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# Indian Mathematicians

Math Project for 20132014

Here are some the famous Indian mathematicians. Some of the most important contributions made by Indian mathematicians were the introduction of decimal system as well as the invention of zero. along with their .Introduction There is no doubt that the world today is indebted to the contributions made by Indian mathematicians.

While he did not use a symbol for zero.” .Aryabhata • Place value system and zero The place-value system. the French mathematician Georges Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was suggested in Aryabhata's place-value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients. the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area. • Approximation of π Aryabhata worked on the approximation for pi (π). and may have come to the conclusion that it is irrational. • Trigonometry Aryabhata gave the area of a triangle as "for a triangle. was clearly in place in Aryabhata’s work.

Brahmagupta •Zero Brahmagupta's Brahmasphuṭasiddhanta is the first book that mentions zero as a number.e. Given the lengths of the sides of any cyclic quadrilateral. “the area is the square . hence Brahmagupta is considered the first to formulate the concept of zero. The Brahmasphutasiddhanta is the earliest known text to treat zero as a number in its own right. He gave rules of using zero with negative and positive numbers. •Brahmagupta's formula Brahmagupta's most famous geometrical work is his formula for cyclic quadrilaterals. i. Zero plus a positive number is the positive number and negative number plus zero is a negative number etc. Brahmagupta gave an approximate and an exact formula for the figure's area..

Srinivasa Ramanujan In mathematics. there is a distinction between having an insight and having a proof. Examples of the most interesting of these formulae include the intriguing infinite series for π. one of which is given below . new directions of research were opened up. It is said that Ramanujan's discoveries are unusually rich and that there is often more to them than initially meets the eye. As a by-product. Ramanujan's talent suggested a plethora of formulae that could then be investigated in depth later.

C.P. This analysis was described by his first scientific paper in 1922. He also concluded that the intermixture more frequently involved the higher castes than the lower ones. During the course of these studies he found a way of comparing and grouping populations using a multivariate .C. Mahalnobis asked Nelson Annandale the questions on what factors influence the formation of European and Indian marriages. Mahalanobis •Mahalanobis Distance P. He wanted to examine if the Indian side came from any specific castes. He used the data collected by Annandale and the caste specific measurements made by Herbert Risley to come up with the conclusion that the sample represented a mix of Europeans mainly with people from Bengal and Punjab but not with those from the Northwest Frontier Provinces or from Chhota Nagpur.

R. two approaches are generally considered. In estimation theory. The parameters describe an underlying physical setting in such a way that their value affects the distribution of the measured data.  The probabilistic approach assumes that the measured data is random with probability distribution dependent on the parameters of interest The set-membership approach assumes . Rao •Estimation theory Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured/empirical data that has a random component.C. An estimator attempts to approximate the unknown parameters using the measurements.

D. and 8532 − 2358 = 6174. In general. He showed that 6174 is reached in the limit as one repeatedly subtracts the highest and lowest numbers that can be constructed from a set of four digits that are not all identical.R. Repeating from this point onward leaves the same number (7641 − 1467 = 6174). self numbers. Kaprekar discovered a number of results in number theory and described various properties of numbers including Kaprekar Constant. Harshad numbers and Demlo numbers. when the operation converges it does so in at most seven iteration. •Kaprekar Constant Kaprekar discovered the Kaprekar constant or 6174 in 1949. Thus. Kaprekar Numbers. then 8730 − 0378 = 8352. starting with 1234. .R. Kaprekar D. we have 4321 − 1234 = 3087.

In the Plancherel measure. which are analogues of the Peter–Weyl theory in the non-compact case. From 1950 to 1963 he was at the Columbia University and worked on representations of semisimple Lie groups. During this period he established as his special area the study of the discrete series representations of semisimple Lie groups. such . •Discrete Series Representation In mathematics. a discrete series representation an irreducible unitary representation of a locally compact topological group G that is a subrepresentation of the left regular representation of G on L²(G).Harish Chandra He was influenced by the mathematicians Hermann Weyl and Claude Chevalley.

where fluctuations due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle will be significant. Bose's interpretation is now called Bose– Einstein statistics.Satyendra Nath Bose •Bose-Einstein Statistics/Condensate Bose showed that the contemporary theory was inadequate. Bose for the first time took the position that the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution would not be true for microscopic particles. because it predicted results not in accordance with experimental results. each state having volume h3. and discarding the distinct position and momentum of the particles. This led to the prediction of the . Einstein adopted the idea and extended it to atoms. In the process of describing this discrepancy. Thus he stressed the probability of finding particles in the phase space.

•Integer solutions of linear and quadratic indeterminate equations. •Solved quadratic equations with more than one unknown. cubic and quartic indeterminate equations are explained. Bhaskara developed spherical trigonometry along with a number of other trigonometric results.Bhāskara II Some of Bhāskara II’s contributions are: •A proof of the Pythagorean theorem by calculating the same area in two different ways and then canceling out terms to get a2 + b2 = c2. •In Siddhanta Shiromani. •Solutions of quadratic. and found negative and irrational solutions. . •Solutions of indeterminate quadratic equations (of the type ax2 + b = y2).

complex optimization problems are solved much faster using the Karmarkar algorithm. some of which are . Karmarkar's algorithm has stimulated the development of several other interior point methods. Consequently.  His algorithm thus enables faster business and policy decisions. These problems are represented by "n" variables and "m" constraints. Karmarkar's novel method approaches the solution by cutting through the above solid in its traversal. The previous method of solving these problems consisted of problem representation by an "x" sided solid with "y" vertices.Narendra Karmarkar •Karmarkar's algorithm Karmarkar's algorithm solves linear programming problems in polynomial time. where the solution was approached by traversing from vertex to vertex.

Done by: Jerome George. Riyadh . IX-C DPS.