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Outline

A model of the image degradation / restoration

process

Noise models

Restoration in the presence of noise only

spatial filtering

Periodic noise reduction by frequency domain

filtering

Linear, position-invariant degradations

Estimating the degradation function

Inverse filtering & Wiener filtering

Constrained Least square filtering

Geometric mean filter

Geometric and spatial transformation

Image restoration is to restore a

degraded image back to the original

image

Image enhancement is to manipulate

the image so that it is suitable for a

specific application.

Image Restoration

Image restoration attempts to restore

images that have been degraded

Identify the degradation process and

attempt to reverse it

Similar to image enhancement, but

more objective

degradation/restoration process

G(u,v)=F(u,v)H(u,v)+N(u,v) Frequency

degradation/restoration process

Where,

f(x,y) - input image

f^(x,y) - estimated original image

g(x,y) - degraded image

h(x,y) - degradation function

(x,y) - additive noise term

Noise models

Sources of noise

Image acquisition (digitization) - Imaging

sensors can be affected by ambient conditions

Image transmission - Interference can be added

to an image during transmission

Statistical behavior of the gray-level values of

pixels

Noise parameters, correlation with the image

Fourier spectrum

Ex. white noise (a constant Fourier spectrum)

Noise models

Noise model is decided based on

understanding of

the physics of the sources of noise.

Gaussian: poor illumination

Rayleigh: range image

Gamma(Erlang),

Exponential:

laser

imaging

Impulse: faulty switch during imaging

Uniform: least used

functions

Noise cannot be predicted but can be

approximately described in statistical way

using the probability density function (PDF)

Gaussian noise

Mathematical tractability in spatial

and frequency domains

Used frequently in practice

Electronic circuit noise and sensor

noisep ( z ) 1 e ( z ) 2 / 2 2

Note:

Intensit

p( z )dz 1

mean

variance

95% in [(), ()]

Rayleigh noise

2

2

( z a )e ( z a ) / b

p( z ) b

0

for z a

for z a

by

b( 4 )

2

a b / 4 and

4

variance

p( z )

a b z b 1 az

e

(b 1)!

for z 0

for z 0

given by b / a and 2 b2

a

variance

Exponential noise

for z 0

for z 0

p( z )

ae az

are given by

1 / a and 2

1

a2

Special case of Erlang PDF with b=1

Uniform noise

Less practical, used for random

number generator

1

if a z b

p( z ) b a

0

otherwise

ab

Mean:

2

2

(

b

a

)

2

Variance:

12

Uniform PDF

Impulse (salt-and-pepper)

nosie

Quick transients, such as faulty switching

during imaging

Pa for z a

p ( z ) Pb for z b

0 otherwise

Otherwise, it is called bipolar.

Impulse (salt-and-pepper)

nosie PDF

g ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) ( x, y )

Degraded images

Original image

Histogram

Degraded images

Histogram

Periodic noise

Is an image that arises from electrical

and electromechanical interference

during image acquisition

It can be observed by visual

inspection both in the spatial domain

and frequency domain

can be reduced significantly via

frequency domain filtering

Periodic Noise

Periodic noise

looks like dots

In the frequency

domain

Estimation of noise

parameters

Periodic noise

Observe the frequency spectrum

Case 1: imaging system is available

Capture images of flat environment

Take a strip from constant area

Draw the histogram and observe it

Measure the mean and variance

09/02/16

Estimation of Noise

Image histogram cannot be

used to estimate noise PDF.

histogram of one area of an

image that has constant

intensity to estimate noise

PDF.

09/02/16

Methods

Mean filters

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic mean filter

Contra-harmonic

mean filter

09/02/16

Median filter

Max and min filters

Mid-point filter

alpha-trimmed filters

Adaptive filters

Adaptive local noise

reduction filter

Adaptive median filter

Degradation model:

Mean Filters

g ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) h( x, y ) ( x, y )

To remove this part

f ( x, y ) 1

g ( s, t )

mn ( s ,t )S xy

- is the simplest of the mean filters

- smooths local variations in an image

- noise is reduced as a result of blurring

09/02/16

Geometric mean filter

f ( x, y )

1

mn

g

(

s

,

t

)

( s ,t )S xy

- it tends to lose less image detail in the process

09/02/16

Original

image

Image

obtained

using a 3x3

arithmetic

mean filter

09/02/16

Image

corrupted

by AWGN

Image

obtained

using a 3x3

geometric

mean filter

Harmonic mean filter

f ( x, y )

mn

( s ,t )S xy

1

g ( s, t )

f ( x, y )

Q 1

g

(

s

,

t

)

( s ,t )S xy

g ( s, t )

but fails for pepper noise

eliminating pepper noise.

