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Anlisis de Roca Total

Major elements: typically


>1%

Minor elements: typically 0.1


- 1% (usually included with
major elements)

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
FeO
MgO
CaO
Na2O
K2O
H2O
TiO2
MnO
P2O5
CO2

Trace elements: typically


Li, Be, La, Ce, Th,
<<0.1%
U, etc.
A syenite from New Hampshire

Major elements, wt. %


SiO2
60.59
TiO2

0.52

Al2O3

18.74

Fe2O3
FeO
MnO
MgO
CaO
Na2O

2.05
1.45
0.09
1.06
2.61
4.50

K2O

7.19

P2O5
H2O+
H2OCO2
Cl
F
Total

0.28
0.55
0.05
0.40
0.04
0.05
100.17

Trace elements, ppm


Li
14
Sc
13
V
200
Cr
34
Ni
31
Cu
8
Sr
1700
Zr
300
Cs
9
Ba
1800

Norm Calculation Program


Sample Number:
Rock
Analysis
5.54
0.07
1.55
2.61

CIPW norm
calculation

Correction
Factors
Total=100%? Y/ N
Fe3+/ (Total Iron)

Programrun:

30/ 11/ 02

Corrected
Analysis
5.90
0.07
1.65
0.83
1.75
0.34
0.71
52.04
0.45
0.22
19.45
16.36

HELP

Normative
Weight % Volume %
Minerals
Norm
Norm
SiO2
%
Y
Quartz
TiO2
%
0.3
Plagioclase
1.83
2.01
Al2O3
%
Orthoclase
Fe2O3
%
Total Fe as FeO
2.35
Nepheline
2.06
2.44
FeO
%
Desired Fe2O3
0.78
Leucite
0.14
0.17
MnO
0.32 %
Desired FeO
1.64
Kalsilite
0.64
0.31
MgO
0.67 %
Weight corr. factor
1.066
Corundum
CaO
48.84 %
Diopside
Na2O
0.42 %
Hypersthene
K2O
0.21 %
Wollastonite
Zero values not shown
P2O5
18.25 %
Olivine
3.26
2.56
CO2
15.35 %
Larnite
8.00
7.40
SO3
%
Acmite
S
0.20 %
0.21 K2SiO3
F
%
Norm calculation checks:
Na2SiO3
Cl
%
Norm seems OK
Rutile
Sr
ppm
Ilmenite
0.13
0.08
Ba
ppm
Magnetite
1.20
0.70
Ni
ppm
Hematite
More of the norm below
Cr
ppm
Apatite
45.06
42.56
Zr
ppm
Zircon
Total
94.03
99.98 Perovskite
Chromite
Sphene
Pyrite
0.45
0.27
Halite
Fluorite
Anhydrite
Na2SO4
Calcite
37.21
41.50
Na2CO3
Total
99.98
100.00
Fe3+/ (Total Fe) in rock
29.9
29.9
Mg/ (Mg+Total Fe) in rock
33.6
33.6
Mg/ (Mg+Fe2+) in rock
42.0
42.0
Mg/ (Mg+Fe2+) in silicates
47.1
47.1
Ca/ (Ca+Na) in rock
98.5
98.5
Ca/ (Ca+Na) in plagioclase
100.0
100.0
Differentiation Index
4.7
4.9
Calculated density, g/ cc
3.02
3.02
Calculated liquid density
2.73
2.73
Calculated viscosity, dry
-2.3
-2.3
Calculated viscosity, wet
-2.3
-2.3
Estimated liquidus temp.
2022
2022
Estimated H2O content
-8.13
-8.13
This programwas written by Kurt Hollocher, Geology Department, Union College, Schenectady, NY, 12308, hollochk@union.edu

Periodic System of Elements

The major elements control the phases present under various conditions

SiO2
TiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
FeO
MnO
MgO
CaO
Na2O
K2O
H2O+
Total

