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motion

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AND A SPHERE

The flow of fluid relative to an infinitely long

cylinder, a spherical particle and a non-spherical

particle is considered, followed by a discussion of

the motion of particles in both gravitational and

centrifugal fields.

For a non-viscous fluid flowing past a cylinder,

as shown in Figure 3.1, the velocity and direction

of flow varies around the circumference. Thus at

A and D the fluid is brought to rest and at B and C

the velocity is at a maximum.

Since the fluid is non-viscous, there is no drag,

and an velocity gradient = exists at the surface

of the cylinder.

small, the sum of the kinetic energy and the

pressure energy is constant at all points on the

surface according to Bernoulli equation.

and zero at A and D, so that the pressure falls

from A to B and from A to C and rises again

from B to D and from C to D; the pressure at A

and D being the same.

No net force is therefore exerted by the fluid on

the cylinder.

It is found that, although the predicted pressure

variation for a non-viscous fluid = results

obtained with a viscous fluid over the front

face, very considerable differences occur at the

rear face.

the fluid is retarded in the boundary layer which

is formed near the surface and that the

boundary layer increases in thickness with

increase in distance from the leading edge.

If the pressure in the direction of flow, the

retardation of the fluid and the boundary layer

is thinner in consequence.

If the pressure , however, the retardation

and the thickness of the boundary layer

increases more rapidly.

the boundary layer may then be sufficient to

cause flow in the reverse direction with the

result that an eddy current is set up.

A region of reverse flow then exists near the

surface where the boundary layer has

separated as shown in Figure 3.2.

At any position after separation point, the

velocity rises from zero at the surface to a

maximum negative value and falls again to

zero.

dp/dx < 0

dU/dx > 0

dp/dx = 0

dU/dx = 0

dp/dx > 0

dU/dx < 0

As if all shapes of

curves were

pushed upward

dp/dx > 0

dU/dx < 0

reaches the main stream velocity at the edge of

the boundary layer, as shown in Figure 3.2.

At PQ the velocity in the X-direction is zero and

the direction of flow in the eddies is clockwise

For the flow of a viscous fluid past the cylinder,

the pressure decreases from A to B and also

from A to C so that the boundary layer is thin

and the flow is similar to that obtained with a

non-viscous fluid.

rising and therefore the boundary layer rapidly

thickens with the result that it tends to separate

from the surface

If separation occurs, eddies are formed in the

wake of the cylinder and energy is thereby

dissipated and an additional force, known as

form drag, is set up.

In this way, on the forward surface of the

cylinder, the pressure distribution is similar to

that obtained with the fluid of zero viscosity.

boundary layer is thickening rapidly and pressure

variations are very different in the 2 cases

Therefore, there are two force components: the

skin friction (or viscous drag) and the form drag

(due to the pressure distribution).

At low velocity, no separation of the boundary

layer takes place, although as the velocity is

increased, separation occurs and the skin friction

gradually decreases

or if turbulence is artificially induced, the flow

within the boundary layer will change from

streamline to turbulent before separation takes

place.

Since the rate of transfer of momentum through

a fluid in turbulent motion >> that in a fluid

flowing under streamline conditions, separation

is less likely to occur, because the fast-moving

fluid outside the boundary layer is able to keep

the fluid within the boundary layer moving in the

forward direction.

nearer to D in Figure 3.1, the resulting eddies

are smaller.

Turbulence may arise either from an increased

fluid velocity or from artificial roughening of the

forward face of the immersed body.

Prandtl roughened the forward face of a sphere

in which sand particles have been stuck to the

front face, as shown in Figure 3.3, with the

result that the drag was considerably reduced.

positive and

negative relative

to Pinfinity (see next

slide)

low velocities relative to the sphere (Re < 0.2),

the drag force F on the particle was obtained by

Stokes who solved the hydrodynamic equations

of motion, the NavierStokes equations, to give:

.

Equation 3.1, which is known as Stokes law is

applicable only at very low values of the particle

Reynolds number and deviations become

progressively greater as Re' increases.

particle are similar to those relative to a

cylinder, except that the flow pattern is 3D.

The flow is characterised by the Reynolds

number Re'(= ud/) in which is the density

of the fluid, is the viscosity of the fluid, d is

the diameter of the sphere, and u is the

velocity of the fluid relative to the particle.

SPHERICAL PARTICLE

3.3.1. Drag coefficients

The most satisfactory way of representing the

relation between drag force and velocity

involves the use of two dimensionless groups.

The first group is the particle Reynolds number

Re' (= ud/).

The second is the group R'/u2, in which R' is

the force per unit projected area of particle in a

plane perpendicular to the direction of motion.

circle of the same diameter as the sphere.

denoted by the symbol CD'. Frequently, a drag

coefficient CD is defined as the ratio of R' to

1/2 u2.

(equation 3.1), then:

very low values of the Reynolds number Re'

(Re < 0.2) (region a in Figure 3.4)

Goldstein(2) has shown that, for values of Re'

up to about 2, the relation between R'/u2 and

Re' is given by an infinite series of which

equation 3.5 is just the first term.

Laminar BL and

Laminar BL and

slight separation

no separation

Laminar BL and

large separation

turbulent BL

and reduced

separation area

equation 3.6 and equation 3.7 are given in

Table 3.1. It is seen that the correction

becomes progressively greater as Re'

increases.

conveniently given in graphical form by means

of a logarithmic plot as shown in Figure 3.4.

The graph may be divided into four regions as

shown.

Region (a) (104 < Re' < 0.2)

In this region, the relationship between R'/u2

and Re' is a straight line of slope 1

represented by equation 3.5:

.