Negative Q is suitable for

eliminating salt noise.

( s ,t )S xy

09/02/16

For Q = -1, the filter reduces to a harmonic mean filter.

Image

corrupted

by pepper

noise with

prob. = 0.1

Image

corrupted

by salt

noise with

prob. = 0.1

Image

obtained

using a 3x3

contraharmonic

mean filter

With Q = 1.5

Image

obtained

using a 3x3

contraharmonic

mean filter

With Q=-1.5

09/02/16

Original image

Order-Statistic Filters

subimage

Statistic parameters

Mean, Median, Mode,

Min, Max, Etc.

Moving

window

09/02/16

Output image

Order-Statistics Filters

Median filter

f ( x, y ) median g ( s, t )

( s ,t )S xy

Max filter

f ( x, y ) max g ( s, t )

( s ,t )S xy

(pepper noise)

Min filter

f ( x, y ) min g ( s, t )

( s ,t )S xy

(salt noise)

Midpoint filter

09/02/16

f ( x, y ) 1 max g ( s, t ) min g ( s, t )

( s ,t )S xy

2 ( s ,t )S xy

A median filter is good for removing impulse, isolated noise

Salt noise

Pepper noise

Median

Degraded image

Moving

window

Salt noise

Pepper noise

Filter output

Normally, impulse noise has high magnitude

and is isolated. When we sort pixels in the

moving window, noise pixels are usually

at the ends of the array.

Therefore, its rare that the noise pixel will be a median value.

09/02/16

Sorted

array

1

Image

corrupted

by salt-andpepper

noise with

pa=pb= 0.1

09/02/16

Image

corrupted

by pepper

noise with

prob. = 0.1

Image

corrupted

by salt

noise with

prob. = 0.1

Image

obtained

using a 3x3

max filter

Image

obtained

using a 3x3

min filter

09/02/16

This filter is useful in situations involving multiple types of noise

such as a combination of salt-and-pepper and Gaussian noise.

f ( x, y )

1

mn d

g ( s, t )

( s ,t )S xy

where,

the d/2 highest and d/2 lowest values of g(s,t).

09/02/16

1

Image

corrupted

by additive

uniform

noise

Image 2

obtained

using a 5x5

arithmetic

mean filter

09/02/16

Image

additionally

corrupted

by additive

salt-andpepper

noise

Image 2

obtained

using a 5x5

geometric

mean filter

1

Image

corrupted

by additive

uniform

noise

Image 2

obtained

using a 5x5

median filter

09/02/16

Image

additionally

corrupted

by additive

salt-andpepper

noise

Image 2

obtained

using a 5x5

alphatrimmed

mean filter

with d = 5

Image

obtained

using a 5x5

arithmetic

mean filter

Image

obtained

using a 5x5

geometric

mean filter

Image

obtained

using a 5x5

median filter

Image

obtained

using a 5x5

alphatrimmed

mean filter

with d = 5

09/02/16

/restoration process

g(x,y)=f(x,y)*h(x,y)+(x,y)

G(u,v)=F(u,v)H(u,v)+N(u,v)

09/02/16

Linear, position-invariant

degradation

Properties of the degradation function H

Linear system

H[af1(x,y)+bf2(x,y)]=aH[f1(x,y)]

+bH[f2(x,y)]

Position(space)-invariant system

H[f(x,y)]=g(x,y) is position invariant if

H[f(x-, y-)]=g(x-, y-)

09/02/16

Degradation model:

g ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) h ( x, y ) ( x, y )

or

G ( u, v ) F ( u , v ) H ( u , v ) N ( u , v )

If we know exactly h(x,y), regardless of noise, we can do

deconvolution to get f(x,y) back from g(x,y).

