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PENGELOLAAN

AGROEKOSISTE
M SAWAH
Diabstraksikan oleh:
Soemarno , FPUB Malang , 2012

SAWAH
Sawah adalah lahan usaha pertanian yang secara fisik permukaan
BIDANG OLAHNYA rata, dibatasi oleh pematang, serta dapat
ditanami padi, palawija atau tanaman budidaya lainnya.
Biasanya sawah digunakan untuk bercocok tanam padi. Untuk
keperluan ini, sawah harus mampu menyangga genangan air karena
padi memerlukan penggenangan pada periode tertentu dalam
pertumbuhannya. Untuk mengairi sawah digunakan sistem irigasi
dari mata air, sungai atau air hujan.
Sawah yang airnya berasal dari hujan dikenal sebagai sawah tadah
hujan, sementara yang lainnya adalah sawah irigasi.
Padi yang ditanam di sawah dikenal sebagai padi lahan basah (lowland
rice).

LAHAN SAWAH DI KELILINGI OLEH KEBUN CAMPURAN


Lahan sawah adalah tanah yg
dapat digenangi air dan
mempertahankannya, dapat
diratakan dan dibatasi dengan
pematang
Sawah berigasi (teknis,
setengah teknis)
Sawah tadah hujan
Tindakan yg sangat penting
dalam pengolahan tanah
sawah adalah: PELUMPURAN
(Proses terurainya agregat2
tanah menjadi partikel2 tanab
yg lebih kecil & seragam, yg
terjadi akibat adanya tenaga
mekanis pd tanah yg
mempunyai kandungan air
tanah yg tinggi)

Surface water diversion impacts on farm income and sources of irrigation water: The case of the
Grand Prairie in Arkansas
J. Hill, E. Wailes, M. Popp, J. Popp, J. Smartt, K. Young, and B. Watkins
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation July/August 2006 vol. 61 no.

Alternative water conservation investment choices for the Grand Prairie Region of
eastern Arkansas have been proposed. In particular, the cost-share and river water
diversion components of the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project were
analyzed in this study to determine their ramifications to area farms and water use.
The cost-share alternative was deemed most effective given trade offs between
ground and surface water use, income redistribution and farm income
considerations.
Effects of earlier reductions in rice production on the Arkansas economy may,
however, justify water diversion and thus this study suggests the importance of
further review of the Grand Prairie project.

EKOSISTEM SWAH
Dalam usaha budidaya padi harus diketahui faktor-faktor
yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman secara
ekologi, baik faktor biotik dan abiotik di lingkungan
tumbuh tanaman tersebut.
Pertanaman padi sawah adalah monokultur, selain itu
terdapat beberapa flora dan fauna di sekitar pertanaman
yang akan mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman padi.
Organisme yang ada di sekitar tanaman padi adalah
mikrofauna dalam tanah, mesofauna, makrofauna dan
vegetasi (gulma) yang ada di sekitar persawahan.

LAHAN SAWAH DI DATARAN TINGGI: TERAS


BANGKU

Ekosistem sawah
dataran tinggi;
Lahan sawah berupa
teras-bangku, tebing
teras diperkuat dengan
rumput , sekelilingnya
adalah agroforestry
dengan campuran aneka
tanaman pohon.

BUDIDAYA PADI SAWAH


Sawah merupakan suatu sistem budidaya tanaman yang
khas dilihat dari sudut kekhususan pertanaman yaitu
padi, penyiapan tanah, pengelolaan air dan dampaknya
atas lingkungan.
Lahan sawah perlu diperhatikan secara khusus dalam
penatagunaan lahan.
Meskipun di lahan sawah dapat diadakan pergiliran
berbagai tanaman, namun pertanaman pokok selalu padi.
Jadi, kajian tentang sawah tentu berkaitan dengan
produksi padi dan beras.

Interaction of the social system with agricultural ecosystems after


the Industrial Revolution

Interaction, coevolution and coadaptation of the human social


system with the ecosystem Source: Adapted from Rambo, A and
Sajise, T (1985) An Introduction to Human Ecology Research on
Agricultural Systems in Southeast Asia, University of the
Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines

Coadaptation of modern social sytems and ecosystems

BUDIDAYA PADI
Budidaya padi sawah (Ing. paddy atau paddy field), diduga
dimulai dari daerah lembah Sungai Yangtse di Tiongkok.
Budidaya padi lahan kering, dikenal manusia lebih dahulu
daripada budidaya padi sawah.
Budidaya padi lahan rawa, dilakukan di beberapa tempat di
Pulau Kalimantan.
Budidaya gogo rancah atau disingkat gora, yang merupakan
modifikasi dari budidaya lahan kering. Sistem ini sukses
diterapkan di Pulau Lombok, yang hanya memiliki
musim hujan singkat.

Teknologi budidaya
Bercocok tanam padi mencakup persemaian,
pemindahan atau penanaman, pemeliharaan
(termasuk pengairan, penyiangan, perlindungan
tanaman, serta pemupukan), dan panen.
Aspek lain yang penting namun bukan termasuk
dalam rangkaian bercocok tanam padi adalah
pemilihan kultivar, pemrosesan gabah dan
penyimpanan beras.

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF

SRI
( SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION)
Suatu cara budidaya tanaman padi yang efesien
dengan proses manajemen sistem perakaran yang
berbasis pada pengelolaan air, tanah, dan tanaman
SRI berasal dari Madagascar dikembangkan sejak sekitar
1980-an oleh Fr. Henri de Laulani, SJ (biarawan asal
Perancis) dan berkembang ke sekitar 24 negara sejak sekitar
1993

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF


PERMASALAHAN BUDIDAYA TANAMAN PADI

1. Penurunan kesehatan dan kesuburan tanah


2. Kecenderungan potensi padi untuk berproduksi
lebih tinggi mandeg
3. Penggunaan unsur kimia anorganik dan
pestisida sintesis meningkat
4. Perilaku petani sudah jauh dari kearifan dalam
memanfaatkan potensi lokal

Soil phosphorus status under restored plant covers established to control land degradation in the
red soil region of South China
Y. X. Chen, Y. F. He, S. Kumar, Q. L. Fu, G. M. Tian, and Q. Lin
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2002 vol. 57 no. 6 381-387

