


Kepentingan sains

Meningkatkan taraf kehidupan


Meningkatkan kualiti persekitaran
Memahami dunia di sekeliling kita
Menambahkan bekalan makanan
Mencegah dan merawat penyakit

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1.1 Apakah itu Sains?


Kerjaya dalam sains

Doktor
Cabang dalam sains
adalah seperti biologi,
Arkitek
fizik, kimia, astronomi,
Jurutera
geologi, meteorologi dan
Ahli astronomi
biokimia
Doktor haiwan
Ahli farmasi
Ahli kimai
Pakar komputer
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1.2 Makmal Sains


Alat radas makmal
Alat radas

Kegunaan

Mangkuk pijar

Memanaskan bahan kimia

Tabung uji

Mengisi bahan kimia

Jam randik

Mengambil bacaan

Kaliper

Mengukur diameter

Termometer

Mengukur suhu
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1.2 Makmal Sains


Alat radas makmal
Alat radas

Makmal

Mangkuk penyejat

Menyejat cecair daripada suatu


larutan

Gabus dan
penutup getap

Digunakan sebagai penutup tabung uji


atau kelalang kon

Slaid kaca

Memegang spesimen untuk


pemerhatian di bawah mikroskop

Pemegang tabung
uji

Memegang tabung uji

Picagari

Memindahkan sedikit cecair


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1.2 Makmal Sains


Simbol berbahaya

Mengakis

Beradioaktif

Beracun

Merangsang Mudah meletup Mudah terbakar


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1.3 Langkah-langkah dalam


Penyiasatan Saintifik
Menentukan
tujuan
eksperimen

Membentuk
hipotesis

Menganalisis data
yang telah
dikumpul

Merekod data
yang

Menginterpretasi
data

Membuat
kesimpulan

diperhatikan

Merancang
eksperimen
secara sistematik

Mengawal
pembolehubah

Menulis
laporan

sama
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1.4 Kuantiti Fizik dan


Unitnya

Kuantiti fizik adalah kuantiti yang boleh


diukur
Kuantiti fizik
Panjang ()
Jisim (m)

Unit SI
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)

Peralatan
Pembaris
Neraca tuas

Masa (t)
Suhu (T)

saat (s)
kelvin (K)

Jam randik
Termometer

Arus elektrik (I)

ampere (A)

Ammeter
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1.4 Kuantiti Fizik dan


Unitnya
Imbuhan awal
giga
mega
kilo
senti
mili
mikro
nano
piko

Simbol
G
M
k
c
m

n
p

Nilai
1 000 000 000
1 000 000
1 000
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001
0.000 000 000 001
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1.5 Berat dan Jisim


Berat
Tarikan Bumi ke atas objek
Daya yang menarid jasad ke arah pusat
Bumi dikenali sebagai daya graviti
Unit SI adalah Newton (N)
Berat sesuatu objek tidak selalunya sama

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Jenis alat untuk mengukur berat

Neraca spring

Neraca pemampat

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1.5 Berat dan Jisim


Jisim
Kuantiti jirim dalam sesuatu objek
Jisim objek adalah tetap dan tidak
dipengaruhi oleh daya graviti
Unit SI adalah kilogram (kg)
Jisim sesuatu objek adalah tidak berubah

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Jenis alat untuk mengukur jisim

Neraca palang
Neraca tuas
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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur panjang
Panjang adalah jarak di antara dua titik
Unit Sinya adalah meter (m)
Unit lain yang boleh digunakan untuk panjang
adalah kilometer (km), sentimeter (cm) and
milimeter (mm)
Hubungan antara unit-unit sukatan panjang
1 cm = 10 mm
1 m = 100 cm = 1 000 mm
1 km = 1 000 m = 100 000 cm
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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur panjang
garisan lurus

Mengukur panjang
garisan melengkung

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Mengukur diameter
luar

Mengukur diameter
dalam

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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur luas
Luas adalah ukuran
jumlah permukaan. Unit
Sinya adalah meter
persegi (m2)
Luas objek sekata dan
objek tidak sekata boleh
ditentukan dengan
melakar bentuk objek di
atas sekeping kertas
graf

Menganggar luas daun

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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur isipadu
R
S
T
S adalah kedudukan
mata yang betul

Isipadu adalah ukuran


yang memenuhi ruang
oleh bahan terlarut
Unit SInya adalah meter
padu (m3)
Alatan untuk mengukur
isipadu cecair adalah
silinder penyukat, buret
and pipet

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1.7 Kepentingan Unit


Piawai
Memudahkan orang ramai dari
negara yang berlainan
berkomunikasi
Unit pengukurannya adalah sama
di mana-mana tempat di dunia

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