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TRENDS IN PERIODIC

TABLE
Nicole Farquharson

General trend of effective nuclear


charge (Zeff)
Going down the group, effective nuclear
charge decreases. This occurs when there
is maximum shielding (shielding of
electrons from lower orbitals) increases.
Going across the period, effective nuclear
charge increases. This occurs when there
is medium minimum shielding (electrons
shielded by electrons in the same shell
but different subshell or electrons shielded
by electrons in the same subshell)

Atomic Radius
It is defined as half the distance between two bonded nuclei or the radius
of an atom
Going down the group, atomic radius increases and the effective nuclear
charge decreases because there is maximum shielding where each
electrons has one more level of inner electrons that shield the outer
electrons. When the effective nuclear decreases, the pull on the valence
shell get weak. There is also additional energy levels required to
accommodate the additional electrons and this tends to have a larger
shells that are being occupied.
Going across the period, atomic radius decreases and the effective
nuclear charge increases because there is medium (electrons are not so
strongly shielded in the same shell but different subshells) less and
minimum shielding (electrons are weakly shielded in the same subshell).
There are electrons added to the same outer shell. The effective nuclear
charge increases because it is felt by the valence electrons to draw them
closer to the nucleus, this will pull the electron cloud in a little tighter.
There is a greater attraction between the nucleus and the electron.

Other information
To understand this trend it is first important to realize that the more
strongly attracted the outermost valence electron is to the nucleus then
the smaller the atom will be. While the number of positively charged
protons in the nucleus increases as we move from left to right the number
of negatively charged electrons between the nucleus and the outer most
electron also increases by the same amount. Thus you might expect there
to be no change in the radius of the outermost electron orbital since the
increasing charge of the nucleus would be cancelled by the electrons
between the nucleus and the outermost electron. This, however, is not the
case. The ability of an particular inner electron to cancel the charge of the
nucleus for the outermost electron depends on the orbital of that inner
electron.
Moving from left to right across a period, electrons are added one at a
time to the outer energy shell. Electrons within a shell cannot shield each
other from the attraction to protons. Since the number of protons is also
increasing, the effective nuclear charge increases across a period. This
causes the atomic radius to decrease.

Ionic radius

The radius of a positively or negatively charged ion. Going down the group
ionic radius increases, cations are smaller and anions are bigger. Going
across the period, there is a large increase from cation to anion.
When a cation forms, electrons are removed from the outer shell. This
results in effective nuclear charge to pull remaining electrons closer.
Removing electrons decreases electron-electron repulsion so the electron
clouds contract, so they can be close together. There is a great attraction
between nucleus and electrons tend to pull the electron cloud in a little
tighter. There would be medium minimum shielding which increases net
pull of electrons from nucleus.
When an anion forms, electrons are added to the outer shell, the effective
nuclear charge decrease because there is an increase in electron-electron
repulsion which causes electrons to occupy more space and swells the
electron cloud. There is less attraction between nucleus and electrons.
There would be maximum shielding which decrease the net pull of
electrons from nucleus.
Summary: Ions may be larger or smaller than the neutral atom, depending
on the ion's charge. When an atom loses an electron to form a cation, the
lost electron no longer contributes to shielding the other electrons from the
charge of the nucleus; consequently, the other electrons are more strongly
attracted to the nucleus, and the radius of the atom gets smaller. Similarly,
when an electron is added to an atom, forming an anion, the added

Ionization energy
The required energy in removing a mole of electrons from a mole of atoms in the
gaseous state. The smaller the atom, the more tightly its electrons are held to the
positively charged nucleus and the more difficult they are to remove.
Going down the group, ionization energy decreases, effective nuclear charge
decreases. The electrons are further away from the nucleus and easier to remove
the outermost shell. Effective nuclear charge increase because there is maximum
shielding which shield the valence electrons more tightly. Electrons are removed
from a higher energy level which is further from the nucleus. As the effective
nuclear increases, the remaining electrons are more strongly attracted to nucleus
making it harder to remove the next electron.
Going across the period, ionization energy increases and effective nuclear charge
increase. As ionization energy increases the atoms gets smaller. The outer
electrons are closer to the nucleus and more strongly attracted to the center. The
attraction between nucleus and outer electrons increases, more energy is needed
which makes an electron harder to remove. Removing successive electrons from
the same energy level requires much more energy each time, but removing an
electron from a lower energy level requires much more energy because the
electron being removed is the so much closer to the positively charged nucleus.