Irrational exploitation has brought about serious consequences causing severe soil erosion
and loss of soil productivity in the red soil region of China. Different vegetation systems
were thus established for soil conservation. Five systemscomposed of eroded area (Er),
bamboo (Bmb), Chinese fir (CF), citrus orchard (Ctr), and rice field (Rf)were studied to
monitor the status of phosphorus in their ecosystems.
Generally, soil P was concentrated in the surface soil layer. The rank order for soil total
phosphorus and microbial biomass phosphorus in the surface layer was: Rf > Ctr > Bmb >
CF > Er and Bmb > CF > Ctr > Rf > Er, respectively. Among the established vegetation
covers, external nutrient input had intensely contributed to the buildup of soil P status as
systems receiving manure or fertilizer (Bmb, Ctr and Rf) and showed considerably higher P
level in their profiles as compared with their forest counterpart (CF). The amount of total P
lost from the soil by erosion depended mainly on the mass of soil eroded, mainly via
particulate forms. The level of soil erosion was the highest in Er, followed by CF > Ctr >
Bmb, and the amount of total P loss by soil erosion in descending order was the same: Er >
CF > Ctr > Bmb. All these indicated that vegetation covers reduced soil erosion and nutrient
loss significantly.

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF


DASAR PEMIKIRAN METODE SRI
1. Tanaman Padi mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk
menghasilkan produksi dalam taraf tinggi
2. Dapat dicapai dengan terpenuhinya kondisi yang optimal
3. Dicapai melalui proses pengelolaan tanah, tanaman dan
air serta unsur agroekosistemnya
4. Terjadi kecenderungan penurunan produksi
5. Padi bukan tanaman air, tetapi padi tanaman yang
membutuhkan air
6. Pada kondisi tanah tidak tergenang, akar akan tumbuh
subur dan besar, sehingga dapat menyerap nutrisi yang
banyak, sertra mendorong tumbuhnya ANAKAN
yang optimal.

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF


PENYEBAB TERJADINYA PENURUNAN PRODUKSI PADI
1. Penurunan kesuburan tanah akibat penggunaan pupuk
dan pestisida anorganik
2. Mikroba dalam tanah tidak bisa berfungsi
3. Aliran energi dari bawah ke atas permukaan tanah tidak
seimbang
4. Suplay nutrisi dari tanah sangat kurang
5. Tanaman menunggu suplay makanan dari luar berupa
pupuk sintesis
6. Penggunaan pupuk dan pestisida sintesis yang
berlebihan mengakibatkan rantai makanan terputus
7. Musuh Alami hanya menunggu makanan dari keberadaan
hama
8. Jenjang hirerkis Musuh Alami lebih tinggi maka hama
akan berkembang lebih pesat

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF


CARA PANDANG KURANG ARIF
1. Orang beranggapan di sawah hanya ada tanaman dan
hama
2. Untuk memenangkan persaingan hama harus dibunuh
3. Pestisida yang berkuasa untuk memusnahkan hama
4. Pestisida tidak bisa mengentaskan masalah karena hama
5. Hama menjadi kebal
6. Terjadi peledakan hama
7. Pencemaran lingkungan
8. Terbunuhnya jasad non sasaran
9. Pengurangan keragaman unsur hayati
10. Gangguan terhadap kesehatan manusia .

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF

Soil management strategies for rice-wheat rotations in Pakistan's Punjab


M.A. Kahlown, M. Azam, and W.D. Kemper
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation January/February 2006 vol. 61 no. 1 40-44

Conventional management practices for the rice-wheat rotation in Pakistan's Punjab


have failed to improve crop yield, increase water and fertilizer use efficiencies, and
decrease production costs enough to meet an ever-increasing food demand. New
technologies such as no-till, laser leveling, and bed and furrow irrigation are being
rapidly adopted by the farming community, but without adequate scientific
information. Therefore, those practices were evaluated on 71 farms within four
representative sites. Land preparation/sowing costs, water savings, use of fertilizers,
soil salinity, and crop yield were evaluated. Land preparation and sowing cost on notill fields was significantly less than on tilled fields.
Highest yields were obtained on laser-leveled fields, followed by no-till, bed and
furrow fields. Water and nitrogen use efficiencies were much higher on fields with bed
and furrow irrigation as compared to the conventional fields. Although all the new
technologies were economically feasible, we conclude that no-till was the best option
for the farmers.

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF


SRI Di Indonesia antara lain oleh Pak Engkus
Kuswara dan Pak Alik Sutaryat (Tahun 1999)
Yang mereka terapkan adalah :
Tanam Tunggal Dan Dangkal
Umur Semai Kurang 15 Hari
Penanaman cepat kurang 15 Menit
Pupuk Organik

BUDIDAYA PADI SECARA INTENSIF


METODOLOGI SRI ADALAH :
1. Tanaman Hemat Air (Max 2 Cm = Macak-macak
dan juga ada periode pengeringan sampai tanah
pecah-pecah)
2. Hemat Biaya (butuh bibit 5 Kg/Ha, Tidak butuh
biaya Pencabutan, Pemindahan, Irit tenaga
tanam, dll)
3. Hemat Waktu (bibit ditanam muda 3 - 10 HSS
dengan jarak tanam lebar dan Panen lebih awal
sekitar 10 14 hari)
4. Produksi Bisa Mencapai 7 - 14 Ton/Ha.

PENGARUH PENGGENANGAN AIR TERHADAP


PERTUMBUHAN PADI

1. Merangsang pertumbuhan memanjang tanaman,


menghasilkan lebih banyak jerami
2. Menghambat pertumbuhan anakan/tunas
3. Tanaman kurang dapat mengambil unsur hara
yang dibutuhkan
4. Penggenangan yang terlalu dalam dan lama
dapat merubah sifat-sifat kimia tanah sawah,
antara lain : kandungan O2 yang sedikit,
kandungan CO2 yang berlebihan, terjadi
akumulasi H2S, yang dapat meracuni tanaman
sehingga tanaman menjadi kerdil

PRINSIP SRI
1. Pengolahan tanah dan pemupukan kompos
organik
2. Benih bermutu dan ditanam muda
3. Benih ditanam tunggal dan langsung
4. Jarak tanam Lebar
5. Pemupukan tidak dengan pupuk sintesis
6. Pengelolaan air yang macak-macak dan
bersamaan dengan penyiangan
7. PHT tidak memakai pestisida sintesis

UJI BENIH BERMUTU DENGAN LARUTAN


GARAM
Caranya :
1. Siapkan ember atau panci atau wadah lain beriisi air
2. Masukan garam aduk-aduk sampai larut,
3. Masukan telur ayam mentah kedalam larutan garam
tersebut, bila telur masih tenggelam maka perlu
penambahan garam.
4. Pemberian garam dianggap cukup apabila telur sudah
mengapung.
5. Masukan benih yang sudah disiapkan kedalam larutan
tersebut.
6. Benih yang tenggelam yang digunakan sebagai benih
yang akan ditanam.