Peridotite
42.26
0.63
4.23
3.61
6.58
0.41
31.24
5.05
0.49
0.34
3.91
98.75

Basalt Andesite
49.20
57.94
1.84
0.87
15.74
17.02
3.79
3.27
7.13
4.04
0.20
0.14
6.73
3.33
9.47
6.79
2.91
3.48
1.10
1.62
0.95
0.83
99.06

99.3

Rhyolite Phonolite
72.82
56.19
0.28
0.62
13.27
19.04
1.48
2.79
1.11
2.03
0.06
0.17
0.39
1.07
1.14
2.72
3.55
7.79
4.30
5.24
1.10
1.57
99.50

99.23

Magmas Primarios

Diagramas de Variacin
To interpret geochemical data they need to be examined in
some meaningful way:
1. X-Y diagrams.
A. Absolute value of chemical components.
B. Chemical component ratios.
2. Ternary diagrams.
A. Regular ternary plots.
B. Projections from some phase.
C. Projections involving compositional considerations.
3. Norms that in some sense resemble possible modes.
4. Mathematical representations of compositional information
(e.g., factor analysis).
5. Models.

Diagramas X-Y
X-Y graphs can show
how different chemical
components change
together in a set of
samples. Interpretation
of X-Y graphs in terms
of the geologic processes
causing the patterns
visible is not always
straightforward. The Xaxis is typically some
measure of magma
evolution, SiO2 in this
case.
Diagrams for 310 volcanic rocks
from Crater Lake, Oregon Cascades.
Data compiled by Rick Conrey.

Red lines
show possible
trends

Diagramas de Variacin Ternarios


Ternary diagrams have
the advantage of
showing the
relationships between
three chemical
components instead of
two. This advantage
comes at the expense
of being unable to
show absolute
chemical component
concentrations. This is
because in ternary
diagrams all points
represent ratios.
AFM diagram for Crater Lake
volcanics, Oregon Cascades.
Data compiled by Rick Conrey.

Series Magmticas
Chemistry may be used to distinguish magmas into families of magma
types. These magma types differ from one another in compositionally
systematic ways, though there is considerable overlap.
The series have their origin in systematic differences in source area
composition, pressure, mineralogy, water content, and other factors.
Some chemical parameters are particularly useful for distinguishing
between magmatic groups:
K2O
Na2O + K2O (total alkalis)
CaO
SiO2 and silica saturation
Al2O3 and alumina saturation (normative corundum)

Diagrama Total Alkalis vs. SiO2 (TAS)


Subdivisions
can break
down with
more
analyses.
No obvious
break
between
alkaline
and
subalkaline
fields.
After Le
Maitre (1976)
Journal of
Petrology, v.
17, p. 589-637.

Magmas Subalkalinos: toleticos y calc-alkalinos


AFM diagram showing the distinction
between selected tholeiitic rocks from
Iceland, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the
Columbia River Basalts, and Hawaii
(solid circles) plus the calc-alkaline
rocks of the Cascade volcanics (open
circles).
A
F

= Alkalis, K2O+Na2O
= FeOtotal

= MgO

Tholeiitic

Calc-alkaline
After Irvine and Baragar, 1971,
Canadian Journal of Earth
Science, v. 8, p. 523-548.

Rocas en el diagrama AFM

Common
volcanic rock
names and their
typical
locations on
AFM diagrams.

Variaciones de saturacin en Alumina


Alumina saturation classes based on the molar proportions of Al2O3/
(CaO+Na2O+K2O) after Shand (1927). Common minerals other than
quartz and feldspar are shown for each alumina saturation type.
Peraluminous:
Excess Al after
making feldspars
from all Ca, Na,
and K.
Metaluminous:
Excess Ca after Al
is used up to make
feldspars from Ca,
Na, and K.
Peralkaline:
Excess Ca and Na
after Al is used up
to make feldspars
from Na and K.

