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Instrumentation

Instruments

With the introduction of the instrument in the

circuit, the circuit conditions should not be

altered, i.e. quantity to be measured should not

get affected due to the instrument used.

Power consumed by the instruments for their

operation should be as small as possible.

09/05/16

voltmeters)

Permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC)

used for dc measurement

Moving iron ac or dc

Electro-dynamometer ac or dc

Thermocouple ac or dc

Hot wire ac or dc

Induction- used for ac measurement

Rectifier ac or dc

Electrostatic ac or dc

09/05/16

09/05/16

Construction of Shunts

General requirements for shunts are Temperature co-efficient of shunt and instrument

should be low and should be as nearly as possibly the

same.

Resistance of shunts should not vary with time.

They should carry the current without excessive

temperature rise.

They should have a low thermal electromotive force

with Cu.

6

Problems

09/05/16

an internal resistance of 100 is to be converted into a 0 100

mA ammeter, calculate the shunt resistance required. What

particulars should be specified on the shunt?

Problems

09/05/16

200 resistance used with a galvanometer of 1000 resistance.

Determine the value of shunt resistance to give a multiplying

power of 50.

Problems

09/05/16

0.02 . With a coil resistance of R=1000 and a potential

difference of 500 mV across it, full scale deflection is obtained:

(a) To what shunted current does this correspond?

(b) Calculate the value of R to give full scale deflection when

shunted current I is (i) 10A, (ii) 75A

(c) With what value of R is 40% deflection obtained with I=100A?

Multi-range Ammeters

level 50mA is impractical owing to the bulk and weight

of the coil that would be required.

So, it is necessary to extend the meter-range shunts (in

case of ammeters) and multipliers (in case of volt

meters) are used.

For higher range ammeters a low resistance made up of

low TCR is connected in parallel to the moving coil

(Fig.) and instrument may be calibrated to read directly

to the total current. They are called shunts.

09/05/16

10

10

simple by employing several values of shunt

resistances, with a rotary switch to select the

desired range. Fig. shows the circuit

arrangement.

+

+

R1

R2

R3

R4

Rm

_

DArsonval

Movement

S

_

09/05/16

11

11

powers for the currents I1, I2, I3 and I4.

R1 = Rm/(m1 - 1 );

R2 = Rm/(m2 - 1 );

R3 = Rm/(m3 - 1 );

R4 = Rm/(m4 - 1 );

+

+

R1

R2

R3

R4

Rm

_

DArsonval

Movement

S

_

12

Disadvantages:

1.During the changeover of switch, the shunt is momentarily

removed from the meter. Then, the full current flows through

the meter coil. This can damage the coil.

2.The contact resistance of the switch is in series with the

shunt. It can be of variable nature. So, the ammeter indication

may not be accurate.

13

The selector switch, S selects the appropriate shunt

required to change the range of the meter.

When S at position1, R1 is parallel to the series

combination of R2, R3 and Rm. Hence, current

through shunt is more than current through meter

and thus protecting the basic meter.

When S at position 2, R1 &

R2 are parallel to the series

combination of R3 and Rm.

Hence, current through

meter is more than current

through shunt.

Same case for pos. 3.

14

ImRm = (I1 - Im )R1

R1=Rm/(m1 -1)

For switch at position 2,

Im (R1-R2+Rm)= (I2 - Im )R2

R2= (R1+Rm)/ m2

For switch at position 3,

Im (R1-R3+Rm)= (I3 - Im )R3

R3= (R1+Rm)/ m3

Thus values of different hunt sections are

(R1-R2), (R2-R3), R3

15

Note that the rotary switch should be make-beforebreak type so that the meter is not damaged.

In this previous diagram there is one disadvantage.

When the position of the switch is changed for a

fraction of second the total current under measurement

flows through the PMMC which may damage it since

the meters full scale deflection current is very small.

To avoid this problem the Ayrton Shunt Method is

used. In this circuit, however the meter coil resistance is

more as compared to the general purpose PMMC.

16

Problems

Example 9.9, Page-300: Design a multi-range d.c. milli-ameter

using a basic movement with an internal resistance Rm=50

and a full scale deflection current Im=1 mA. The ranges

required are 0-10 mA; 0-50 mA; 0-100 mA, and 0-500 mA.

17

Problems

Example 9.10, Page-301: Design an Ayrton shunt to provide

an ammeter with current ranges of 1A, 5A and 10A. A basic

meter with an internal resistance of 50 and a full scale

deflection current of 1mA is to be used.

18

ammeter

19

Construction of Multipliers

The essential requirements of multipliers are Their resistance should not change with time.

The change in their resistance with temperature

should be small.

They should be non-inductively wound for ac meters.

20

Problem

Example-9.11(Self):A moving coil instrument gives a

full scale deflection of 10 mA when the potential

difference across its terminals is 100 mV. Calculate:

(a) the shunt resistance for a full scale deflection

corresponding to 100 A

(b) the series resistance for full scale reading with

1000 V.

Calculate the power dissipation in each case.

21

Multirange Voltmeters

In a multi-range voltmeter, different full scale voltage

ranges can be obtained ----(i) by use of individual multiplier resistors

(ii) by a potential divider arrangement

22

Problems

Example 9.13, pg 303 (Self): A basic dArsonval

meter movement with an internal resistance

Rm=100, and a full scale current of Im=1mA, is to

be converted into a multi-range d.c. voltmeter with

ranges of 0-10V, 0-50V, 0-250V, 0-500V. Find the

values of various resistances using the potential

divider arrangement.

23

24

Problems

Example 9.15, pg 304: Which meter has a greater

sensitivity: Meter A having a range of 0-10V and a

multiplier resistance of 18k; Meter B with a range of 0

300V and a multiplier resistance of 298k? Both meter

movements have a resistance of 2k.

25

Instrument

26

Problem

Example-9.16

27

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