Methods:

1. Estimation by Image Observation

2. Estimation by Experiment

3. Estimation by Modeling

09/02/16

Original image (unknown)

f(x,y)

Degraded image

f(x,y)*h(x,y)

g(x,y)

Observation

Estimated Transfer

function

DFT

Gs (u, v )

09/02/16

g s ( x, y )

Restoration

process by

estimation

G (u, v )

H (u, v ) H s (u, v ) s

Fs (u, v )

This case is used when we

know only g(x,y) and cannot

repeat the experiment!

Subimage

DFT

Fs (u, v )

Reconstructed

Subimage

fs ( x, y )

Estimation by Experiment

Used when we have the same equipment set up

Response image from

the system

System

H( )

A ( x , y )

g ( x, y )

DFT

DFT

DFT A ( x, y ) A

09/02/16

G (u, v )

G (u, v )

H (u, v )

A

Estimation by Modeling

Used when we know physical mechanism underlying the image

formation process that can be expressed mathematically.

Original image

Severe turbulence

Example:

Atmospheric

Turbulence model

H (u, v ) e

k = 0.0025

Mild turbulence

Low turbulence

k = 0.001

k = 0.00025

09/02/16

k ( u 2 v 2 )5 / 6

Assume that camera velocity is

( x0 (t ), y0 (t ))

T

g ( x, y ) f ( x x0 (t ), y y0 (t ))dt

0

G (u, v )

j 2 ( ux vy )

g

(

x

,

y

)

e

dxdy

09/02/16

f ( x x0 (t ), y y0 (t ))dt e j 2 ( ux vy ) dxdy

f ( x x (t ), y y (t ))e

0

j 2 ( ux vy )

dxdy dt

G (u, v )

0

f ( x x (t ), y y (t ))e

0

j 2 ( ux vy )

dxdy dt

0

0

T

0

T

H (u, v ) e

09/02/16

( x0 (t ), y0 (t )) ( at , bt )

j 2 ( ua vb )

T

dt

sin( (ua vb))e j ( ua vb )

(ua vb)

For constant motion

H (u, v )

T

sin( (ua vb))e j ( ua vb )

(ua vb)

Original image

09/02/16

a = b = 0.1, T = 1

Inverse Filtering

From degradation model:

G ( u , v ) F ( u, v ) H ( u , v ) N ( u , v )

after we obtain H(u,v), we can estimate F(u,v) by the inverse filter:

G (u, v )

N (u, v )

F (u, v )

F (u, v )

H (u, v )

H (u, v )

Noise is enhanced

when H(u,v) is small.

To avoid the side effect of enhancing

noise, we can apply this formulation

to freq. component (u,v) with in a

radius D0 from the center of H(u,v).

In practical, the inverse filter is not popularly used.

09/02/16

Inverse Filtering

The simplest approach to restoration is direct inverse

filtering, where we compute an estimate, (u,v), of the

transform of the original image simply by dividing the

transform of the degraded image, G(u,v), by the

degraded function.

g(m,n) = f(m,n)*h(m,n)+(m,n)

g = Hf +

If the noise is zero the error function is denoted as

T() = ||g- ||2

T() = g2+H2-2H

=0

09/02/16

To find Mean Square Error

0+2H2-2H =0

2H22H

H >>>>> H = (Inverse Filtering)

G(u,v) = H(u,v)(u,v)

(u,v) =

With addition of noise the observed degraded image in

frequency domain

G(u,v) = F(u,v)H(u,v)+N(u,v)

(1)

09/02/16

Divide equation one by H(u,v)

=

.(2)

Substitute (u,v) in eqn (2)

(u,v) = F(u,v)+

If noise is zero the estimated image (u,v) is equal to

original image, but noise will not be properly removed

in inverse filtering.

Original image

Blurred image

Due to Turbulence

09/02/16

Result of applying

the full filter

Result of applying

the filter with D0=70

H (u, v ) e

0.0025( u 2 v 2 )5 / 6

Result of applying

the filter with D0=40

Result of applying

the filter with D0=85

Inverse Filtering

Limitations:

1. Even if the degradation function is known the

undegraded image cannot be recovered exactly

because N(u,v) is the random function which is not

known.

