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Pulse Code Modulation

Pulse-Code Modulation

PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation)

A message signal is represented by a sequence of coded


pulses, which is accomplished by representing the signal in
discrete form in both time and amplitude
The basic operation
Transmitter : sampling, quantization, encoding
Receiver : regeneration, decoding, reconstruction

Operation in the Transmitter


1. Sampling
1. The incoming message signal is sampled with a train of
rectangular pulses
2. The reduction of the continuously varying message signal to a
limited number of discrete values per second

2. Nonuniform Quantization
1. The step size increases as the separation from the origin of the
input-output amplitude characteristic is increased, the large endstep of the quantizer can take care of possible excursions of the
voice signal into the large amplitude ranges that occur relatively
infrequently.
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Block Diagram

Encoding
3. Encoding
1.To translate the discrete set of sample vales
to a more appropriate form of signal
2.A binary code
The maximum advantage over the effects of
noise in a transmission medium is obtained by
using a binary code, because a binary symbol
withstands a relatively high level of noise.
The binary code is easy to generate and
regenerate

Regeneration
The ability to control the effects of distortion and
noise produced by transmitting a PCM signal over
a channel
Equalizer
Shapes the received pulses so as to compensate
for the effects of amplitude and phase distortions
produced by the transmission
Timing circuitry
Provides a periodic pulse train, derived from the
received pulses
Renewed sampling of the equalized pulses

Contd..
Decision-making device
The sample so extracted is compared o a
predetermined threshold
ideally, except for delay, the regenerated signal
is exactly the same as the information-bearing
signal
The unavoidable presence of channel noise and
interference causes the repeater to make wrong
decisions occasionally, thereby introducing bit
errors into the regenerated signal
If the spacing between received pulses deviates
from its assigned value, a jitter is introduced into
the regenerated pulse position, thereby causing
distortion.

Contd..

Receiver Section
1. Decoding and expanding
Decoding : regenerating a pulse whose amplitude
is the linear sum of all the pulses in the code word
Expander : a subsystem in the receiver with a
characteristic complementary to the compressor
The combination of a compressor and an expander
is a compander
2. Reconstruction
Recover the message signal : passing the expander
output through a low-pass reconstruction filter
3. Multiplexing
4. Synchronization
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