PERENDAMAN DAN PEMERAMAN BENIH


1. BENIH DIRENDAM, Setelah diuji, benih direndam
dengan mempergunakan air bersih dengan tujuan
mempercepat perkecambahan selama 24 48
jam.
2. BENIH DIPERAM, Benih yang telah direndam
kemudian diangkat ke dalam tempat tertentu
yang telah dilapisi dengan daun pisang dengan
tujuan untuk memberikan udara masuk /
penganginan / ngamut selama 24 jam.

CARA MEMBUAT PERSEMAIAN


1. Campurkan Tanah dan kompos 1 : 1
2. Masukan campuran tanah dan
kompos ke dalam baki atau pipiti
yang dilapisi daun pisang
3. Taburkan benih ke dalam nampan
4. Tutup dengan jerami atau kompos

CARA PENANAMAN BENIH


Tanam benih berusia muda antara 3 - 10 hari (maksimal berdaun 2),
usahakan di bawah 8 hari setelah semai.
Tanam hanya 1 (satu) benih per lubang dengan jarak tanam 30x30 cm atau
35x35 cm
Bibit ditanam dangkal 1 1,5 cm dengan perakaran seperti huruf L.
Pindah tanam (transplanting) harus segera (kurang dari 15 menit) secara
hati-hati
Petak sawah tidak selalu tergenang, kondisi air hanya macak-macak (1-2
cm) dan pada periode tertentu harus dikeringkan sampai retak
(intermittent irrigation)
Penyiangan dilakukan lebih awal pada 10 hst diulang 3 s/d 4 kali dengan
interval waktu setiap 10 hari ( mengunkan tenaga manusia/lalandak )

KETERBATASAN

SRI

1. Membutuhkan tenaga kerja lebih banyak (pada


awalnya)
2. Perlu drainase untuk membuang kelebihan air
3. Lebih banyak waktu untuk untuk mengatur
pengairan
4. Lebih banyak waktu dan tenaga kerja untuk
penyiangan
5. Pembuatan kompos

Hama-hama penting tanaman padi


Penggerek batang padi putih ("sundep", Scirpophaga innotata)
Penggerek batang padi kuning (S. incertulas)
Wereng batang punggung putih (Sogatella furcifera)
Wereng coklat (Nilaparvata lugens)
Wereng hijau (Nephotettix impicticeps)
Lembing hijau (Nezara viridula)
Walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius)
Ganjur (Pachydiplosis oryzae)
Lalat bibit (Arterigona exigua)
Ulat tentara/Ulat grayak (Spodoptera litura dan S. exigua)
Tikus sawah (Rattus argentiventer)

Penyakit-penyakit penting
1. Blas (Pyricularia oryzae, P. grisea)
2. Hawar daun bakteri ("kresek", Xanthomonas oryzae pv.
oryzae)
3. Bercak coklat daun (Helmintosporium oryzae).
4. Garis coklat daun (Cercospora oryzae)
5. Busuk pelepah daun (Rhizoctonia sp)
6. Penyakit fusarium (Fusarium moniliforme)
7. Penyakit noda (Ustilaginoidea virens)
8. Hawar daun (Xanthomonas campestris)
9. Penyakit bakteri daun bergaris (Translucens)
10. Penyakit kerdil (Nilaparvata lugens)
11. Penyakit tungro (Nephotettix impicticeps)

PENGOLAHAN TANAH SAWAH SECARA TRADISIONAL

Lahan sawah
digarap untuk
menanam padi.
Musim tanam padi
dalam setahun bisa
dilakukan 3 kali
tanam, hal ini
dikarenakan
pasokan air yang
cukup untuk area
pesawahan.

Understanding opportunities and increasing implementation of climate friendly conservation


Ryan Stockwell and Eliav Bitan
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2012 vol. 67 no. 3 67A-69A

At the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Soil and Water Conservation Society, the Executive Director
Jim Gulliford announced a new Position Statement on Climate Change and Soil and Water
Conservation:
The Soil and Water Conservation Society finds that soil and water conservation practices can
play a major role in the mitigation of agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and
adaptation to changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns (SWCS 2011). The
National Wildlife Federation agreed with this position in the recent publication, Future Friendly
Farming: Seven Agricultural Practices to Sustain People and the Environment (Stockwell and
Bitan 2011). We found that the seven practices discussed in this publication also improve farmer
profitability thanks to modern tools and knowledge (Stockwell and Bitan 2011).
Adoption of these and other soil and water conservation practices is in relatively early phases.
Early innovators have begun incorporating these practices, but going from minimal adoption rates
to broad or diffuse implementation will require additional information to not only answer farmers'
questions, but to give them the information and encouragement to implement these practices. This
article shares the experience of four early adopters of innovative practices. We hope these stories
will help answer every farmer's first question

HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN

PEMBUATAN & PEMELIHARAAN PESEMAIAN


Cara pengolahan
sawah hampir tak
berubah dari abad ke
abad. Peralatan yang
dipakai hampir sama
dengan peralatan yang
dipakai nenek moyang
mereka.
Ada beberapa proses
pengolahan sawah,
seperti menyemai,
membajak, meratakan
dan menanam.

Does pesticide use in rice production in Arkansas lead to environmental problems?