2. If the degradation function has 0 or small value the

ratio

easily dominates the estimate F(u,v,) one

approach to get ride of 0 (or) small value problem to

limits the filter frequency to the value near the origin.

WIENER FILTERING

Inverse filtering has no explicit provision for handling

noise but the wiener filtering it incorporates both

degradation function, statistical characteristics of noise

taken into the restoration process.

e2 = E[(f-]

Objective of the wiener filter is to find the estimate of

uncorrupted image f, such that the mean square error is

minimize the wiener filter is optimum filter

Diagram

The error between the input signal and the estimated

signal is given by the mean square error.

e(x,y) = f(x,y) (x,y)

E[f(x,y) (x,y)2] =0

value of

f(x,y) (x,y) totally orthogonal with g(x,y) is zero.

E[f(x,y) (x,y)g(x,y)] = 0

(x,y) = g(x,y)*r(x,y)

E[f(x,y)- (g(x,y)*r(x,y))g(x,y)] =0

E[f(x,y)g(x,y)] = E[(r(x,y)*g(x,y))g(x,y)]

=E{g(x,y)}

fgfg(x,y) =

fg (x,y) = gg(k,l)

On taking Fourier transform

Sfg(u,v) = R(u,v)Sgg(u,v)

Sfg and Sgg are the Power Spectral Density

R(u,v) =

W.k.t g(x,y) = f(x,y)*h(x,y)

Cross correlation between f(x,y) and g(x,y) is given as

fg (x,y) = E [f(x+l1,y+l2)g*(x,y)]

= E [f(x+l1,y+l2)(f(x,y)*h(x,y))]

= E [f(x+l1,y+l2) ]

=

fg (x,y) = ff(l1+k1,l2+k2)

= h*(x,y)*ff(-x,-y)

On taking Fourier transform

Sfg(u,v) = H*(u,v)Sff(u,v)

Without the presence of noise g=h*f

gg (l1,l2) = hh (l1,l2)*ff(l1,l2)

gg (l1,l2) = [h(l1,l2)*h*(-l1,-l2)]*ff(l1,l2)

Sgg(u,v) = H(u,v)H*(u,v). Sff(u,v)

= |H(u,v)|2 Sff(u,v)

R(u,v)= =

With presence of noise Sgg(u,v) = |H(u,v)|2 Sff(u,v)+ N(u,v)

= |N(u,v)|2

R(u,v)=

=

= R(u,v)G(u,v)

Multiply and divide by H(u,v) in R(u,v) and sub in

= G(u,v)

= = G(u,v)

Wiener filter also know as minimum mean square filter

or least mean square filter.

Wiener filter does not have the same problem as the

inverse filter unless both H(u,v) and S(u,v) are zero for

the same value of u&v

H(u,v) = degradation function

H*(u,v) = complex conjugate of H(u,v)

|H(u,v)|2 = H*(u,v) H(u,v)

S(u,v) = |N(u,v)|2 = Power spectrum of the noise

Sf(u,v) = |F(u,v)|2 = Power spectrum of an undegraded

image.

Wiener Filtering

Consideration:

1. When a noise is zero

(x,y)=0, S(u,v) =0

=

It reduces to inverse filtering

2. IF H(u,v)=1

=

Wiener Filtering

Signal to Noise ratio

3. Signal to noise ratio is greater than 1

>>1

Then

= G(u,v) --- Here the wiener filter act as a all

pass filters.

ADVANTAGES:

1.The wiener filter does not have zero value problem untill

both H(u,v) and is equal to zero.

2.The result obtained by wiener filter is more closer to the

original image than inverse filter.

