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Location Aided Routing

(LAR) in Mobile and


Adhoc Networks
-Young-Bae Ko and Nitin H. Vaidya

Group Members
Balram Agrawal
Sanjeev Tiwari
Shubhashish Mishra

Supervisor
Dr. Bo Sun

December, 2015

Outline
Abstract
Overview
Implementation
Performance

Metrics
Simulation Model
Trace file Analysis
Conclusions
Future Works
References

Abstract
Node

movement in Mobile Adhoc network


result in unpredictable topology changes.
Require

some mechanism for route


discovery and maintaining route.
Present

a reactive protocol for route


discovery and maintenance that utilizes
location information of node.
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Abstract
Goal:

To limit the search for the route


discovery.
How??
By

defining a search criteria based on


location and speed of node to confine
number of route discovery request packets
to limit control overhead.

Overview
Mobile ad hoc networks are formed
dynamically by an autonomous system of
mobile nodes that are connected via wireless
links.
No existing fixed infrastructure or centralized
administration No base station.
Mobile nodes are free to move randomly.

Network topology changes frequently.


May Operate as standalone fashion or also can
be connected to the larger internet.

Overview
Each node work as router
Desirable but node movement cause
frequent unpredictable topology change

Results in task of finding and maintaining


route to be nontrivial.
Many approaches has been proposed
based on table and flooding mechanism for
route discovery.

Overview

MANETs

WLAN

Overview
MANET

protocols

Proactive

Protocol: Table driven routing


protocol that continuously evaluate route.
WRP, DSDV

Reactive

Protocol: On demand routing


protocol that initiates route discovery by
global search
AODV, DSR, TORA

Overview (Trade-offs)
Proactive
have

Protocols

lower latency due to maintenance of routes at all

times
can

result in much higher overhead due to frequent


route updates

Reactive

Protocols may have

higher

latency since the routes have to be discovered


when the source node initiates a route request

lower

overhead since routes are maintained only


on-demand basis
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AODV Protocol
oAODV = Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector
oOne of a class of demand-driven reactive
protocols
oSource floods route request in the network.
oReverse paths are formed when a node hears a
route request.
oEach node maintains a routing table that contains
information about reaching destination nodes.
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AODV Protocol
Source

RREQ
RREQ

RREP

B
RREQ

RREP

RREQ

RREQ

RREQ
RREQ
RREP

RREQ
RREQ

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F Destination

AODV Operation (Message type)


The basic message set consists of:
oRREQ Route request
A RREQ message is broadcasted when a node needs to discover
a route to a destination.

oRREP Route reply


When a RREQ reaches a destination node, the destination route
is made available by unicasting a RREP back to the source route

oRERR Route error


This message is broadcasted for broken links

oHELLO For link status monitoring


This message is used for broadcasting connectivity information.
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Overview
Common

Problem: Excessive traffic and


control overhead problems due to flooding
Solution:

As proposed use of Location


Information of nodes to enhance the
flooding scheme.

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Why Location Information?


Location

information

Minimize

the search zone


Reduce the number of routing
messages
Speed
More

and direction information

minimization of the search zone


Increases the probability to find a node

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Route Discovery: Flooding


Basic Flooding Algorithm
A source

node S needs to find a route to destination


node D, node S broadcasts a route request to all its
neighbors
Intermediate node X receives a route request and
compares the destination with its own identity
If it does not match, then node X broadcast the request
to its neighbors(sequence numbers used to detect
duplicate and eliminate/avoid redundant transmissions)
Node D responds by route reply messages to sender
which traverse the path in reverse of the path received
by D (route request packet contains path of all nodes
traversed starting S)
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Flooding
Route

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discovery using flooding algorithm

Preliminaries: Location
Information
Location

information obtained by the use of


Global Positioning System (GPS)
With use of GPS, mobile host can know its
physical location with following accuracy
NAVSTAR

GPS has positional accuracy of 50-100

meters
Differential GPS has positional accuracy of few
meters

Assumption:
each

node knows its current location precisely

mobile

nodes are moving in a twodimensional plane


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Location Information
Using

last known location information and


average speed for route discovery
Limited destination zone expected zone
Restricted flooding request zone
Route

discovery is initiated when


Source does not know a route to destination
Previous route from source to destination is
broken

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Expected Zone:

Region where source node S thinks that the

destination node D may contained at some time t


only an estimate made by S
Assumption:

Node S knows that the node D was at


location L at time t0 and current time is t1
From the viewpoint of S, expected zone of node D is the
region that node S expects to contain node D at time t1
based on the knowledge that node D was at location L
at time t0

If

S knows that D travels with average speed v,


then S assumes expected zone is the circular
region19of radius v(t1- t0) centered at location L