John Mattice
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation March/April 2010 vol. 65 no. 2 55A

The goal of the study was to determine if pesticide use in rice production in
Arkansas was leading to environmental problems. Four sites on each of four small
rivers in the rice growing area in eastern Arkansas were chosen for sampling from
spring to mid-August each year. Typically, 9 to 12 compounds were chosen based
on recommendations of scientists involved in rice production. The specific
compounds may have changed, but the constant was that there was a reasonable
chance of the compounds being present.
For this study, only concentrations above 2 g L-1 (2 ppb) were used to determine
if nontarget species were being harmed. Eliminating low concentrations makes it
easier to determine meaningful detections on consecutive sampling dates,
frequency of detections, and multiple detections per sample. Although glyphosate
is used in rice production, it was not included in the study because it is also used
in other crops, especially soybean, so results could not be related to rice
production.
Most detections occurred in May, June, and July, when most compounds are
applied. The probability of finding compounds in the L'Anguille and Cache rivers
was 5 to 10 times higher than in the St. Francis River or Lagrue Bayou.

PADI JENIS UNGGUL

Padi Unggul Dewi Sri

Padi Unggul Merdeka

PENYIANGAN TANAMAN PADI MUDA

Apa tujuan
penyiangan
tanaman padi
sawah ini?

IRIGASI
Irigasi merupakan upaya yang dilakukan manusia untuk
mengairi lahan pertanian.
Ada banyak model irigasi yang dapat dilakukan manusia.
Pada zaman dahulu, jika persediaan air melimpah karena
tempat yang dekat dengan sungai atau sumber mata air,
maka irigasi dilakukan dengan mengalirkan air tersebut
ke lahan pertanian.
Irigasi juga dilakukan dengan membawa air dengan
menggunakan wadah kemudian menuangkan pada
tanaman satu per satu. Untuk irigasi dengan model seperti
ini di Indonesia biasa disebut menyiram.

Irigasi Permukaan
Irigasi Permukaan merupakan sistem irigasi yang
menyadap air langsung di sungai melalui bangunan
bendung maupun melalui bangunan pengambilan bebas
(free intake) kemudian air irigasi dialirkan secara
gravitasi melalui saluran sampai ke lahan pertanian.
Dalam irigasi dikenal saluran primer, sekunder, dan
tersier. Pengaturan air ini dilakukan dengan pintu air.
Prosesnya adalah gravitasi, tanah yang tinggi akan
mendapat air lebih dulu.

Irigasi Lokal
Sistem ini air distribusikan dengan cara
pipanisasi. Di sini juga berlaku gravitasi,
di mana lahan yang tinggi mendapat air
lebih dahulu. Namun air yang disebar
hanya terbatas sekali atau secara lokal.

Irigasi dengan Penyemprotan


Penyemprotan biasanya dipakai
penyemprot air atau sprinkle. Air
yang disemprot akan seperti kabut,
sehingga tanaman mendapat air dari
atas, daun akan basah lebih dahulu,
kemudian menetes ke akar.

Irigasi Tradisional dengan Ember


Di sini diperlukan tenaga kerja secara
perorangan yang banyak sekali. Di
samping itu juga pemborosan tenaga
kerja yang harus menenteng ember.

Irigasi Pompa Air


Air diambil dari sumur dalam dan dinaikkan
melalui pompa air, kemudian dialirkan dengan
berbagai cara, misalnya dengan pipa atau
saluran. Pada musim kemarau irigasi ini dapat
terus mengairi sawah.

Irigasi Pasang-Surut di Sumatera,


Kalimantan, dan Papua
Dengan memanfaatkan pasang-surut air di wilayah
Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Papua dikenal apa yang
dinamakan Irigasi Pasang-Surat (Tidal Irrigation).
Teknologi yang diterapkan di sini adalah: pemanfaatan
lahan pertanian di dataran rendah dan daerah rawarawa, di mana air diperoleh dari sungai pasang-surut di
mana pada waktu pasang air dimanfaatkan.
Di sini dalam dua minggu diperoleh 4 sampai 5 waktu
pada air pasang.

Irigasi Tanah Kering atau Irigasi Tetes


Di lahan kering, air sangat langka dan pemanfaatannya
harus efisien. Jumlah air irigasi yang diberikan
ditetapkan berdasarkan kebutuhan tanaman, kemampuan
tanah memegang air, serta sarana irigasi yang tersedia.
Ada beberapa sistem irigasi untuk tanah kering, yaitu:
(1) irigasi tetes (drip irrigation),
(2) irigasi curah (sprinkler irrigation),
(3) irigasi saluran terbuka (open ditch irrigation), dan
(4) irigasi bawah permukaan (subsurface irrigation).
Untuk penggunaan air yang efisien, irigasi tetes [3] merupakan
salah satu alternatif. Misal sistem irigasi tetes adalah pada tanaman
cabai.

CARA MEMUPUK PADI SAWAH SECARA


BENAR

Utilizing spatial technology as a decision-assist tool for precision grading of salt-affected soils
M. B. Daniels, S. L. Chapman, and W. Teague
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2002 vol. 57 no. 3 134-143

Precision land leveling can expose subsurface soil layers that have elevated levels of
exchangeable sodium and can deposit this sodium-laden material on the original soil
surface in other parts of the field. Results from two case studies where a geographic
information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) were utilized to assist
with land-leveling decisions for soils containing elevated soluble salts and sodium are
discussed.
In both cases, the spatial distribution of Na, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP),
and electrical conductivity (EC) were overlain with maps depicting the pattern of
removal and re-deposition of soil. From this analysis, an estimate of the potential
sodium hazard that might result from precision grading was determined. Decisions
derived from traditional, composite sampling were compared to decisions made with
site-specific technology. The spatial technology approach utilized in this work
provided decision makers with reasonable assurance about their precision grading
decisions apriori.