In this region, the slope of the curve changes

progressively from 1 to 0 as Re' increases.

Several workers have suggested approximate

equations for flow in this intermediate region.

Dallavelle(6) proposed that R'/u2 may be

regarded as being composed of two component

parts, one due to Stokes law and the other, a

constant, due to additional non-viscous effects.

simple equation which gives a reasonable

approximation for values of Re' up to about

1000:

.

Region (c) (5001000 < Re' < 2 105)

In this region, Newtons law is applicable and

the value of R'/u2 is approximately constant:

.

When Re' exceeds about 2 105, the flow in

the boundary layer changes from laminar to

turbulent and the separation takes place nearer

to the rear of the sphere.

The drag force is decreased considerably and:

equations proposed to relate drag coefficient to

particle Reynolds number has been carried out

by Clift, Grace and Weber(8).

One of the earliest equations applicable over a

wide range of values of Re' is that due to

Wadell (9) which may be written as:

.

examined the experimental data and suggest

that a very good correlation between R'/u2

and Re' , for values of Re' up to 105, is given

by:

The force on a spherical particle may be

expressed using eqs 3.5, 3.9, 3.10 and 3.11

for each of the regions a, b, c and d as follows.

Thus the total force on the particle is given by:

Stokes(1) already given as equation 3.1.

In region (b), from equation 3.9:

Newtons law.

applicable over the first three regions (a), (b)

and (c) gives:

If a spherical particle is allowed to settle in a

fluid under gravity, its velocity will increase until

the accelerating force is exactly balanced by the

resistance force.

Although this state is approached exponentially,

the effective acceleration period is generally of

short duration for very small particles.

corresponding value of Re' < 0.2, the drag force

on the particle is given by equation 3.15.

If the corresponding value of 0.2 <Re' < 500,

the drag force is given approximately by

Schiller and Naumann in equation 3.17

Under terminal falling conditions, velocities

rarely correspond to Re' 105, with the small

particles generally used in industry.

by:

where s is the density of the solid.

The terminal falling velocity u0 corresponding to

region (a) is given by:

0: subscript for

terminal velocity

region (c) is given by:

velocity, the following assumptions are held:

(a) That the settling is not affected by the

presence of other particles in the fluid. This

condition is known as free settling. When the

interference of other particles is appreciable, the

process is known as hindered settling.

(b) That the walls of the containing vessel do

not exert an appreciable retarding effect.

terminal falling velocity of a particle in a given

fluid becomes greater as both particle size

and density are increased.

If for a particle of material A of diameter dA and

density A, Stokes law is applicable, then the

terminal falling velocity u0A is given by equation

3.24 as:

.

holds and:

velocities is:

for Newtons law and, as an approximation, 1/2

< S < 1 for the intermediate region.

velocity is satisfactory provided that it is known

which equation should be used for the

calculation of drag force or drag coefficient.

It has already been seen that the equations

give the drag coefficient in terms of the particle

Reynolds number Re'0 (= u0d/) which is itself

a function of the terminal falling velocity u0

which is to be determined.

generation of a new dimensionless group

which is independent of the particle velocity.

The resistance force per unit projected area of

the particle under terminal falling conditions R'0

is given by (applicable for any Re'):

.

= drag force/(cross-sectional area) at

terminal velocity (using subscript 0)

Applicable for

terminal velocity

condition

=2/3 Ga

CD'0.Re'02 = 2/3 Ga

R'/u2 in terms of Re' over the appropriate

range of Re', then:

Re0 < 0.2

0.2<Re0 <

1000

Re0 > 1000

properties of the fluid and the particle are

known.

Derived from

Stokes law

Naumann eq. law

Derived from

Newtons law

function of log{(R'/u2)Re' 2} and the data taken

from tables given by Heywood (11), are

represented in graphical form in Figure 3.6.

In order to determine the terminal falling

velocity of a particle, (R'0/u02)Re'02 is

evaluated and the corresponding value of Re'0,

and hence of the terminal velocity, is found

either from Table 3.4 or from Figure 3.6.

To be

used

Example 3.1

What is the terminal velocity of a spherical

steel particle, 0.40 mm in diameter, settling in

an oil of density 820 kg/m3 and viscosity 10 mN

s/m2? The density of steel is 7870 kg/m 3.

Solution

For a sphere:

CENTRIFUGAL FIELD

In most practical cases where a particle is moving

in a fluid under the action of a centrifugal field,

gravitational effects << and may be neglected.

The equation of motion for the particles is similar

to that for motion in the gravitational field, except

that the gravitational acceleration g must be

replaced by the centrifugal acceleration r2,

where r is the radius of rotation and is the

angular velocity.

motion in gravitational field

g replaced by r2

of motion for the Stokes law region is:

Particle acceleration

accelerating force increases and therefore it

never acquires an equilibrium velocity in the

fluid.

Centrifugal force

drag force

bouyancy force

rotating flow and away

from the axis of rotating

fluid flow

at zero velocity (dr/dt) = 0, then by making

derivation to equation 3.114:

2 B.Cs. (r and

dr/dt at t=0, r=r1)

for 2 eqs to get

2 constants B1

and B2

3.114

value of t , although a numerical solution is

required to determine t for any particular value

of r/r1.

equation 3.108 is neglected (there is force

balance), then:

to the terminal velocity u0 in the gravitational

field, increased by a factor of r2/g.

radius r from an initial radius r1 is given by:

taken for a particle initially situated in the liquid

surface (r1 = r0) to reach the wall of the bowl (r

= R) is given by:

analogous to the

particle motion in

gravitational field

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