Indice Alkalis-CaO y
saturacin en alumina
a)

Plot of CaO (green) and


(Na2O + K2O) (red) vs. SiO2
for the Crater Lake data.
Peacock (1931) used the
value of SiO2 at which the
two curves crossed as his
alkali-lime index, which is
low for alkaline rocks and
high for tholeiitic rocks.

b) Alumina saturation indices


(Shand, 1927) for analyses of
peraluminous granitic rocks
from the Achala Batholith,
Argentina (Lira and
Kirschbaum, 1990).
In S. M. Kay and C. W. Rapela (eds.), Plutonism
from Antarctica to Alaska. Geol. Soc. Amer.
Special Paper, 241. pp. 67-76.

Afinidades tectnicas de las series magmticas


A world-wide survey suggests that there are important differences
between the three series. Some series cannot be generated in certain
tectonic settings.

Characteristic
Plate Margin
Series
Convergent Divergent
Alkaline
si
Tholeiitic
si
si
Calc-alkaline
si

After Wilson (1989). Igneous Petrogenesis. Unwin Hyman - Kluwer

Within Plate
Oceanic Continental
si
si
si
si

Base de datos:
Hawaii
Using major elements
to estimate fractional
crystallization history.

Data set
from Kilauea

Crystallization sequence:

Olivine

Hawaii basalt data set analyses


Augite

Plagioclase

From Table 13-1 of Philpotts, 1990, Principles of


igneous and metamorphic petrology, Prentice Hall.
SiO2
TiO2

1
48.05
2.04

2
48.43
2.00

3
47.92
2.16

4
48.21
2.24

5
49.16
2.29

6
49.20
2.57

7
49.71
2.68

8
50.10
2.71

9
50.37
3.09

10
50.56
3.16

11
50.74
3.35

12
50.85
3.36

13
50.92
3.61

Enstatite
Magnetite
14
15
16
51.24 53.42 56.07
3.74
3.36
2.97

Al2O3
Fe2O3
FeO
MnO
MgO
CaO
Na2O
K2O

10.33
1.34
10.19
0.17
17.39
8.14
1.66
0.36

10.70
1.15
10.08
0.17
16.29
8.67
1.71
0.35

10.75
1.08
10.65
0.18
15.43
9.33
1.79
0.44

11.37
1.50
10.18
0.18
13.94
9.74
1.89
0.44

13.33
1.31
9.71
0.16
10.41
10.93
2.15
0.51

12.77
1.50
10.05
0.17
10.00
10.75
2.12
0.51

13.65
1.19
9.72
0.17
8.24
11.59
2.26
0.54

13.78
1.89
9.46
0.17
7.34
11.46
2.25
0.57

14.02
1.88
10.07
0.17
6.75
10.39
2.35
0.62

13.92
1.78
10.18
0.18
6.33
10.24
2.61
0.64

13.57
1.36
10.63
0.18
6.16
9.94
2.69
0.67

14.02
1.90
10.44
0.18
5.68
9.71
2.77
0.74

13.80
1.85
10.71
0.19
5.46
9.45
2.80
0.75

13.60
1.87
11.19
0.18
5.12
9.03
2.81
0.83

13.75
1.96
10.45
0.18
3.92
7.75
3.34
1.10

13.78
1.93
9.78
0.18
2.70
6.54
3.86
1.36

P2O5
Total

0.19
99.86

0.18
99.73

0.23
99.96

0.22
0.20
99.91 100.16

0.25
0.25
0.27
0.32
99.89 100.00 100.00 100.03

0.33
99.93

0.37
0.38
99.66 100.03

0.40
0.41
99.94 100.02

0.59
99.82

0.77
99.92

Molar Mg/(Mg+Fe2+ )
A
F
M
% liquid remaining (K2O)
% liquid remaining (P2O5)