TEKNOLOGI APLIKASI PUPUK PADI SAWAH


Pemupukan Berimbang Tanaman Padi Sawah
Untuk Persemaian :
Urea 1 Genggam untuk satu M persemaian
SP 36 1 Genggam untuk satu M persemaian
KCl = 1,5 Kg / Piring Upahan
ZA = 1,5 Kg / Piring Upahan
Pupuk I (Pupuk Dasar) Diberikan sebelum atau sesudah
tanam
Urea = 1,5 Kg / Piring Upahan
SP 36 = 3 Kg / Piring Upahan
KCl = 1,5 Kg / Piring Upahan
ZA = 1 Kg / Piring Upahan
Pupuk II (Pupuk Susulan I) Diberikan waktu siang
pertama
Urea = 2 Kg / Piring Upahan
SP 36 = - Kg / Piring Upahan
KCl = - Kg / Piring Upahan
ZA = 0,5 Kg / Piring Upahan
Pupuk III (Pupuk Susulan II) Diberikan waktu siang
kedua
Urea = 1,5 Kg / Piring Upahan
SP 36 = - Kg / Piring Upahan
KCl = - Kg / Piring Upahan
ZA = - Kg / Piring Upahan

SISTEM TANAH-AIR-TANAMAN

PADI SAWAH

TRANSPOR AIR:
Tanah Tanaman - Atmosfir
Air bergerak dari tanah, melalui akar, batang, daun,
memasuki atmosfer
Laju aliran air ini merupakan fungsi
F (selisih potensial, resistensi)
Potential unit name

Corresponding value

Water height (cm)

10

100

1000

15850

pF (-)

4.2

Bar (bar)

0.001

0.01

0.1

15.85

Pascal (Pa)

100

1000

10000

10000

1585000

Kilo Pascal (kPa)

0.1

10

100

1585

Mega Pascal (MPa)

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

1.585

Potential air bernilai positif dalam kondisi free liquid


water
Potential dalam sistem tanah-tanaman-atmosfir bernilai
negatif
(dalam tanah sawah tergenang, potential air positif)
Air bergerak dari potential tinggi (top of hill) menuju ke
potential rendah (bottom of hill)
Tegangan adalah potential: air bergerak dari tegangan
rendah menuju tegangan tinggi

Potential = 0
Potential is +
Potential = Potential = 0
Potential = +

Quantification of El Nio Southern Oscillation impact on precipitation and streamflows for


improved management of water resources in Alabama
V. Sharda, P. Srivastava, K. Ingram, M. Chelliah and L. Kalin
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2012 vol. 67 no. 3 158-172
There is increased pressure on the water resources of the southeastern United States due to the
rapidly growing population of the region. This pressure is further exacerbated by the severe
seasonal to interannual climate variability this region experiences, most of which has been
attributed to the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Understanding the regional impacts of
ENSO on precipitation and streamflow is a valuable tool for water resource managers in the
region. This study was undertaken to develop a clear picture of the effect of ENSO on observed
precipitation and streamflow anomalies in Alabama to help managers in the state with decision
making. The effect of ENSO on precipitation in eight climate divisions of Alabama was assessed
using 59 years (1950 to 2008) of monthly historical data. In addition, eight unimpaired streams
(one in each climate division) were selected to study the relationship between ENSO and
streamflow. Results indicate a significant relationship between ENSO and precipitation as well as
between ENSO and streamflow. However, different parts of the state respond differently to
ENSO. For precipitation, it was found that the relationship is significant during winter months
with dry conditions being associated with La Nia in the southern climate divisions. A fairly
strong relationship was also found during other months. Streamflows show high variability and
positive correlation during winter months in the southern climate divisions. The results obtained
can provide a basis for water resource managers in Alabama to incorporate climate variability
caused by ENSO in their decision making related to soil and water conservation.

The unsaturated soil


pulls at the water and
potential is negative

Water potential in the flooded rice soil

When a paddy rice field falls dry, the soil water potential
becomes negative and decreases

Positive water potential

Negative water potential

Potential during the growing season in an aerobic soil


(aerobic rice, Changping, China, 2002)

Each soil type has a specific relationship between the


content and the potential of water: the pF curve
7

Soil water
tension (pF= log(h))
Tension
(pF

6
Clay

5
4
Sand

3
2
1
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
3
-3
3
-3
Content
(cmcontent
water (cm
cm cm
soil))
Soil water

A clay soil stores much water, but at a high tension, so it is


difficult for the roots to extract
A sandy soil holds little water, but at a low tension, so it is
easy for the roots to extract
A medium-textured, loamy soil, holds intermediate levels of
water at intermediate tensions, so there is relatively much
water for extraction by roots
No issue for flooded rice soil, but becomes an issue when a
soil falls dry during a dry spell

Leaf
Stem
Root

Example of potentials in soil-plant-atmosphere system


Potentials drop with each added resistance

Potential of water in the atmosphere (above leaves) drives the


potential transpiration rate, which is
f(radiation, wind speed, vapor pressure, temperature).
A hot sunny day => pulls hard at water from plant
Potential of water in the soil is determined by the soil
properties (texture, SOM,..) and water content:
Clay soil pulls hard at water
Sand soil pulls softly at water
Much water: high potential
Little water: low potential
A dry clay soil pulls hard at water (difficult to take up by roots)

CEKAMAN KEKERINGAN
When the soil is too dry (high soil water tension), it becomes
too difficult for roots to take up water and water flow in the
plant gets reduced:
Reduced transpiration
Reduced photosynthesis
Reduced leaf area expansion
Leaf rolling
Accelerated leaf death
Spikelet sterility

Reduced transpiration as function of soil water


tension (IR72)
leaf (Tact/Tpot)

Soil water tension

Link between transpiration and photosynthesis

Leaf rolling
Leaf rolling factor (-)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1

10

100

1000

10000

Soil water tension (kPa)

Rolled leaves => less canopy photosynthesis

Managing soil denitrification


A. R. Mosier,
J. W. Doran, and
J. R. Freney
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2002 vol. 57 no. 6 505-512
Denitrification of nitrate in the soil can be a mechanism of significant loss of fertilizer and soil
nitrogen, but it can also serve to remove excess NO3 that is leached below the root zone.
Inappropriate management of irrigation water and fertilizer N in irrigated corn has resulted in
leaching of excess N from the rooting zone and contamination of groundwater and also has
contributed to the increasing concentration of N2O in the atmosphere. Denitrification can be both
microbial and chemical, but the microbial process dominates in most soils through a stepwise
reduction of NO3 to N2. Soil atmosphere O2 concentration, which is regulated by soil water
content interactively with soil texture and microbial respiration, is the main controller of the
process. The oxygen consumption rate depends on the amount of easily degradable organic C
compounds and the interplay of water and carbon in developing in the soil reduced oxic
conditions, which regulate not only the amount of total denitrification but also the ratio of N 2O to
N2 produced. Appropriate management of nutrient input, relative to crop demand and soil water
status, can limit nitrogen loss from denitrification. This paper describes the role of denitrification
in the nitrogen economy of crop production and the environment, describes the process involved,
and presents suggestions for limiting N loss caused by denitrification.

