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SANITARY PIPEWORK -Piping System

Pipe system includes network of pipes and valves, which


are :i. MAIN PIPE : Delivers water from treatment plant
to distribution tank or directly to distribution
area.
ii. FEEDER PIPE : Directly connected to a main pipe
for distribution of water to industrial or
residential
areas.
iii. BRANCH PIPE : From feeder pipe to individual
house, building, factory or fire hydrant.
iv. VALVE : needed to control water flow rate, stop
water flow,
release trapped air in pipe,
balance pressure in pipe
and remove
effluents.

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SANITARY PIPEWORK -Piping System

Head loss or energy loss


during distribution to
consumers is caused by the
followings :
i.Differences in pipe size.
ii.Change of flow direction.
iii.Friction.
iv.Difference of level (Gradient).

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Factors of Head Loss in Pipes

I. DIFFERENCES IN PIPE SIZE

a. Change in sizes, from big to smaller


diameter

b. Change in sizes, from small to bigger


diameter

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Factors of Head Loss in Pipes

ii. CHANGE OF DIRECTION


Change of flow direction in pipe causes head loss.

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Factors of Head Loss in Pipes

iii. FRICTION
Head loss due friction is the major energy loss in pipe.
Long length of pipe in the piping system causes high head
loss, while large diameter pipe can reduce head loss.
Head loss in pipe is energy lost due to friction between
water and the inner surface of the pipe.
Therefore, the flow is reduced and this factor
contributes to head loss in pipe.

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Factors of Head Loss in Pipes

iv. GRADIENT
When water is delivered through
distribution pipe from higher to
lower positions, it experiences head
loss due to friction, difference in pipe
sizes and change of directions.

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Factors of Head Loss in Pipes

TYPE OF FLOW
There are 3 types of flow in a pipe :i.Laminar flow
ii.Turbulent flow
iii.Transition flow
The types of flow depend on the velocity, density and
the diameter of pipe.

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Fluid Flow

TURBULE
NT

Is flow of particles
which gains high
kinetic energy and
move erratically.

LAMINAR

Is flow of fluid
particles moving
in single line
parallel to each
other.

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Fluid Flow

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SANITARY PIPEWORK

BUILDIN
G
SEWAGE
WASTE
FITTING

SOIL
FITTING
SOIL
DISCHARGE

WASTE
DISCHARGE
PIPING SYSTEM
SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT
TREATED
WATER
ENVIRONMENT

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Soil and Waste Water Flowchart

Discharge pipe consists of single stack, branching and vent pipe.


Single stack pipe is installed vertically to ease discharge of soil
and waste water.
Branching pipe is connected from sanitary fitting with single stack
pipe.
Vent pipe to released compressed air.
There are 3 systems employed in the installation of soil and
waste water discharge pipes :i.Single stack system.
ii.Single pipe system.
iii.Dual pipe system.

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Discharge Pipe

(Main Pipe)

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1. System where only 1 pipe is required


and it does not need vent pipe as it
can function as vent pipe.
2. Discharge in branching pipes fro
sanitary fitting are transferred into
single stack pipe.
3. The flow is then drained into the
drainage pipe.
4. The system is appropriate for multistorey buildings.
5. Sanitary fitting should be installed
near the single stack pipe to reduce
the length of the branching pipe and
minimum the sound of flow in the
pipe.
6. The sanitary fitting should be
connected to the single stack pipe
separately.
7. This system is easy to install.

Single Stack System

1. Use only 1 pipe in collecting and


draining discharge.
(Main Pipe)

2. All sanitary fittings are connected to 1


pipe only. Connection is made at the
branching pipe.
3. The single stack vent pipes release
compressed air that may have trapped
at the base of waste and wastewater
single stack pipe.
4. The vent branching pipe connects the
single stack vent pipe to the sanitary
fitting.
5. All sanitary fitting should be installed
near a main pipe.

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Single Pipe System

1. This system uses 2 single stack pipes,


one for waste and the others is for soil.
2. Both of the single stack pipes have
individual ventilation system.
3. The waste discharge pipe drains
wastewater from the shower tray, WB
and bathtub.

(Soil Main Pipe)

(Waste Main Pipe)

4. The soil discharge pipe drains soil


water from the WC and urinal.
5. The single stack pipe is then connected
to the underground drainage pipe.
6. This system is suitable when the waste
fitting is located far from the waste
water fitting.

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Dual pipe System

System Types of Pipes Advantag


es

Disadvantages

Dual
Pipe

1. Waste single
stack pipe
2. Soil single
stack pipe

1. More
effective
drainage

1.Require two types


of pipe
2. Complicated
installation work

Single
Pipe

1. Waste and soil


single stack
pipe
2. Vent pipe

1. Require
only one
main pipe
2. Easier to
install

1. Vent pipe
installation is
complicated
2. Require more
pipelines for vent
pipe

Single
Stack

1. Waste and soil


single stack pipe

1. Require
only one
single stack
pipe

1. Ventilation is less
efficient

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Comparison of Discharge Pipe Systems