0.75
7
34
59
100%
100%

0.74
7
35
57
103%
106%

0.72
8
38
55
82%
83%

0.71
9
38
53
82%
86%

0.66
12
43
46
71%
95%

0.64
12
44
44
71%
76%

0.60
13
47
40
67%
76%

0.58
14
48
37
63%
70%

0.54
15
51
34
58%
59%

0.53
16
52
32
56%
58%

0.51
17
53
31
54%
51%

0.49
18
53
29
49%
50%

0.48
18
54
28
48%
48%

0.45
18
56
26
43%
46%

0.40
24
56
21
33%
32%

0.33
29
55
15
26%
25%

Volume norms and calculated values


Quartz
0
Plagioclase
39.3
Orthoclase
2.6
Diopside
14.9
Hypersthene
19.8
Olivine
19.2
Ilmenite
2.6
Magnetite
1.2
Apatite
0.4
Mg/(Mg+Fetotal) in rock
73.1

0
40.7
2.5
16.4
19.7
16.8
2.5
1.0
0.4
72.3

0
40.9
3.2
19.0
13.8
19.0
2.7
0.9
0.5
70.3

0
43.1
3.2
19.6
14.8
14.8
2.8
1.3
0.5
68.3

0
49.4
3.6
20.8
13.3
8.5
2.8
1.1
0.5
63.0

0
47.9
3.7
21.1
16.9
5.4
3.2
1.3
0.6
61.0

0
50.8
3.8
22.8
15.1
2.7
3.3
1.0
0.6
57.6

1.3
51.0
4.0
22.0
16.2
0
3.3
1.6
0.6
54.0

2.8
51.9
4.4
17.7
17.2
0
3.8
1.6
0.7
50.6

2.4
52.7
4.5
18.2
16.0
0
3.9
1.5
0.7
48.9

2.6
52.1
4.7
18.0
16.5
0
4.1
1.2
0.8
48.1

3.2
53.3
5.2
16.5
15.2
0
4.1
1.6
0.8
45.5

3.9
52.8
5.3
16.0
15.1
0
4.4
1.6
0.9
44.0

4.9
52.0
5.8
15.0
15.2
0
4.6
1.6
0.9
41.5

7.6
53.3
7.6
11.3
13.2
0
4.0
1.6
1.3
36.4

10.7
54.1
9.3
8.1
11.2
0
3.5
1.6
1.6
29.5

Mg/(Mg+Fe2+ ) in norm silicates


Ca/(Ca+Na) in rock
Ca/(Ca+Na) in norm plag.
Differentiation Index (norm)
Calculated density, g/cc

78.5
73.7
57.2
43.2
3.13

76.6
74.2
55.4
44.1
3.14

76.4
74.0
55.6
46.3
3.12

72.0
73.7
56.6
53.0
3.08

71.1
73.7
55.6
51.6
3.09

67.9
73.9
55.7
54.6
3.07

67.3
73.8
56.1
56.3
3.07

64.5
71.0
55.1
59.1
3.06

62.7
68.4
51.0
59.7
3.05

60.4
67.1
48.8
59.5
3.05

60.0
66.0
48.7
61.7
3.04

58.8
65.1
47.6
62.0
3.05

56.0
64.0
46.6
62.7
3.05

50.9
56.2
39.1
68.5
3.00

42.8
48.4
31.9
74.0
2.95

79.6
73.0
56.9
42.0
3.14

Hawaii: composiciones de fenocristales


These are typical phenocryst compositions for Hawaii tholeiitic basalts.
SiO2
TiO2
Al2O3
Fe 2O3
FeO
MnO
MgO
CaO
Na 2O
K2O
P 2O5
Total
Molar Mg/(Mg+Fe 2+)
A
F
M

Olivine
40.01
0.04
1.13
0.30
12.33
0.17
44.77
1.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
99.96
0.87
0
22
78

Weight % of the major oxides


Plagioclase
Augite
Enstatite
51.50
51.20
54.10
0.12
1.11
0.27
29.50
2.62
1.66
0.06
0.81
0.89
0.84
9.19
10.80
0.00
0.19
0.19
0.09
17.10
29.40
13.70
17.80
1.98
3.46
0.08
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
99.40
100.10
99.29
0.16
0.77
0.83
79
0
0
19
35
27
2
65
73

Magnetite
0.10
22.70
1.44
24.37
46.37
0.76
3.18
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
98.92
0.11
0
94
6

Mg = molar Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)

Hawaii:
Indice de
diferenciacin
1
Mg is the
measure of
magma evolution
used here. It
increases almost
linearly with the
differentiation
index as mafic
phases are
fractionated from
the liquid.