Spikelet sterility
Turner (1986): relationship between leaf
rolling increased canopy temperature

Spikelet sterility

Less grains

Less yield

An economic risk analysis of no-till management and rental arrangements in Arkansas rice
production
K.B. Watkins, J.L. Hill, and M.M. Anders
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation July/August 2008 vol. 63 no. 4 242-250
Rice is a major cash crop for eastern Arkansas and generally involves intensive cultivation.
Sediment is the primary pollutant identified for most eastern Arkansas waterways, and
conservation practices like no-till are commonly recommended as remedial mechanisms. The
profitability of no-till rice has been investigated, but the main emphasis has been on comparing
mean returns of no-till to conventional till without consideration for return variability.
Profitability in these studies is also evaluated from the prospective of the producer only, despite
the fact that most cropland is owned by someone other than the producer. This study evaluates the
profitability and risk efficiency of no-till management in Arkansas rice production from both the
perspective of the tenant and the landlord using simulation and stochastic efficiency with respect
to a function. Crop yields and prices are simulated for a typical two-year rice-soybean rotation,
and tenant and landlord net return distributions are constructed for popular rental arrangements
used in eastern Arkansas rice production. The results indicate that both the tenant and the landlord
can benefit monetarily from no-till management. Risk-neutral and risk-averse tenants would both
benefit from no-till management as no-till increases mean (expected) returns for risk-neutral
tenants and results in large risk premiums over conventional till for risk-averse tenants. Riskneutral landlords would be indifferent between either no-till or conventional till management
because mean returns are essentially the same for both tillage methods. Risk-averse landlords
would have a slight preference for no-till, since no-till risk premiums tend to be positive with
increasing levels of risk aversion. However, no-till risk premiums are modest for risk-averse

Accelerated leaf death


Drought-induced leaf death factor factor (-)

1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1

10

100

1000

10000

Soil water tension (kPa)

Dead leaves => less canopy photosynthesis

Summary effects of soil water tension; IR72


1.2

Reduction factor (-)

Leaf death
Leaf photosynthesis,
transpiration
photosynthesis
Leaf rolling,
Spikelet sterility

0.8
0.6
0.4

Leaf expansion,

0.2
0
1

10

100

1000

10000

Soil water tension (kPa)

EFEK KEKERINGAN
Soil moisture tension
Less canopy
transpiration

Reduced leaf
expansion

Less
leaves

Less canopy
photosynthesis

Reduced
partitioning to
shoot
Reduced leaf
photosynthesis,
transpiration
Leaf rolling
Spikelet sterility
Accelerated leaf
death

Less light
interception

Less
biomass

Less grains
Less yield

OToole, 1984

Effect of timing of drought: most sensitive at flowering

Moderate drought in early growth stages

Soil and nutrient retention in winter-flooded ricefields with implications for watershed
management
S.W. Manley, R.M. Kaminski, P.B. Rodrigue, J.C. Dewey, S.H. Schoenholtz, P.D. Gerard and
K.J. Reinecke
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2009 vol. 64 no. 3 173-182
The ability of water resources to support aquatic life and human needs depends, in part, on
reducing nonpoint source pollution amid contemporary agricultural practices. Winter retention of
shallow water on rice and other agricultural fields is an accepted management practice for wildlife
conservation; however, soil and water conservation benefits are not well documented. We
evaluated the ability of four post-harvest ricefield treatment combinations (stubble-flooded,
stubble-open, disked-flooded and disked-open) to abate nonpoint source exports into watersheds
of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Total suspended solid exports were 1,121 kg ha -1 (1,000 lb ac-1)
from disked-open fields where rice stubble was disked after harvest and fields were allowed to
drain, compared with 35 kg ha-1 (31 lb ac-1) from stubble-flooded fields where stubble was left
standing after harvest and fields captured rainfall from November 1 to March 1. Estimates of total
suspended solid exports from ricefields based on Landsat imagery and USDA crop data are 0.43
and 0.40 Mg km-2 day-1 in the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille watersheds, respectively. Estimated
reductions in total suspended solid exports from ricefields into the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille
watersheds range from 26% to 64% under hypothetical scenarios in which 65% to 100% of the
rice production area is managed to capture winter rainfall. Winter ricefield management reduced
nonpoint source export by decreasing concentrations of solids and nutrients in, and reducing
runoff volume from, ricefields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

Leaf rolling in early growth stages

Conservation practices to mitigate and adapt to climate change


Jorge A. Delgado, Peter M. Groffman, Mark A. Nearing, Tom Goddard,
Don Reicosky, Rattan Lal, Newell R. Kitchen, Charles W. Rice,
Dan Towery and Paul Salon
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation July/August 2011 vol. 66 no. 4 118A-129A
Climate change, in combination with the expanding human population, presents a formidable food
security challenge: how will we feed a world population that is expected to grow by an additional
2.4 billion people by 2050? Population growth and the dynamics of climate change will also
exacerbate other issues, such as desertification, deforestation, erosion, degradation of water
quality, and depletion of water resources, further complicating the challenge of food security.
These factors, together with the fact that energy prices may increase in the future, which will
increase the cost of agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer and fuel, make the future of food security
a major concern.
Additionally, it has been reported that climate change can increase potential erosion rates, which
can lower agricultural productivity by 10% to 20% (or more in extreme cases). Climate change
could contribute to higher temperatures and evapotranspiration and lower precipitation across
some regions. This will add additional pressure to draw irrigation water from some already
overexploited aquifers, where the rate of water recharge is lower than the withdrawal rates. These
and other water issues exacerbated by climate change present a serious concern because, on
average, irrigated system yields are frequently double those of nonirrigated systems.

