PCB Design for 1 Gbps

ECE 4006 Dr Brooke

Overview
• • • • What signals are being routed? How can you route those signals? How to apply routing to PCB? PCB design techniques

Signals being routed
• High Frequency Sensitive Analog (e.g., IN from PD) • High Frequency: Data, and Noisy Analog (e.g., +OUT from Limiting Amp, +OUT from VCSEL driver) • Low Frequency sensitive : Bias, Analog (e.g., DC Power on input side of most chips esp. TIA) • Low Frequency insensitive: Bias, Analog (e.g., DC Power on output side of most chips, low frequency data)

Signal Type Matrix
Sensitivity high Frequency high Low high/high,
e.g., TIA input

low high/low,
e.g., VCSEL driver outputs

low/high,
e.g., input side power

low/low,
e.g., output side power

• Red = Challenging, Yellow =Care needed, Green = Easy

Different Types Need Different Treatment
• High Frequency/High Sensitivity
– Transmission lines, return path (decoupling), Shielding from high frequency

• High Frequency/Low Sensitivity
– Transmission lines, prevent coupling to sensitive

• Low Frequency/High Sensitivity
– Shielding from high frequency, return path (ground loops),

• Low Frequency/Low Sensitivity
– Low Frequency decoupling, Resistive Loss

High Frequency/High Sensitivity
– Transmission line issues – Signal return path issues (decoupling) – Shielding from larger high Frequency signals

Transmission line issues
• • • • What is a Transmission line? What is not? How to avoid (short lines) How to use (50 ohms) Non traditional transmission lines (turns, tapers)

What is a Transmission line
1 wavelength =

c f ⋅εr

= 20 cm @ 500 MHz,

εr = 3

EM wave

¼ wavelength or greater = transmission line = 5 cm 1/10 wavelength or less = wire = 2 cm • Less that 1/10 of a wavelength use arbitrary geometry connections • More that ¼ wave length use wideband RF design techniques for geometry (stripline, coplanar) • In between use special angles, tapers, curves

What is a Transmission line
• What frequency to use? • Gbps data ~ 500 MHz sq wave (10101010…)
Square Wave = 1st + 3rd + 5th … Harmonics

Using up to 5th harmonic has eye closure ~15% Using up to 3rd harmonic has eye closure ~30% Using only 1st harmonic has eye closure ~50%

How to avoid Transmission lines?
• Depending on eye you want chose appropriate harmonic length to be less than a 1/10th of a wavelength

First Harmonic = 1/10 * 20 cm = 2 cm

Second harmonic (present in real data) = 2 cm / 2 = 1 cm

Third Harmonic = 6.7 mm

Fourth Harmonic = 5 mm

Fifth Harmonic = 4 mm

How to avoid Transmission lines?
For Gigabit Ethernet
• Nice eye for lines less than 4 mm not a transmission line • OK eye for lines less than 7 mm not a transmission line • Poor eye for lines less than 2 cm not a transmission line

How to use Transmission Lines
• Terminate them in design impedance • Ensure high frequency return path
– Signal returns along the shield of Coax
50 ohms Signal arrives after “sees” 50 ohms immediately transmission delay. between core and shield - nothing else if terminated properly - “echo” after 2 x transmission delay otherwise

How to use Transmission Lines
• Special Case for Balanced Differential Signals
– Connect shields together
“sees” 50 ohms immediately between core and shield

+OUT -OUT

+
GND

100 ohms

+
“sees” 50 ohms immediately between core and shield

Balanced = equal and opposite That is for AC components: (+OUT) = -(-OUT)

How to use Transmission Lines
• Eliminate reflective features larger than 1/10th of a wavelength • Avoid impendence changes
45 deg

OK

45 deg
1/10th wavelength

BAD
1/10th wavelength

Non traditional transmission lines (curves, tapers)
• If you want to use these features either:
– Do it in the transition region between 1/10th and ¼ wavelength – Or use an RF design tool (e.g., ADS) to verify operation with finite element analysis

Signal return path issues (decoupling)
• Every High Frequency input and output
– All AC current out/in must return to both “nearby” supplies
VCC OUT VEE “Decoupling ground path – minimum length! Capacitor” – Must be a “short” at signal frequency Load

Decoupling Capacitors
• www.murata.com/cap/lineup
– We are using 1.6 mm x 0.8 mm (0603) caps

Decoupling caps
• 10000 pF = 0.01 uF
– S11 = reflected/incident power ratio when grounded – S21 = ratio of power passed to 50 ohm load

Shielding from high Frequency

High Frequency/Low Sensitivity
– Transmission line issues – prevent coupling to sensitive

Low Frequency/High Sensitivity
• Shielding from high frequency • Return path (ground loops)

Low Frequency/Low Sensitivity
• Low Frequency decoupling • Resistive Loss

How to apply routing to PCB
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PCB design techniques
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