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Inclined Plane, Wedge, and Screw

Principles of Engineering

© 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

**The Six Simple Machines
**

Inclined Plane

Wedge

Screw

Mechanical Advantage (MA)

• Ratio of the magnitude of the

resistance and effort forces

• Ratio of distance traveled by the

effort and the resistance force

Calculated ratios allow designers to

manipulate speed, distance, force, and

function

**Mechanical Advantage Example
**

A mechanical advantage of 4:1 tells us

what about a mechanism?

Magnitude of Force

Effort force magnitude is 4 times less than the

magnitude of the resistance force.

**Distance Traveled by Forces
**

Effort force travels 4 times greater distance than

the resistance force.

**Mechanical Advantage Ratios
**

One is the magic number

If MA is greater than 1:

• Proportionally less effort force is required to

overcome the resistance force

• Proportionally greater effort distance is required

to overcome the resistance force

If MA is less than 1:

• Proportionally greater effort force is required to

overcome the resistance force

• Proportionally less effort distance is required to

overcome the resistance force

MA can never be less than or equal to zero.

**Ideal Mechanical Advantage (IMA)
**

• Theory-based calculation

• Friction loss is not taken into consideration

• Ratio of distance traveled by effort and

resistance force

• Used in efficiency and safety factor design

calculations

DE

DE

IMA =

D

R

= Distance traveled by effort force

DR = Distance traveled by resistance force

**Actual Mechanical Advantage (AMA)
**

• Inquiry-based calculation

• Frictional losses are taken into

consideration

• Used in efficiency calculations

• Ratio of force magnitudes

FR

FR

AMA =

F

= Magnitude of resistance force

E

FE = Magnitude of effort force

Inclined Plane

A flat surface set at an angle or incline with

no moving parts

Able to lift objects by pushing or pulling the

load

**Inclined Plane IMA
**

DE

IMA =

DR

f

0

.

15

t

**DE = Distance traveled by the effort = L
**

DR = Distance traveled by the resistance = H

L( slope)

IMA =

H

What is the IMA of the inclined plane above?

IMA = 15.0 ft / 4.0 ft = 3.75 = 3.8:1

4.0 ft

50 lb

**Inclined Plane AMA
**

FR

AMA =

FE

f

15

t

4 ft

lb

0

2

What is the AMA of the inclined plane above?

50.lb

AMA =

20.lb

AMA = 2.5 = 2.5:1

What is the efficiency of the inclined plane above?

** AMA 100= 2.50
**

100 = 67%

% Efficiency =

IMA

3.75

Wedge

• Functions as a moving inclined plane

• Tapers to a thin edge and is used for splitting,

raising heavy bodies, or for tightening by being

driven into something

Wedge IMA

L 10.0 in.

DE

IMA =

DR

H 3.0 in.

**DE = Distance traveled by the effort = L
**

DR = Distance traveled by the resistance = H

L( to height)

IMA =

H

What is the IMA of the wedge shown?

IMA = 10.0 in. / 3.0 in. = 3.33 = 3.3:1

250. lb

Wedge AMA

FR

AMA =

FE

700.lb

AMA =

250.lb

L 10.0 in.

**What is the AMA of the wedge
**

shown?

H 3.0 in.

700. lb

700. lb

AMA = 2.80 = 2.80:1

What is the efficiency of the wedge

shown?

AMA 100= 2.800

100 = 84%

% Efficiency =

IMA

3.333

Screw

Two Components

• An inclined plane wrapped

around a cylinder, forming

the path and pitch

• A wheel and axle used to

create rotary motion

Properties

• Change rotary motion into linear motion

• Used as a threaded fastener

• Large MA

• Large amount of friction loss

Screw Identification

Effort Arm Distance –

If using a wrench, effort arm

distance would be the length of

the wrench

Pitch

Thread Information

1/2 13 NC

Diameter

Thread

description

coarse or fine

Threads

per inch

**Distance between threads
**

and linear distance traveled

by 1 rotation of the screw

Diameter

If 13 threads per inch, then pitch is 1/13 of an inch.

How far will a screw with 13 threads per inch move linearly if

turned one full rotation? 1/13 of a inch

Screw IMA

DE

IMA =

DR

1/4 20 NC

**DE = One rotation of the effort arm = Circumference
**

DR = Linear distance traveled during one rotation

of the effort arm = Pitch

Circumference 2π r

IMA =

=

Pitch

P

What is the IMA of the screw above if effort is applied by an

8.0in. long wrench?

2π 8.0in

IMA =

= 1005.31 = 1.0 •103

1in.

20

Screw AMA

FR

AMA =

FE

What is the AMA of the

screw shown?

1/4 20 NC

8 in.

35 lb

1200lb

AMA =

AMA = 34.29 = 34:1

35lb

1200 lb

**What is the efficiency of the screw shown?
**

AMA 100= 34.29 100

% Efficiency =

= 3.4%

1005.3

IMA

Why is efficiency so low?

Compound Machines

Simple machines working in combination to

complete a task

Calculating mechanical advantage

MA TOTAL = MA1 MA 2 MA 3 ...

Image Resources

Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008,

from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx

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