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Group 2
Albert Koto
Ahmad Syihan Auzani
A Harvey Hutama
Daniel Alfonso
Ade Gratia


stainless steel is defined as a

steel alloy with a minimum of
10% chromium content by


Corrosion resistance
Fire and heat resistance
Aesthetic appearance
Ease of fabrication
Impact resistance
Higher cryogenic
Lower magnetic
response (austenitic

Higher work hardening

Higher ductility
Higher strength and
Higher hot strength
Recyclable and reuse
(100% recyclable, 60%
recycled material, 25%
originating from end-of-life
products and 35% coming
from manufacturing
Must retain corrosion
resistant surface in the
finished product

General Properties of Stainless Steels

Electrical Resistivity


Surface & bulk

resistance is higher
than that for plaincarbon steels

About 40 to 50 percent
that of plain-carbon



Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

High Strength

Exhibit high strength at

room and elevated

Surface Preparation

Greater coefficient than

plain-carbon steels

Surface films must be

removed prior to welding

Spot Spacing

Less shunting is observed

than plain-carbon steels


used to avoid corrosion problem caused by welding.

For Kitchen sinks, Doors and Windows, Ovens,
Chemical tanks etc


Highly corrosion-resistant, but less durable than

austenitic grades. used in: Vehicle exhausts,
Fuel lines, Cooking utensils


not as corrosion-resistant,but extremely strong

and tough, highly machineable. used for: Knife
blades, Cutlery, Surgical instruments


corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic

varieties, but can be precipitation hardened to
even higher strengths than the other martensitic
grades. Ex : Fighter aircraft.


have improved strength over austenitic stainless

steels and also improved resistance to localised
corrosion, particularly pitting, crevice corrosion
and stress corrosion crackingUsed in Heat
exchangers ,Marine applications

Alloying Elements

Chromium :Forms a
passive film with oxygen
that prevent the further
diffusion of oxygen into the
surface.Composition needs
to contain at least 10.5% to
be a stainless steel.
Nickel :Increases ductility
and toughness. Increase
corrosion resistance to
acids. Additon creates nonmagnetic structure.
Molybdenum :Increases
pitting and crevice corrosin
resistance. Increase
resistance to chlorides.
Copper :Increase corrosion
resistance to sulfuric acid.
Manganese :Substitute for
nickel (200 series).

Titinium/Niobium : Ties up
carbon and prevents intergranular corrosion in welded
zone of ferritic grades.
Nitrogen :Increase strength
and corrosion resistance in
austenitic and duplex
Silicon :Improves
resistance to high
temperature scaling.
SulfurUsually kept low
excet for "free-machining"
Carbon : Usually kept low.
Used in martensitic grades
to increase strength and


100 Series

austenitic chromiumnickel-manganese
200 Series
austenitic chromiumnickel-manganese
300 Series
austenitic chromiumnickel alloys
400 Seriesferritic
and martensitic
chromium alloys

500 Seriesheat-

resisting chromium
600 Series
hardening alloys
Type 2205 the most
widely used duplex
stainless steel grade
(excellent corrosion
resistance and high


: free machining untuk penggunaan operasi mesin otomatis serta tahan terhadap
304 : paling sering digunakan karena memberikan sifat anti terhadap korosi yang
tinggi dan dapat mudah dilas.
309 : digunakan pada aplikasi pada temperatur tinggi, high scale resistance, dan tahan
terhadap korosi melebihi 304, serta tahan korosi saat dilas.
316 : tahan korosi lebih tinggi dari 304 pada temperatur yang ditingkatkan. Seringkali
digunakan sebagai pompa, katup dan aplikasi kimia yang berkatian langsung
dengan bahan kimia.
409 : stainless steel parling murah dan seringkali digunakan pada bidang otomotif di
sistem exhaust.
410 : heat-treatble dan sering digunakan karena ketahanan terhadap korosi yang tinggi.
416 : free machining yang bervariasi dan resistansi terhadap korosi yang baik.
430 : non-hardenable kromium stainless steel yang paling populer. Mengkombinasikan
antara tahan korosi dan tahan panas yang baik untuk aplikasi mekanikal.

Available Dimension

Round Bar : Diameter

Plate : thickness 0.8mm4mm

Square bar

3mm - 1inch

Equal BAR: 20x20, 25x25,

30x30, 40x40, 50x50

1/8, 3/16, , 5/16, 3/8, 7/16, ,

5/8, , 7/8, 1, 1 1/8, 1 , 1 ,
1 , 2 inches.
10 14 inch Long

Available Dimension

Channel Bar

Available Dimension

Rectangular Tube

Available Dimension

Hexagonal Stainless Steer Bar

Available Dimension

Process flow

Heat Treatment pada Stainless Steel

Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD)
Surface Hardening
Annealing After Welding
Low Temperature Stress Relieving
Stress Relieving
Cooling and Quenching
Controlled Atmospheres
Process Annealing
Stabilising Anneal
Quench Annealing


Requirement pada Stainless Steel

Non Destructive test :


Magnetic Response
Nitric Acid Reaction
Molybdenum Spot Test (Mo)
Sulphur Spot Test (S)

Destructive test :
- vickers
- Metalografi
- X-Ray


What Can Be Sorted



Magnetic Response

Austenitic (300 Series) stainless

Note response, if any, when a
steels from other steels. All other permanent magnet is brought close
steels are attracted to a magnet,
to the steel.
including the ferritic, duplex,
martensitic and precipitation
hardening stainless steels. The
only other non-magnetic steels are
the austenitic manganese steels (eg

Some austenitic grades,

particularly 304, are attracted
when cold worked, eg by bending,
forming or rolling. Stress relieving
at cherry-red heat will remove this
response due to cold work. This
stress relief may sensitise the steel
and should not be performed on an
item which is later to be used in a
corrosive environment. A full
anneal is acceptable, however.