Severe drought in early growth stages

Severe drought in upper field near Roi Et, Oct. 2004

Soil and nutrient retention in winter-flooded ricefields with implications for watershed
management
S.W. Manley, R.M. Kaminski, P.B. Rodrigue, J.C. Dewey, S.H. Schoenholtz, P.D. Gerard and
K.J. Reinecke
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2009 vol. 64 no. 3 173-182
The ability of water resources to support aquatic life and human needs depends, in part, on
reducing nonpoint source pollution amid contemporary agricultural practices. Winter retention of
shallow water on rice and other agricultural fields is an accepted management practice for wildlife
conservation; however, soil and water conservation benefits are not well documented. We
evaluated the ability of four post-harvest ricefield treatment combinations (stubble-flooded,
stubble-open, disked-flooded and disked-open) to abate nonpoint source exports into watersheds
of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Total suspended solid exports were 1,121 kg ha -1 (1,000 lb ac-1)
from disked-open fields where rice stubble was disked after harvest and fields were allowed to
drain, compared with 35 kg ha-1 (31 lb ac-1) from stubble-flooded fields where stubble was left
standing after harvest and fields captured rainfall from November 1 to March 1. Estimates of total
suspended solid exports from ricefields based on Landsat imagery and USDA crop data are 0.43
and 0.40 Mg km-2 day-1 in the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille watersheds, respectively. Estimated
reductions in total suspended solid exports from ricefields into the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille
watersheds range from 26% to 64% under hypothetical scenarios in which 65% to 100% of the
rice production area is managed to capture winter rainfall. Winter ricefield management reduced
nonpoint source export by decreasing concentrations of solids and nutrients in, and reducing
runoff volume from, ricefields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

SMJ

RD15

Severe drought

PENANAMAN PADI SISTEM LEGOWO

Pola Tanam
Pada areal beririgasi, lahan dapat
ditanami padi 3 x setahun, tetapi pada
sawah tadah hujan harus dilakukan
pergiliran tanaman dengan palawija.
Pergiliran tanaman ini juga dilakukan
pada lahan beririgasi, biasanya
setelah satu tahun menanam padi.
Untuk meningkatkan produktivitas
lahan, seringkali dilakukan tumpang
sari dengan tanaman semusim
lainnya, misalnya padi gogo
dengan jagung atau padi gogo di
antara ubi kayu dan kacang tanah.
Pada pertanaman padi sawah,
tanaman tumpang sari ditanam
di pematang sawah, biasanya berupa
kacang-kacangan.

Small-Scale Agriculture in Southeast Asia


Gerald G. Marten
In M.A. Altieri and S. Hecht (eds.), Agroecology and Small Farm Development (CRC Press. 1990), p. 177194.

Terraced Rice Paddies


Paddy field preparation begins in October by using a spade to turn over weeds and rice stalks from the previous harvest,
trampling them into the mud to rot. The field is then harrowed. A man stands on the spike harrowing board as a buffalo pulls
it through the mud, scattering decaying rice stalks so they cannot take root. The field is then flooded so the farmers can level
the mud with the palms of their hands. Communal labor groups clean out irrigation canals at this time.
Mud from the paddy fields is packed on top of the bunds surrounding the fields and against all paddy field margins to plug
holes and improve the moisture seal of the field. Taro is planted along the terrace top or laced on the rims of the paddy field.
Beans or sweet potatoes may be planted at the sides of the bunds. A few weeks later it is time to weed the empty paddy fields
again. The stone walls of the terraces are also weeded (with a trowel), and rat holes are stuffed with weeds. Weeds are
collected from slopes immediately above the field, thrown into the fields and trampled into the mud. Pig manure compost is
brought from the village in baskets and mixed into the mud.
Seedbeds are established in paddy fields with a history of high fertility and a water supply that will not be interrupted by
paddy field preparation and cleaning of irrigation canals. A small section of a field is blocked off for the seedbed, so it can be
drained even when the rest of the field is flooded. The seedbed is strewn with rice husks, dried bean pods, and sunflower
leaves and stems, which are trampled into the mud to rot. Rice pannicles with the largest quantity of grain are chosen for the
seedbed during the previous harvest.
Seedbeds are planted in November to January; pannicles about a foot in length are pushed into the mud and bent so the rice
grains lie flat on the ground. Water is temporarily drained from the seedbed so the pannicles do not float. The seedbed is
flooded with 1 to 2 cm of water, which discourages animals such as rats and birds from eating the seedlings. If the seedlings
do not appear healthy, ashes are spread around them to increase the fertility of the bed.

Small-Scale Agriculture in Southeast Asia


Gerald G. Marten
In M.A. Altieri and S. Hecht (eds.), Agroecology and Small Farm Development (CRC Press. 1990), p. 177194.

Terraced Rice Paddies


Seedlings are ready for transplanting in February and March. In preparation, paddy fields receive their final smoothing,
kneading, and leveling. The earth is reworked with a harrow or spading fork and subjected to another puddling with the feet.
The field is drained, and the top 12 to 15 cm of soil is given a final working and leveling either with the hands or with a board
that is dragged around the field by a buffalo. Farmers believe that mud in shallower water is warmer and enhances growth and
flowering of the rice plants.
Women do the transplanting in groups. While some plaster mud on the margins of the fields, others bring bundles of five or
six pannicles (approximately 100 to 150 seedlings) from the seedbeds. (Seedlings from seedbeds with nematodes are not
used.) Different rice varieties are planted in different fields. For example, one variety does best in paddy fields that were
drained during the fallow while another variety does better in fields that could not be drained.
The women tear the top leaves off the seedlings as they plant them. This is said to make the rice plant mature faster, perhaps
by reducing transpiration and making the seedlings more resistant to drought. Shorter seedlings are also more resistant to
being blown over by wind. The seedlings are pushed into the mud 10 to 15 cm apart with only the top 10 to 12 cm above the
surface. High tillering varieties and high fertility paddies are planted less densely (i.e., 15 cm spacing). Seedlings that die
after transplanting are replaced by seedlings from other parts of the field or from other fields.
A continuous supply of water is essential once the rice is transplanted. There is a village system of water rotation among the
fields, but each household finds it advisable to oversee personally the delivery of water to its fields, in order to ensure its fair
share. Disputes may arise and tempers wear thin as the season progresses and the supply of water diminishes.

Small-Scale Agriculture in Southeast Asia


Gerald G. Marten
In M.A. Altieri and S. Hecht (eds.), Agroecology and Small Farm Development (CRC Press. 1990), p. 177194.

