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Indicator 2 Third Term, 2016

Seventh grade
Boston International School

Objective:Recognize the importance
of the Respiratory System in living
things and the necessary cares for
its well function.
Learning Objective: Identify the
characteristics and types of animals
respiratory system to understand
how animals breathe in different

Biblical Principle
Psalm 150:6
Everything that breathes, praise
the LORD!
Praise the LORD!


Breathing is the physical action of taking air in to the
system and releasing gaseous waste.
All animals must exchange gases between themselves and
their environment on a continual basis.
There are four types of gas exchange systems:
Integumentary exchange, which occurs through the skin
Gills, which exchange gases in water environments
Tracheal systems, which are used by insects
Lungs, which are found in land animals

Integumentary exchange

The integument is the skin or surface of an animal.

Very small animals and a few larger animals that
live in moist environments use this type of gas
exchange. Worms are an example.
Earthworms have capillaries right under their
skin. As the worms move through the soil, they
loosen the soil, which creates air pockets. The
worms take in oxygen from the air pockets and
release carbon dioxide right through their outer
surface. However, to be able to exchange gases
directly with their environment, earthworms must
stay moist.

Going over gills

Animals that live in water have gills, which

are extensions of their outer membranes.
The membranes in gills are very thin
(usually just one cell thick), which allows
gas exchange between the water that
flows over them. Capillaries connect to
the cells in the gills so that gases can be
taken in from the water and passed into
the bloodstream of the aquatic animal.

Tracheal exchange systems

Some insects have air tubes that open to

the outside of their body. This network of
tubes is called a trachea; the holes that
open to the outside surface are called
spiracles. (In humans, the trachea is a tube
that carries air down into the lungs.)
In a tracheal exchange system, oxygen
diffuses directly into the trachea, and carbon
dioxide exits out through the spiracles.

The lungs of land animals

Lungs may be different shapes and
sizes in various land animals, but
they function essentially the same as
they do in humans.

Reptiles and Amphibians

Reptiles and amphibians have lungs and

exchange gases in the capillaries like mammals,
but there are some differences in how they
ventilate their respiratory systems.
Reptiles dont typically breathe the same way as
mammals, since many reptiles lack a diaphragm.
Reptiles use their axial muscles, the ones attached
to their ribs, to expand their ribcage for breathing.
During periods of intense activity, reptiles might be
forced to hold their breath, as they use those
muscles for running away.

Some reptiles get around this

bybuccal pumpingwhile they run.
Buccal pumping is when an animal
uses the muscles of the mouth and
throat to pull air into the lungs.
Throat muscles then pump and move
the floor of the mouth up in a way
thats visible from the outside.

This forces air out of the mouth and into

the lungs. This is what amphibians do, by
puffing up their chinny-chin-chins to get
the air in. Look at this frog'sconstantly
moving throat.
Apart from their capillaries, amphibians
perform gas exchange directly through
their skin. This works for them because
their skin has lots of blood vessels very
close to the permeable skin surface.

1. What is the function of the Respiratory
2. Draw a picture of a human Respiratory
System and locate the following parts:

Nose and mouth


Bronchial tubes




3. How is the breathing process?

4. Which are the 4 types of gas
exchange systems in animals? Write
about them and give an example of
an animal with that type of system.
5. Write about the most common
problems of the respiratory system.