Mg = molar Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)

i
m
i
r
P

e
v
ti

l
o
Ev

d
e
v

Magma evolution
proceeds by crystal
fractionation.

Hawaii:
Indice de
diferenciacin
2
Mg is the
measure of
magma evolution
used here. It
increases almost
linearly with the
differentiation
index as mafic
phases are
fractionated from
the liquid.

Hawaii:
normas 1
With fractional
crystallization of
olivine, the amount
of olivine
component in the
liquid (normative
olivine) decreases
until there is none,
after which there is
normative quartz.
Then, ilmenite
crystallization
continues the trend.

Hawaii:
normas 2

Kink is an artifact
of the norm
calculations

With fractional
crystallization of
olivine, the amount
of olivine
component in the
liquid (normative
olivine) decreases
until there is none,
after which there is
normative quartz.
Then, ilmenite
crystallization
continues the trend.

Hawaii:
Mg-Al-Ca 1

Plot of three
major oxides vs.
Mg, the index of
magma
evolution. Data
do not define
straight lines and
so indicate
changes in the
crystal
fractionation
assemblage.

Olivine
Augite
Plagioclase

Olivine
Olivine
Augite

Augite
Plagioclase
Enstatite
Ilmenite

Hawaii:
Mg-Al-Ca 2

Plot of three
major oxides vs.
Mg, the index of
magma
evolution. Data
do not define
straight lines and
so indicate
changes in the
crystal
fractionation
assemblage.

Hawaii: TiNa-K-P 1

Plot of four
rather
incompatible
oxides, generally
having less
response to
changes in the
fractionating
mineral
assemblage
modes.

Hawaii: TiNa-K-P 2

Enstatite
+ Augite
+ Plagioclase
+ Ilmenite
Olivine Augite Plagioclase

Plot of four
rather
incompatible
oxides, generally
having less
response to
changes in the
fractionating
mineral
assemblage
modes.

Hawaii: Diagrama AFM 1

Hawaii: Diagrama AFM 2

Enstatite +
Augite +
O
Plagioclase +Au livin
gi e
Ilmenite
Pl te
ag
io
cla
se

Hawaii:
Elementos
incompatibles 1
The major phases:
Olivine:
(Mg,Fe)2SiO4
Augite
Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6
Plagioclase
(Ca,Na)(Al,Si)4O8
Enstatite
(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Ilmenite
FeTiO3

Which major elements are incompatible??

Slight drop in TiO2 because of Ti in


pyroxenes? Large drop later due to ilmenite

Substantial drop in Na2O


due to Na in plagioclase.

No change in P2O5-K2O ratio, because


neither are included in major phases and
so both are highly incompatible.

Which major elements are incompatible??

Hawaii:
Elementos
incompatibles 2
The major phases:
Olivine:
(Mg,Fe)2SiO4
Augite
Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6
Plagioclase
(Ca,Na)(Al,Si)4O8
Enstatite
(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Ilmenite
FeTiO3

Hawaii:
Porcentaje lquido
restante 1

The % liquid
remaining can be
calculated:
%l = 100*Io/In
Io: Original
concentration
of an
incompatible
element in the
parent magma
(sample 1).
In: concentration
of the same
element in any
derived
magma.

Hawaii:
Porcentaje lquido
restante 2

The % liquid
remaining can be
calculated:
%l = 100*(Io/In)
Io: Original
concentration
of an
incompatible
element in the
parent magma
(sample 1).
In: concentration
of the same
element in any
derived
magma.