Electron Affinity
This is the energy change when an electron is added to a gaseous
atom to form an anion.
Going down the group, electron affinity decrease effective nuclear
charge decrease because the nucleus is farther away from an
electron being added. There is maximum shielding which means
there is less pull on the nucleus based on the fact that the shell is
stable.
Going across the period, electron affinity increase and the
effective nuclear affinity increase. This is due to the great
attraction between nucleus and electrons in which a valence shell
that loses electrons easily will have little attraction for additional
electrons. There is medium-minimum shielding making it easier
to attract electrons so the value of electron affinity would be
negative. The increasing effective nuclear charge attract the
electron more strongly.

Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract an electron cloud towards itself in a chemical
bond. It measures the ability of an atom to attract to itself the electron pair
forming a covalent bond. The greater the electronegativity of an atom, the
greater its attraction for electrons.
Going down the group, electronegativity decrease and effective nuclear
charge increase. As you go down a group, electronegativity decreases
because the bonding pair of electrons is increasingly distant from the
attraction of the nucleus. Decending a group electronegativity
decreases because atomic radius increases due to electrons moving
into new main energy levels (spdf). the electronegativity decreases as
atomic number increases, as a result of increased distance between the
valence electron and nucleus (greater atomic radius).
Going across a period, Electronegativity increase and because the atomic
radius of elements decrease due to the nuclear charge increasing. The
number of charges on the nucleus increases and this attracts the bonding pair
of electrons more strongly.

Electronegativity increases as you move across the periodic


table from left to right. This occurs due to a greater charge
on the nucleus, causing the electron bonding pairs to be
very attracted to atoms placed further right on the periodic
table. Fluorine is the most electronegative element.
Electronegativity decreases as you move down the periodic
table. This is caused by an increased amount of shielding,
or screening, by the innermost electrons. As you move
down the table more electrons are added between the
nucleus and the bonding pair, causing the effective nuclear
charge to be less. The increase in distance between the
nucleus and the bonding pair decreases the attraction
between the two.

Electronegativity increases as you go across a period because, the next element along has an
extra proton and an extra electron. The extra proton is in the nucleus, which means that the
nucleus has a greater charge on it. The extra electron goes into the orbital with the lowest
available energy, but because we are going across a period this means that valence electrons do
not experience any extra shielding from the nucleus, so they feel a greater effective nuclear
charge and are more strongly attracted by the nucleus. This stronger attraction means the
electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus, meaning the atom gets smaller (atomic radius
decreases across a period). Thus, a shared pair of electrons will be more strongly attracted to the
nucleus and so the atom withdraws more electron density. It is more electronegative. As the
number of electrons in an elements outer energy level nears a full octet (8) it gets increasingly
difficult to remove an electron.
Electronegativity decreases as you go down a group. This is because as you go down a group, the
principal number of the valence orbital increases, meaning that there is an extra 'shell' of
electrons between the valence electrons and the nucleus. This means that the valence electrons
experience greater shielding from the nucleus. This factor is more important than the increased
number of protons in the nucleus and the increased charge on the nucleus. So despite the extra
protons the valence electrons are less strongly attracted by the nucleus, and the electrons are not
held as close to the nucleus (atom radius increases down a group). Thus, a shared pair of electrons
will be less strongly attracted to the nucleus, so the atom withdraws less electron density. It is less
electronegative. Inner energy level electrons block the attraction between the positively charged
nucleus and the electrons in the outer energy level. This shielding effect makes it easier to remove
a valence electron as the number of energy levels increases.

Lattice energy
The energy needed to break up the ions from the solid phase to gas phase.
Going down the group, The more anions, the lower the lattice energy to
separate the ionic bonds. The atoms are not held tightly to the nucleus. The
effective nuclear charge increases because there is maximum shielding and
there is less pull on the nucleus.
Going across the period, lattice energy increases, the effective nuclear
charge decreases. Lattice energy increases because the charge on the ion
increases. Highly charged ions attract more strongly than ones with less
charge. The more charge the greater the lattice energy. The more cations,
the higher the lattice energy in order to separate the ionic bond. The cations
are held tightly together because they are positively charged and they are
losing electrons. The effective nuclear charge decreases because there is
medium to minimum shielding.
As ionic radii increase, the electrostatic decrease so lattice energies of the
compounds decrease. Lattice energy increases as charges on the ions
increases as the value becomes more negative. When ions are closer
together the lattice energy increases (becomes more negative).