Nitric Acid Reaction

Stainless steels from non-stainless 1. Place a piece of the steel in

strong nitric acid (20% to 50%) at
room temperature, or a drop of the
acid on a cleaned surface of the
2. Test standard samples in the
same way, ie stainless and nonstainless steel samples.
3. Non-stainless steels will quickly
be attacked, a pungent brown fume
is produced. Stainless steels are
not affected. Compare result with
4. Wash samples thoroughly

Wear safety glasses. Strong nitric

acid attacks skin and is very
corrosive. Handle carefully. Use
minimum quantities. Wash off
immediately if skin contact occurs.
Do not breathe brown fume.



What Can Be Sorted



Molybdenum Spot Test

Stainless steels which contain

significant Molybdenum from those
which do not. The most common
use is to sort 404 from 316, but the
following grades also contain
sufficient Mo to give a positive
response to this test: 316, 316L,
317, 317L, 444, 904L, 2205, "6Mo" grades, 4565S and all super
duplex grades (e.g. S32760 / Zeron
100 / S32750 / 2507 / S32550 /
Alloy 255 / S32520 / UR52N+).
Other similar grades with deliberate
Molybdenum additions will also

1. Clean the steel surface; use

abrasive paper, and if necessary
degrease and dry.
2. Use "Decapoli 304/316" solution
shake well, then place one drop
on the steel.
3. Place similar drops on standard
304 and 316 samples.
4. Darkening of the yellow drop in 2
to 4 minutes indicates significant
Mo. Compare with indications on
standard samples.
5. Wash or wipe samples clean.

Avoid contact of test solution on

skin, and particularly eyes. Wash off
immediately if contacted. Reliable
results only obtained if samples all
the same temperature and freshly
cleaned. Avoid very low sample
temperatures. Some Heats of "Mofree" stainless steels, such as 304,
contain enough Mo to give a slight
reaction. Standard comparison
samples must be used.

Steels (stainless and plain carbon)

containing at least 0.1% Sulphur, ie
free machining grades. (eg S1214,
S12L14, 303, 416, 430F), from nonfree machining steels. Ugima 303
contains high sulphur (the same as
standard Type 303) so will give a
positive reaction, but Ugima 304
and Ugima 316 have the same low
sulphur contents as their standard
(non-Ugima) equivalents, so will
not give positive reactions.

1. Clean the steel surface; use

abrasive paper, and if necessary
degrease. A flat area is preferred.
2. Prepare standard samples in the
same way, eg known CS1020 and
S1214, or 304 and 303.
3. Soak photographic paper in 3%
sulphuric acid for about 3 minutes.
4. Press the prepared steel surfaces
on the face of the photographic
paper for 5 sec.
5. A dark brown stain indicates
significant sulphur. Compare with
indications from standard samples.
6. Wash samples thoroughly.

Wear safety glasses. Avoid contact

of acid with skin and eyes. Wash
immediately if contacted. Reliable
results depend on good contact with
the paper, and consistent time of
contact. Standard comparison
samples must be tested in
conjunction with the unknown


Sulphur Spot Test (S)

Destructive test
1) Pengujian kekerasan vickers
Seluruh spesimen dibersihkan dengan kertas gosok grid 120 untuk mengantisipasi
adanya oli atau pengotor lain yang menempel pada permukaan spesimen selama
heat treatment. Dilakukan uji kekerasan dari masing-masing spesimen dengan heat
treatment pada temperatur 10500 C dan 10750 C yang sudah disiapkan dengan
metode Vikers. Spesimen ditekan dengan indentor yang diberi gaya tekan tertentu.
Indentor dalam pengujian kekerasan menggunakan metode Vickers yaitu indentor
intan berbentuk piramida dengan sudut puncak 136. Beban yang digunakan adalah
10 kpounds dengan temperatur pengujian 27C. Dalam pengujian ini digunakan 5 titik
indentasi untuk mengukur kekerasan pada permukaan spesimen.

2) Pengujian Metalograf
Pengujian metalografi dilakukan untukmengetahui struktur mikro yang terdapat pada
specimen, dimana hasil dari pengujian metalografi ini digunakan untuk mendukung
hasil pengujian kekerasan vickers. Sedangkan untuk pengujian mikro diamati dibawah
mikroskop dengan pembesaran dari 100x hingga 1000x. Daerah yang diamati adalah
bagian permukaan masing-masing spesimen. Kemudian dilakukan pengambilan foto
metalografi dengan mikroskop optik.

3) Pengujian Difraksi Sinar x

Pengamatan dengan menggunakan XRD bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi fasa yang
terbentuk, penentuan komposisi, penentuan struktur kristal, dan lain-lain



Callister, William D. Material science and

Engineering.2007.United State of America:
John Wiley&Sons,inc
Groover, Mikell P. Fundamental of Modern
Manufacturing. 1996.New Jersey : Prentice