Wiener Filter Formula:

H

(

u

,

v

)

1

F (u, v )

G (u, v )

2

H (u, v ) H (u, v ) S (u, v ) / S f (u, v )

2

Difficult to estimate

Approximated Formula:

H (u, v )

1

G (u, v )

2

H (u, v ) H (u, v ) K

F (u, v )

09/02/16

Original image

Blurred image

Due to Turbulence

09/02/16

Result of the

full inverse filter

filter with D0=70

Result of the

full Wiener filter

Original image

Blurred image

Due to Turbulence

09/02/16

filter with D0=70

Result of the

Wiener filter

Image

degraded

by motion

blur +

AWGN

Result of the

inverse filter

2=650

2=325

09/02/16

2=130

Result of the

Wiener filter

Degradation model:

In matrix form,

g ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) h( x, y ) ( x, y )

g Hf

M 1 N 1

f ( x, y )

x 0 y 0

2

2

g Hf

where

w wT w

F (u, v )

H * (u, v )

2

G ( u, v )

H (u, v ) P (u, v )

where

P(u,v) = Fourier transform of p(x,y) =

09/02/16

0 1 0

1 4 1

0 1 0

Constrained least square filter

F (u, v )

H * (u, v )

2

G (u, v )

H (u, v ) P (u, v )

from the constrained least square filter

09/02/16

Image

degraded

by motion

blur +

AWGN

Result of the

Constrained

Least square

filter

2=650

2=325

09/02/16

2=130

Result of the

Wiener filter

Define

r g Hf

( ) r r r

2

1.

2.

Compute

3.

Stop if

is satisfied

Otherwise return step 2 after increasing if

1

r a

r a

or decreasing if

Use the new value of to recompute

r a

F (u, v )

09/02/16

H * (u, v )

2

H (u, v ) P (u, v )

G ( u, v )

H * (u, v )

F (u, v )

G (u, v )

H (u, v ) P (u, v )

M 1 N 1

1

r

MN

2

r

( x, y )

x 0 y 0

1

m

MN

M 1 N 1

1

2

MN

M 1 N 1

( x, y )

x 0 y 0

( x, y ) m

x 0 y 0

MN 2 m

09/02/16

For computing

For computing

Original image

parameters

Blurred image

Due to Turbulence

parameters

09/02/16

Correct parameters:

Initial = 10-5

Correction factor = 10-6

a = 0.25

2 = 10-5

2 = 10-2

This filter represents a family of filters combined into a

single expression

H (u, v )

H (u, v )

F (u, v )

2

S (u, v )

2

H (u, v )

H (u, v )

S

(

u

,

v

)

= 0 the Parametric Wiener filter

= 0, = 1 the standard Wiener filter

= 1, < 0.5 More like the inverse filter

= 1, > 0.5 More like the Wiener filter

Another name: the spectrum equalization filter

09/02/16

G (u, v )

Geometric Transformation

These transformations are often called rubber-sheet transformations:

Printing an image on a rubber sheet and then stretch this sheet according

to some predefine set of rules.

1. A spatial transformation :

Define how pixels are to be rearranged in the spatially

transformed image.

2. Gray level interpolation :

Assign gray level values to pixels in the spatially

transformed image.

09/02/16

( x, y )

( x, y )

Image f to be

restored

1.

2.

Distorted image g

Compute

x r ( x, y )

y s ( x, y )

3. Go to pixel

( x, y )

in a distorted image g

09/02/16

g ( x, y )

By gray level interpolation

5. store that value in pixel f(x,y)

5

Spatial Transformation

To map between pixel coordinate (x,y) of f and pixel coordinate

(x,y) of g

x r ( x, y )

y s( x, y )

Quadrilateral regions

x r ( x, y ) c1 x c2 y c3 xy c4

y s( x, y ) c5 x c6 y c7 xy c8

To obtain r(x,y) and s(x,y), we need

to know 4 pairs of coordinates

and its corresponding

( x, yare

) called tiepoints.

which

09/02/16

( x, y )

( x, y )

( x, y )

Since ( x , y may

) not be at an integer coordinate, we need to

Interpolate the value of

g ( x, y )

1. Nearest neighbor selection

2. Bilinear interpolation

3. Bicubic interpolation

09/02/16

Original image and

tiepoints

Distorted image

Tiepoints of distorted

image

Restored image

Use nearest

neighbor

intepolation

09/02/16

Original image and

tiepoints

Distorted image

Tiepoints of distorted

image

Restored image

Use bilinear

intepolation

09/02/16

Original image

Geometrically distorted

image

Use the same

Spatial Trans.

as in the previous

example

Restored image

Difference between

2 above images

09/02/16

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