Expected Zone
The

size of expected zone can be reduced if node


has more information about the mobility of a
destination D

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Request Zone
Node

S defines (implicitly or explicitly) a request


zone for the route request
Node forwards a route request only if it belongs to
the request zone (it does not forward a route request
to its neighbor if outside of the request zone)

The

request zone includes expected zone in


addition to (possibly) other surrounding zone around
the request zone

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Request Zone
If a route is not discovered within the timeout
period, S initiates a new route discovery with
expanded request zone all paths from S to D
include nodes that are outside the request zone

Note that the probability of finding path can


increase as size of request zone increases (route
discovery overhead also increases with the size
of the request zone

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Request Zone

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Membership of Request
Zone
Implementing LAR algorithm require a
node to determine if it is in the request zone.

Two for determining request zone:


LAR

Scheme 1

LAR

Scheme 2

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LAR Scheme 1
The

request zone is rectangular in shape

Assume

S knows that the node D was at location


(Xd,Yd) at time t0
Assume

S knows the average speed v with


which D can move
From

above two, S defines the expected zone at


time t1 with radius R = v(t1- t0) centered at location
(Xd,Yd)
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LAR Scheme 1
The

request zone is the smallest rectangle that


includes current location S and the expected zone
such that the sides of the rectangle are parallel to
the X and Y axes
Node

D sends route reply message with its


current location and time (may include average
speed but simulation assumes all nodes knows
each others average speed)

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LAR Scheme1

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LAR Scheme 1

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LAR Scheme 1
Size

of the request Zone is proportional to


(i)average speed of movement v and
(ii)elapsed time since recorded last location of the
destination
Recall

that R = v(t1- t0) is used to determine the size of


request zone
In

general, a smaller request zone may be formed at


speed that are neither too small nor too large
For

instance, at low speed, factor (i) is small but route


discovery occur after long intervals making (ii) larger (t1- t0
is large)
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LAR Scheme 2
Node

S includes two pieces of information with its


route request
Assume

that S knows the location (Xd,Yd) of D at some time


t0 which route discovery is initiated by S at t1 where t1 to

calculates its distance from location (Xd,Yd) denoted


DISTs and included with the route request

The

coordinate (Xd,Yd) are also included with the route


request

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LAR Scheme 2
When

node I receives the route request from S,


node I calculates its distance from (Xd,Yd) denoted
DISTi and:

some parameter , if DISTs + DISTi, then I


forwards request to its neighbors this request includes
(Xd,Yd) and DISTi replacing original DISTs and (Xd,Yd) from
S
Else DISTs + DISTi, node I discards the route request
For

Each

above

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intermediate nodes repeat the process

Implementation: Basic

Modified existing AODV protocol files


Added the coordinates in the RREQ packet
flooded in the network to store the rectangular
bound of the request zone.

Then each node location information is


analyzed with the rectangular bound of
request zone.
If the location of node is inside the request
zone, RREQ is forwarded to the neighbor or
else dropped.

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Implementation
LAR protocol was implemented in three
steps:

Step

1: Declaration and Initialization

In first step, the existing code of AODV protocol


was taken and declared variable to store position
and node (structure).
Position were defined using x, y and z
coordinates stored in as double.
Finally the position variable were set up to null.
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Implementation

Step II: Definition


In

this step, the rectangular bound of the


request zone was defined inside the RREQ
packet structure.

Four

double variables were used to define the


rectangular bound in terms of source
coordinates and the expected zone of the
destination.
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Implementation

Step III: Assessment


Get the position of node packet is in and
check whether the node is inside the request
zone.

If node inside the request zone, retransmit


the RREQ packet to the neighbor or else
drop it.

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Performance Metrics
To compare the efficiency of the LAR
protocol, trace file were created that is
specifically used to compare with the
standard AODV protocol.

Various performance metrics can be


calculated like Packet Delivery Ratio,
Control Overhead, End to End Delay,
Energy Dissipation etc.

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Performance Metrics
We selected the following metrics to
compare:

Packet Delivery Ratio

Control Overhead

End to End delay

Throughput

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Performance metrics

Packet Delivery Ratio:


Ratio of the number of delivered data packet
to the destination.
Illustrates the level of delivered data to the
destination
Calculated as

PDR = Number of packet receive / Number of packet send

Greater value of packet delivery ratio means


the better performance of the protocol.

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Performance metrics

Control Overhead:
Cost of routing packet per data packet
exchanged in the network.

Calculated by dividing the total number of


routing packets sent (includes forwarded
routing packets as well) by the total number of
data packets received.

