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Cloud Computing


which combine both public and private. private clouds. and hybrid clouds. the technology of cloud computing is a well managed computing system which is based on sound co-relation of the computing system and the underlying architecture which includes the servers. the networks and more. Simply defined. . Cloud Services include the delivery of software. storage. networks. Cloud computing is offered in different forms: public clouds. infrastructure. and interfaces that combine to deliver aspects of computing as a service.Introduction Cloud computing has become the latest buzzword in the giant organizations all over the globe. The “cloud” in cloud computing can be defined as the set of hardware. and storage over the Internet (either as separate components or a complete platform) based on user demand. It looks to be the next big leap of technology which will be changing the way businesses work and manage their work. the databases. services.

Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs. business partners. Innovators are free to focus on the innovation rather than the logistics of finding and managing resources that enable the innovation. companies must innovate and get the most from its resources to succeed. Cloud computing enables innovation by alleviating the need of innovators to find resources to develop. Cloud computing has enabled teams and organizations to streamline lengthy procurement processes. . In today's global competitive market. constant innovation and improvement at low cost of operation is needed. Cloud computing increases profitability by improving resource utilization.Overview For organizations to stay ahead of the competitions. Cloud computing infrastructures are next generation platforms that can provide tremendous value to companies of any size. and users with the platforms and collaboration tools that promote innovation. This requires enabling its employees. Costs are driven down by delivering appropriate resources only for the time those resources are needed. and make their innovations available to the user community. test. Cloud computing allows IT related organizations to optimize on the operation cost by being an alternate delivery and acquisition model. They can help companies achieve more efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments and provide a means to accelerate the adoption of innovations.

like electricity. software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand. On-demand selfservice Internet infrastructure where you pay-as-you-go and use only what you need. Cloud Platforms and Cloud Applications. whereby shared resources.What is Cloud Computing Cloud computing is Internet-based computing. . Cloud computing is broken up into multiple segments including: Cloud Infrastructure. all managed by a browser. A technology used to access services offered on the Internet cloud. application or API.

as a service.typically a platform virtualization environment . Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. IaaS evolved from virtual private server offerings. Rather than purchasing servers. through a subscription. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. datacenter space or network equipment. . Infrastructure as a service Infrastructure as a Service." is software that is deployed over the internet and/or is deployed to run behind a firewall on a local area network or personal computer. in a "pay-as-you-go" model. or (increasingly) at no charge. This approach to application delivery is part of the utility computing model where all of the technology is in the "cloud" accessed over the Internet as a service. delivers computer infrastructure . It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. a provider licenses an application to customers either as a service on demand. With SaaS. software.Basic Servers of cloud Software as a service: Software as a service also referred to as "software on demand. Platform as Service Platform as a service deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service.

self-service basis over the Internet Community cloud A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. allowing local data to be replicated to a public cloud. security and/or policy compliance. Hybrid cloud A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy. A hybrid storage cloud uses a combination of public and private storage clouds. . Hybrid storage clouds are often useful for archiving and backup functions.Deployments of Cloud Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense.

but it typically refers to the Internet and the use of Web browser-based or rich client applications. Even within modern utility industries. .Private cloud Private cloud and internal cloud have been described as neologisms however the concepts themselves pre-date the term cloud by 40 years. It refers to accessing computing resources that are typically owned and operated by a third-party provider on a consolidated basis in data center locations Computing in “the cloud” may refer to a company's own network. the software comes from the Web Servers. and the data may be saved on the servers as well. allowing the device to use smaller and more efficient chips that consume less energy than standard computers. hybrid models still exist despite the formation of reasonably well-functioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers. In these applications. It is the new generation of computing that utilizes distant servers for data storage and management.

Management includes provisioning. self-recovering. Clouds also support non grid environments.Definition A cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources. . highly scalable programming models that allow workloads to recover from many unavoidable hardware/software failures Monitor resource use in real time to enable rebalancing of allocations when needed. A cloud is more than a collection of computer resources because a cloud provides a mechanism to manage those resources. user-facing applications Allow workloads to be deployed and scaled-out quickly through the rapid provisioning of virtual machines or physical machines Support redundant.0 applications. such as a three-tier Web architecture running standard or Web 2. change requests. reimaging. de-provisioning. workload rebalancing. and monitoring. A cloud can: Host a variety of different workloads. including batch-style back-end jobs and interactive.

History The concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960s. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers and launched Amazon Web Services in 2006. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user. In early 2008. who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. . By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centres. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a Public Utility ". began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. Eucalyptus became the first open source AWS API compatible platform for deploying private clouds.

The front end is the part seen by the client. servers and data storage devices. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable. Essential Characteristics Cloud computing has four essential characteristics: Elasticity and the ability to scale up and down Self-service provisioning and automatic de-provisioning Application programming interfaces (APIs) Billing and metering of service usage in a pay-as-you-go model This flexibility is what is attracting individuals and businesses to move to the cloud . typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces. The two most significant components are known as the front end and the back end. the computer user. i. usually web services.e. This includes the client’s network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the ‘cloud’ itself.Cloud Architecture Cloud architecture involved in the delivery of cloud computing. comprising various computers.

innovations. virtual worlds. social networks.Participants in Cloud Computing The end user who doesn’t have to know anything about the underlying technology Business management who needs to take responsibility for the governance of data or services living in a cloud. and search. Cloud service providers must provide a predictable and guaranteed service level and security to all their constituents The cloud service provider who is responsible for IT assets and maintenance Usage Scenarios Cloud computing can play a significant role in a variety of areas including internal pilots. e-business. .