Rainfed Upland Fields


Upland fields are typically a mixture of interplanted crops of various heights. The lowest layer consists of
creeping plants such as peanuts, soybeans, cucumbers, and melon. Above them are taller vegetables such as
chili peppers and eggplant. The top layer is occupied by maize, tobacco, cassava, or leguminous vines (e.g.,
wingbean or longbean) supported by bamboo poles. The field may also contain scattered fruit or other trees
(e.g., Albizia).

Field preparation is in August. Farmers first weed the field and till the soil
with a hoe. They cut down any unwanted perennial vegetation and leave the
slash to dry. Litter, leaves, and slash are burned in small piles at the end of
August. Different fields may contain completely different groups of crops,
but each consists of crops which the farmers have found by experience to be
compatible with one another. For example, bananas, sweet potatoes, peanuts,
corn, and beans can be grown together, but cassava cannot be included
because it will crowd out the other crops.

Small-Scale Agriculture in Southeast Asia


Gerald G. Marten
In M.A. Altieri and S. Hecht (eds.), Agroecology and Small Farm Development (CRC Press. 1990), p. 177194.

Example of a homegarden
layout in the uplands of
West Java. (From
Christanty, L., Abdoellah,
O. S., Marten, G. G., and
Iskandar, J., in Traditional
Agriculture in Southeast
Asia, Marten, G. G., Ed.,
Westview Press, Boulder,
CO, 1986, 132.)

http://colorofbali.com/?p=172

Lahan sawah berteras untuk konservasi tanah dan air

Soil and nutrient retention in winter-flooded ricefields with implications for watershed
management
S.W. Manley, R.M. Kaminski, P.B. Rodrigue, J.C. Dewey, S.H. Schoenholtz, P.D. Gerard and K.J. Reinecke
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2009 vol. 64 no. 3 173-182

The ability of water resources to support aquatic life and human needs depends, in part, on
reducing nonpoint source pollution amid contemporary agricultural practices. Winter retention of
shallow water on rice and other agricultural fields is an accepted management practice for
wildlife conservation; however, soil and water conservation benefits are not well documented.
We evaluated the ability of four post-harvest ricefield treatment combinations (stubble-flooded,
stubble-open, disked-flooded and disked-open) to abate nonpoint source exports into watersheds
of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Total suspended solid exports were 1,121 kg ha-1 (1,000 lb ac1
) from disked-open fields where rice stubble was disked after harvest and fields were allowed to
drain, compared with 35 kg ha-1 (31 lb ac-1) from stubble-flooded fields where stubble was left
standing after harvest and fields captured rainfall from November 1 to March 1. Estimates of
total suspended solid exports from ricefields based on Landsat imagery and USDA crop data are
0.43 and 0.40 Mg km-2 day-1 in the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille watersheds, respectively.
Estimated reductions in total suspended solid exports from ricefields into the Big Sunflower and
L'Anguille watersheds range from 26% to 64% under hypothetical scenarios in which 65% to
100% of the rice production area is managed to capture winter rainfall. Winter ricefield
management reduced nonpoint source export by decreasing concentrations of solids and
nutrients in, and reducing runoff volume from, ricefields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

An economic risk analysis of no-till management and rental arrangements in Arkansas rice
production
K.B. Watkins, J.L. Hill, and M.M. Anders
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation July/August 2008 vol. 63 no. 4 242-250
Rice is a major cash crop for eastern Arkansas and generally involves intensive cultivation. Sediment is the
primary pollutant identified for most eastern Arkansas waterways, and conservation practices like no-till are
commonly recommended as remedial mechanisms. The profitability of no-till rice has been investigated, but
the main emphasis has been on comparing mean returns of no-till to conventional till without consideration for
return variability. Profitability in these studies is also evaluated from the prospective of the producer only,
despite the fact that most cropland is owned by someone other than the producer. This study evaluates the
profitability and risk efficiency of no-till management in Arkansas rice production from both the perspective of
the tenant and the landlord using simulation and stochastic efficiency with respect to a function. Crop yields
and prices are simulated for a typical two-year rice-soybean rotation, and tenant and landlord net return
distributions are constructed for popular rental arrangements used in eastern Arkansas rice production. The
results indicate that both the tenant and the landlord can benefit monetarily from no-till management. Riskneutral and risk-averse tenants would both benefit from no-till management as no-till increases mean
(expected) returns for risk-neutral tenants and results in large risk premiums over conventional till for riskaverse tenants. Risk-neutral landlords would be indifferent between either no-till or conventional till
management because mean returns are essentially the same for both tillage methods. Risk-averse landlords
would have a slight preference for no-till, since no-till risk premiums tend to be positive with increasing levels
of risk aversion. However, no-till risk premiums are modest for risk-averse landlords, implying that risk would
play less of a role for the landlord than for the tenant when considering the use of no-till management on
rented land.

Soil and nutrient retention in winter-flooded ricefields with implications for watershed
management
S.W. Manley, R.M. Kaminski, P.B. Rodrigue, J.C. Dewey, S.H. Schoenholtz, P.D. Gerard and K.J.
Reinecke
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2009 vol. 64 no. 3 173-182
The ability of water resources to support aquatic life and human needs depends, in part, on
reducing nonpoint source pollution amid contemporary agricultural practices. Winter retention of
shallow water on rice and other agricultural fields is an accepted management practice for wildlife
conservation; however, soil and water conservation benefits are not well documented. We
evaluated the ability of four post-harvest ricefield treatment combinations (stubble-flooded,
stubble-open, disked-flooded and disked-open) to abate nonpoint source exports into watersheds
of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Total suspended solid exports were 1,121 kg ha -1 (1,000 lb ac-1)
from disked-open fields where rice stubble was disked after harvest and fields were allowed to
drain, compared with 35 kg ha-1 (31 lb ac-1) from stubble-flooded fields where stubble was left
standing after harvest and fields captured rainfall from November 1 to March 1. Estimates of total
suspended solid exports from ricefields based on Landsat imagery and USDA crop data are 0.43
and 0.40 Mg km-2 day-1 in the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille watersheds, respectively. Estimated
reductions in total suspended solid exports from ricefields into the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille
watersheds range from 26% to 64% under hypothetical scenarios in which 65% to 100% of the
rice production area is managed to capture winter rainfall. Winter ricefield management reduced
nonpoint source export by decreasing concentrations of solids and nutrients in, and reducing
runoff volume from, ricefields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.