The lower value of control overhead means


the better performance of the protocol

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Performance metrics

End to End Delay:


The

average time taken by a data packet to


arrive in the destination

Includes

the delay caused by route discovery


process and the queue in data packet
transmission

The

lower value of End to End Delay means


the better performance of the protocol.
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Performance metrics
Throughput:
The

number of successfully received packets


in a unit time

Represented
The

in bps or kbps

large value of throughput means better


performance of the protocol

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Simulation
The

simulation is performed using NS 2.35


network simulator.

NS

2 is a discrete-event computer network


simulators, primarily used in research and
teaching.

Simulations

were performed on LAR scheme 1


and standard AODV protocol

Simulations

are conducted by varying the moving


speed of the nodes.
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Simulation Model
Number of nodes in the network was chosen to
be 50 for both simulation runs
o The size of ad hoc network is 800 unit x 800 unit
square region
o All nodes have the same transmission range
and other properties.
o Random movement of the nodes were disabled.
oThe movement of nodes were continued
throughout the simulation run or until the node
reached destination.
o

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Simulation Model
oSimulation

were run for varying max speed of 3


unit/sec, 6 unit/sec, 9 unit/sec, 15 unit/sec and 20
unit/sec
oThe

movement of nodes were confined to X-Y plane

only
oThe

mobility of the nodes were defined using a


mobility scenario created using CMU node movement
generator setdest of NS 2
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Setdest
Setdest

tool is used to generate the positions of


nodes and their moving speed and moving
directions.
The

syntax is:
./setdest -v 1 -n $numnodes -p $pt -M
$maxspeed -t $simtime -x $maxx -y $maxy
for example: setdest -v 1 -n 50 -p 0 -M 20 -t 900 -x
1500 -y 300
will generate a 1500*300 topology with 50 nodes
random distributed labeled by a XY(Z) coordinates.
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NS2: Randomness
NS

2.35 is deterministic i.e. for same tcl script and


mobility, each run produce same result.
Not

suitable for statistical analysis

To

add degree of randomness for same input file,


change seed value
Default
Can

value is 12345

be any positive integer value or zero


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Trace file Analysis


To

calculate the performance metric of the


simulation, we used the AWK Script to analyze the
trace file.
It

is a utility that enables to write tiny but effective


programs in the form of statements that define text
patterns that are to be searched for in each line of
a document and the action that is to be taken
when a match is found within a line.
We

used MAWK to analyze our trace file.


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Trace file Analysis


PDR

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Trace file Analysis


Control

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Overhead

Trace file Analysis


End

to End Delay

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Trace file Analysis


Throughput

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Conclusion:
Had

the basic concept of routing protocol in


MANET
Integrated
Have

the location information in the protocol.

overview of various network metrics

Compare

the routing protocol based on various

metrics
Successfully

implemented and simulated the


Location Aided Routing protocol.
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Conclusion:
Location

information significantly lower


routing overhead
Various

optimizations can be done to adjust


LAR to a certain network

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Future Works
We

worked only on LAR Scheme 1, so we can


extend our protocol to accompany LAR Scheme
2
Extending

the LAR request zone after the


failure of route request rather than using basic
flooding.

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References

NS Manual

http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns

NS by Example http://nile.wpi.edu/NS

NS2 Ultimate http://ns2ultimate.tumblr.com

Y-B. Ko and N.H. Vaidya, Location-Aided Routing


(LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. ACM/IEEE
Intl Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, IEEE
Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1998, pp. 66-75.

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References
D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz and Y.-C. Hu "The dynamic
source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (DSR)",
INTERNET-DRAFT, 2004
o

C. E. Perkins and E. Royer, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance


Vector Routing, Proceedings of the Second IEEE
Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications,
New Orleans, LA, USA, pp. 90-100, February 1999
o

E. M. Royer and C.-K. Toh, A Review of Current Routing


Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks, IEEE
Personal Communications, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 46-55, April
1999
56
o

References
Z. J. Haas, A New Routing Protocol for the Reconfigurable
Wireless Networks, Proceedings of the IEEE International
Conference on Universal Personal Communications (ICUPC),
pp. 562-566, October 1997.
o

N. C. Wang, Y. F. Huang, J. S. Chen, S. M. Wang, C. L.


Chen, An Improved Location-Aided Routing Protocol for
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Greedy Approach, vol.8, Issue
8, Wseas Transaction on Communications, 2009.
o

T. F. Shih H.C. Yen, "Location-aware routing protocol with


dynamic adaptation of request zone for mobile ad hoc
networks, Springer Wireless Network 14:321 333,DOI
10.1007/s11276-006-9955-y, 2008
o

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Questions?

58

Thank

59

you !