such as research and development. If they chose to use a cloud storage provider. with software pay-per-use. without having to go through the upload process on the IT side. system crashes. the servers which house the software are entirely off-site. Also a company could use the staff it had remaining concentrating on other aspects of the business. This may bring down the cost per employee. Thus. businesses benefits: Financial waste Better track employee activities Avert technological headaches such as computer viruses. Normally a company would need IT experts to set up and monitor their computer systems to ensure everything was working sufficiently and the all data was secure. those tasks would be taken care of. as required for inhouse servers.Advantages & Disadvantages Through Cloud Computing. with program usage licensed on an as-needed basis through subscription. savings are realized from the avoidance of extraneous software licenses and more immediate access to additional programs is possible almost at a whim. and loss of data Great manageability and oversight sharing of information company-wide Awareness of company objectives and individual and team progress Less money and other resources on their information technology departments Through Cloud Computing. .

Most mainstream devices communicate with Cloud Computing programs and applications. Generally such issues are very short-lived and can be immediately addressed through the company's network provider. Some applications (particularly in design and a more technological realm) require hardware attached to the hard drive for use. If the network goes down for any reason.Noted disadvantages to Cloud Computing are: Reliance upon network connectivity Peripheral communication (or lack thereof) Legal issues (ownership of data) Absence of a hard drive The most obvious of the negative concerns is the network connectivity. This is primarily just an issue with lesser known or older technologies. prior to forgoing the individual workstation hardware. and devices. Absence of a hard drive . printers. as ensuring wide usability is the number one goal for those offering Cloud Computing. data and services. The second concern today is communication of peripheral and connected devices.can lead to some issues and concerns with Cloud Computing. Ensure the company's necessary applications and uses for Cloud Computing do not require hardware attached to a hard drive. Before plunging into Cloud Computing full force. one must ensure that the organisation's devices will all communicate and work well with Cloud applications.while very attractive at face value . . the company loses access to Cloud Computing applications. altogether.

Cloud Computing Security Cloud computing security referred to simply as "cloud security" is an evolving subdomain of computer security. It refers to a broad set of policies. technologies. more broadly. and. There is a number of security issues associated with cloud computing but these issues fall into two broad categories: Security issues faced by cloud providers and security issues faced by their customers. information security. In most cases. and controls deployed to protect data. and Legal or Contractual Issues. the provider must ensure that their infrastructure is secure and that their clients’ data and applications are protected while the customer must ensure that the provider has taken the proper security measures to protect their information. . network security. and the associated infrastructure of cloud computing. Compliance. applications. While cloud security concerns can be grouped into any number of dimensions these dimensions have been aggregated into three general area: Security and Privacy.

. yet security is not under direct control of the institution. privacy. Confidentiality and Privacy Data Breach Responsibilities and Security Placing data and services in the cloud amplify concerns about data breaches. identity. and other compliance implications of moving data into the cloud. But these records are not under direct institutional control. weakening of ability for institutions to assert "work made for hire" for creations that are developed "without use of institutional resources". the institution no longer has the record in the same way that it formerly did. terms and conditions that (inappropriately) assert ownership over IP held by third parties.Security Considerations for Cloud Computing Security. Data breach generally carries with it an obligation to notify. Risks to intellectual property: authorization. E-Discovery Institutions and their legal counsel may be obligated to keep records needed for legal discovery.

procurement policies should require a risk evaluation for products that store records with confidential data) Business Continuity Suspension/Termination and their Aftermath Service Level Agreements Legal Issues & Third Party Obligations in Cloud Computing Contracts Grants with Stipulations Course Management Risk Transfer ..Risk Evaluation Indemnification (both ways) Warranties (and lack thereof) Responsibility for End Users Patent Infringement Choice of Law and Jurisdiction Risk Transfer Procurement Policies & Practices (e.g.

Users only pay for the services they use. The cloud is a natural home for service-oriented applications. which need a way to easily scale as services get incorporated into other applications. As a shared resource. Clouds are managed dynamically based on service-level agreements that define policies like delivery parameters. Shared. Cloud environments allow users to access additional compute resources on-demand in response to increased application loads. Service-oriented. automated management to distribute the computing resources among the cloud's users. APIs. Cloud environments take advantage of the built-in redundancy of the large numbers of servers that make them up by enabling high levels of availability and reliability for applications that can take advantage of this. . multiple users share a common infrastructure. and other factors.Why Cloud Computing Incremental Scalability. Reliability and Fault-Tolerance. Agility. Because clouds virtualize resources as a service they must have an application programming interface (API). costs. By enabling IT resources to be consolidated. either by subscription or transactionbased models. SLA-driven. Utility-based. allowing costs to be more effectively managed without sacrificing the security of each user's data. the cloud provides flexible.

and enabled workers to log onto their everyday applications wherever they are: in the office. but will likely streamline organisational operations in many new ways. or even in the back seat of a car. in the airport. No longer are days "out of the office" days of lost progress. . at home. Cloud Computing will not only remain a staple in modern business. and are investing into development and implementation of new pathways into the Cloud. as well as expanding upon its current uses.Conclusion There is no denying the present and future of Cloud Computing. Most major technology organisations see the bright future of this technology. One of the most beneficial realms of use is telecommuting. Cloud Computing has averted the need for constant updating of work performed outside of the office.

References Gartner Forecast: Sizing the Cloud Computing:The clash of the clouds.wikipedia. What the hell is cloud computing www. March 2009 Larry Ellison. The Economist. Network World IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing .