x x x x x x

© All Rights Reserved

7 views

x x x x x x

© All Rights Reserved

- _delineation of the Subsurface Structures and Tectonics of Qarun
- Filter Design
- EE 230 Remote Receiver
- Butterworth Filter
- Electronics Cauglin
- A Circuit Model for Two-path Cutoff Waveguide Dr Filters - Dtic
- filtercad3.0
- Filters
- Order of Filter
- Ah 34207211
- A49!3!4 Jurisic08 Low Sensitivity Single Amplifier Active RC Allpole Filters Using Tables
- Microwave Filter[3755]
- ME3100 Slide07 Active Filter Design and Implementation - V1.10
- sintesis filtros
- Mfc
- 3907 RFcircuit Synthesis Webcast Mar28 07
- Analog Filter Design
- Testing
- tp4 traitement (1)
- Frequency Transformation

You are on page 1of 91

is protected by copyright laws and international treaties. No part of this

publication may be reproduced by any means, be it transmitted,

transcribed, photocopied, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into

any language in any form, without the prior written permission of Acehub

Vista Sdn. Bhd. or their respective copyright owners.

The use of the courseware product and all other products developed

and/or distributed by Acehub Vista Sdn. Bhd. are subject to the applicable

License Agreement.

For further information, see the Courseware Product License Agreement.

http://dreamcatcher.asia/cw

11

Introduction

An ideal filter is a linear 2-port network that provides

perfect transmission of signal for frequencies in a

certain passband region, infinite attenuation for

frequencies in the stopband region, and a linear

phase response in the passband (to reduce signal

distortion).

The goal of filter design is to approximate the ideal

requirements within acceptable tolerance with circuits

or systems consisting of real components.

Categorization of Filters

Low pass filter (LPF), high pass filter (HPF), bandpass filter (BPF),

bandstop filter (BSF), arbitrary type, etc.

In each category, the filter can be further divided into active and passive

types.

passband region; a passive filter do not provide power amplification in

the passband.

capacitors, transmission line sections, and resonating structures (e.g.,

piezoelectric crystal, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices,

mechanical resonators, etc.).

Filter

An active filter may contain a transistor, FET,

and an op-amp.

LPF

HPF

BPF

Active

Passive

Active

Passive

5

Frequency response implies the behavior of the filter

with respect to steady-state sinusoidal excitation

(e.g., energizing the filter with a sine voltage or

current source and observing its output).

There are various approaches to displaying the

frequency response:

Attenuation factor A()

S-parameters, e.g., s21()

Others, such as ABCD parameters, etc.

|H()|

Transfer

function

1

V1()

Filter

H()

V2()

ZL

V2

H

(1.1a)

V1

Complex value

Arg(H())

A()/dB

50

40

30

20

10

3

0

Real value

V2

Attenuation A 20 Log10

V1

c

(1.1b)

For the impedance matched system, using s21 to observe the filter

response is more convenient, as this can be easily measured using a

vector network analyzer (VNA).

Zc

Zc

a1

b2

Vs

Zc

Zc

20log|s21()|

Zc

Filter

Zc

Arg(s21())

Transmission line

is optional

0 dB

b

b

s11 1

s21 2

a1 a 0

a1 a 0

2

2

Complex value

8

A()/dB

50

40

30

20

10

3

0

Passband

Transition band

Stopband

V1()

Filter

H()

V2()

ZL

|H()|

A()/dB

Transfer

function

Passband

50

40

30

20

10

3

0

Stopband

10

Bandpass filter (passive)

Bandstop filter

A()/dB

A()/dB

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

3

0

10

3

0

1 o 2

|H()|

1

1

|H()|

Transfer

function

Transfer

function

1 o 2

11

Filter

Zo

Zo

Zo

Zo

Zo

H1()

H2()

Consider a filter to be a

cascade of linear 2-port

networks.

Synthesize or realize each

2-port network, so that

the combine effect gives the

required frequency response.

The image impedance seen

at the input and output of

each network is maintained.

Zo

Response of

a single

network

Zo

Hn()

Zo

The combined

response

12

|H()|

Filter

Zo

with polynomial function:

Ideal

Approximate with rational polynomial

function

sn a

s n 1 a s a

H s K

n 1

1

o

n

n

1

s bn 1s

b1s bo

s21| for this.

Use the RCLM circuit synthesis theorem to

come up with a resistive terminated

LC network that can produce the

Z

approximate response.

o

Zo

13

Our Scope

Only concentrate on passive LC and stripline filters.

Filter synthesis using the Insertion Loss Method

(ILM). The Image Parameter Method (IPM) is more

efficient and suitable for simple filter designs, but has

the disadvantage that arbitrary frequency response

cannot be incorporated into the design.

14

the Insertion Loss Method

15

design and synthesize a filter with various frequency responses.

improved in a straightforward manner, at the expense of a

higher order filter.

H()|, A(), or |s21()|.

network is then derived which will produce this approximated

response.

called the Power Loss Ratio, PLR, which is related to A()2.

16

tra

x

E

More on ILM

ignored. Original filter synthesis methods are

developed in the 1920s60s, for voice

communication. The human ear is insensitive to

phase distortion, thus only the magnitude response

(e.g., |H()|, A()) is considered.

Modern filter synthesis can optimize a circuit to meet

both magnitude and phase requirements. This is

usually done using computer optimization procedures

with goal functions.

17

Zs

Vs

Lossless

2-port network

PA

Pin

ZL

PL

P

PA

1

inc

PLoad

2

2

1 1

PA 1 1

(2.1a)

PLR large,

high attenuation

P

LR large, high attenuation

P

closetoto1,1,low

lowattenuation

attenuation

PLRLRclose

For

Forexample,

example,aalow

lowpass

pass

filter

filterresponse

responseisisshown

shown

below:

below:

PLR(f)

High

attenuation

Low

attenuation

fc

f

18

b1

a1

Zc

Vs

PA

b2

Lossless

2-port network

Pin

Zc

PL

1a 2

2

1

PA

a1

2

PLR

PL

b2

1b 2

2

2

PLR 1

(2.1b)

2

s 21

19

(2.2)

1

M 2

1

N 2

1

2

1 1

M 2

1

M 2 N 2

PLR

M 2

M 2 N 2

as Characteristic Polynomial

PLR 1 P 2

M 2

N 2

(2.3a)

(2.3b)

function in P can

used for P(). The

P be

requirement is that P() must either be an odd or even function. Among the

classical polynomial functions are:

Maximally flat or Butterworth functions

Equal ripple or Chebyshev functions

Elliptic function

The

Thecharacteristics

characteristicswe

weneed

need

2

Many, many more

from [P()] 2for LPF:

2

[P()]

[P()]2

00for

for<<c c

2

[P()]

[P()]2>>

>>11for

for>>

>>c c

20

P

c

(2.4a)

NN==order

orderofofthe

the

Characteristic

Characteristic

Polynomial

PolynomialP()

P()

P C N , ripple factor

C0 1

C N C1

C 2C C , n 2

n 1

n 2

n

(2.4b)

P 2 B j B j 1

B0 s 1

(2.4c)

BN s B1 s s 1

Bn s 2 s 1 Bn 1 s s 2 Bn 2 s , n 2

21

PLR of the low pass filter using 4th order polynomial functions (N

= 4) Butterworth, Chebyshev (ripple factor =1), and Bessel.

Normalized to c = 1 rad/s, k = 1.

2

2

PLR (chebyshev) 1 k 2 8 4 1

c

c

Ideal

1 10

1 10

k=1

Chebyshev

bt ( )

4

2

PLR ( Butterworth) 1 k

c

cb( )

PLR100

bs ( )

Butterworth

10

Bessel

1

this ripple is equal to

3 dB

0.5

1.5

PLR ( Bessel ) 1 k 2 B j B j 1

B s 1 s

105 c

10 s

c

45 s

c

105 s 105

c

22

2

polynomial, normalized to c = 1 rad/s, k = 1.

N

PLR ( Butterworth) 1 k 2

c

5

1 10

PLR( 2) 4

1 10

N=7

PLR( 3)

PLR( 4)1 10

PLR( 5)

PLR( 6)

PLR( 7)

N=6

N=5

N=4

100

N=3

10

N=2

0.5

1.5

Conclusion:

Conclusion:

The

Thetype

typeofof

polynomial

polynomial

function

functionand

and

the

theorder

order

determine

determinethe

the

attenuation

attenuationrate

rate

ininthe

thestopband.

stopband.

23

Polynomial Functions

Butterworth: Moderately linear phase response,

slow cutoff, smooth attenuation in the passband.

Chebyshev: Bad phase response, rapid cutoff for a

similar order, contains ripple in the passband. May

have impedance mismatch for N even.

Bessel: Good phase response, linear. Very slow

cutoff. Smooth amplitude response in the passband.

24

insertion loss profile for the low pass filter is the LC ladder network.

Many researchers have tabulated the values for the L and C for the low

pass filter with cut-off frequency c = 1 rad/s, that works with the source

and load impedance Zs = ZL = 1 .

This low pass filter is known as the Low Pass Prototype (LPP).

increases. The no. of elements = N.

1

L1=g2

C1=g1

L1=g1

g0= 1

L2=g4

C2=g3

RL= gN+1

L2=g3

C1=g2

C2=g4

RL= gN+1

Dual of each

other

25

The LPP is the building block from which real filters

may be constructed.

Various transformations may be used to convert it

into a high pass, bandpass, or other filter of arbitrary

center frequency and bandwidth.

The following slides show some sample tables for

designing LPP for Butterworth and Chebyshev

amplitude response of PLR.

26

N

g1

g2

g3

g4

g5

g6

g7

g8

1

2

3

4

5

6

2.0000

1.4142

1.0000

0.7654

0.6180

0.5176

1.0000

1.4142

2.0000

1.8478

1.6180

1.4142

1.0000

1.0000

1.8478

2.0000

1.9318

1.0000

0.7654

1.6180

1.9318

1.0000

0.6180

1.4142

1.0000

0.5176

1.0000

0.4450

1.2470

1.8019

2.0000

1.8019

1.2470

0.4450

1.0000

0.3902

1.1111

1.6629

1.9615

1.9615

1.6629

1.1111

0.3902

g9

1.0000

See Example 2.1 in the following slides on how the constant values g1, g2, g3,

etc., are obtained.

27

N

1

2

3

4

5

6

N

1

2

3

4

5

6

g1

0.6986

1.4029

1.5963

1.6703

1.7058

1.7254

g2

1.0000

0.7071

1.0967

1.1926

1.2296

1.2479

g3

g4

g5

g6

g7

1.9841

1.5963

2.3661

2.5408

2.6064

1.0000

0.8419

1.2296

1.3137

1.9841

1.7058

2.4578

1.0000

0.8696

1.9841

g1

1.9953

3.1013

3.3487

3.4389

3.4817

3.5045

g2

1.0000

0.5339

0.7117

0.7483

0.7618

0.7685

g3

g4

g5

g6

g7

5.8095

3.3487

4.3471

4.5381

4.6061

1.0000

0.5920

0.7618

0.7929

5.8095

3.4817

4.4641

1.0000

0.6033

5.8095

28

29

Design

a

xtr

R

Vs

V1

R V

1 jRC s

R jL 1 jRRC

Thus

Vs

jL

R V1

1/jC

RV

RV

s

R R jL s1 jRC

2

2 R RLC j L R 2C

2

PL 21R V1

Vs R

and

2 2 2 LC R 2 2 L R 2C

PA 81R Vs

2

PLR P A

L

P

Vs

8R

Vs R

2

2

2 2 2 LC R 2 2 L R 2C

2

2 4

1 1 2 L R 2C LC 2 LC

2

4R

2

2

1 2 2 R 2 2 2 LC 2 L R 2C 2

8R

[P()]2

30

Design (contd)

a

xtr

2

2 4

PLR 1 1 2 L R 2C LC 2 LC

1 a1 2 a2 4

2

4R

(E1.1)

2 1 4 1 0 2 1 4

PLR ( Butterworth) 1 2

a2 1 LC

1 LC 2

2

(E1.3)

(E1.2)

L R 2C

2

a1 0 1 2 L R 2C LC 0

LC

4R

21R

(E1.4)

LC 2 C 2 2

LC 12 L C 2 L2 C 2 2 LC 0

C 2 1.4142

L C2 0

LC

Using (E1.3)

L C 1.4142

Compare

Comparethis

thisresult

resultwith

with

N=2

in

the

table

for

the

N=2 in the table for the

LPP

LPPButterworth

Butterworthresponse.

response.

This

direct

brute

force

This direct brute force

approach

approachcan

canbe

be

extended

to

N=3,

extended to N=3,4,4,5

5

31

tra

x

E

AC

AC

AC1

Start=0.01 Hz

Stop=2.0 Hz

Step=0.01 Hz

Vin

R

R2

R=1 Ohm

V_AC

SRC1

Vac=polar(1,0) V

Freq=freq

Vout

L

L1

L=1.4142 H

R=

C

C1

C=1.4142 F

R

R1

R=1 Ohm

32

tra

x

E

Eqn PL=0.5*mag(Vout)*mag(Vout)

Eqn PA=1/8

Eqn PLR=PA/PL

m1

m1

freq=160.0mHz

m1=-3.056

dB(Vout/0.5)

-10

2.5E4

PLR

2.0E4

versus frequency

1.5E4

-20

-30

-40

-50

1.0E4

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

freq, Hz

5.0E3

which is equivalent to 1 rad/s

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

freq, Hz

33

Transformation of LPP

transformed to other frequencies.

as high pass, bandpass, and bandstop.

value and configuration of the elements of the LPP.

frequency can also be scaled, from unity to other values; this is

called impedance denormalization.

summarizes the various transformation from the LPP filter.

34

Transformation of LPP (contd)

LPP to

High Pass

LPP to

Low Pass

L

Zo L

c

LZ o

o

1

c LZ o

o LZ o

Zo

cC

C

Z o c

C

o Z o

Center frequency

o 1 2 2 or

1 2

1

o LZ o

Z o

oC

Fractional bandwidth

(2.5a)

LPP to

Bandstop

LPP to

Bandpass

2 1 (2.5b)

o

LZ o

o

Zo

o C

C

o Zo

Note

Notethat

thatthe

theinductor

inductoralways

always

multiplies

with

Z

while

the

o

multiplies with Zo while the

capacitor

capacitordivides

divideswith

withZZo

o

35

ILM Method

Step 1: From the requirements, determine the order

and type of approximation functions to use.

Attenuation (dB) in the stopband ?

Cut-off rate (dB/decade) in the transition band ?

Tolerable ripple?

Linearity of phase?

(LPP) using the L and C elements.

|H()|

L1=g2

C1=g1

L2=g4

C2=g3

1

RL= gN+1

36

ILM Method (contd)

impedance.

|H()|

50

Vs

15.916pF

79.58nH

0.7072nH

0.1414pF

15.916pF

1

0.7072nH

RL

50

lumped circuit design into distributed realization.

All

Alluses

usesthe

themicrostrip

microstripstripline

striplinecircuit

circuit

37

tra

x

E

that the filter can be considered as a class of

impedance transformation network.

In the passband, the load is matched to the source

network, much like a filter.

In the stopband, the load impedance is highly

mismatched from the source impedance.

However, the procedure described here only applies

to the case when both load and source impedance

are equal and real.

38

fc = 1.5 GHz.

L1=0.7654H

g 0= 1

and impedance denormalization

L2=1.8478H

C1=1.8478F

L1=4.061 nH

g0=1/50

Z o 50

C2=0.7654F

RL= 1

L

L Zo n

c

Cn

C

Z o c

L2=9.803 nH

C1=3.921 pF

C2=1.624 pF

R Z o Rn

RL= 50

39

factor, Rs = 50 , fc = 1.5 GHz.

L1=1.6703H

g 0= 1

L2=2.3661H

C1=1.1926F

and impedance denormalization L =8.861 nH

1

g0=1/50

Z o 50

C2=0.8419F

RL=

1.9841

L

L Zo n

c

Cn

C

Z o c

L2=12.55 nH

C1=2.531 pF

C2=1.787 pF

R Z o Rn

RL=

99.2

40

Ripple is roughly

0.5 dB

dB(LPF_butterworth..S(2,1))

dB(S(2,1))

5

0

Butterworth

using AC analysis (ADS2003C)

-10

|s21|

-20

Chebyshev

-30

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

freq, GHz

to obtain a continuous phase display with the built-in

function phase( ).

Eqn Phase_chebyshev = if (phase(S(2,1))<0) then phase(S(2,1)) else (phase(S(2,1))-360)

-50

P hase_butterworth

P hase_chebyshev

0.0

Better phase

linearity for Butterworth

LPF in the passband

-100

-150

Butterworth

Arg(s21)

-200

-250

Chebyshev

-300

-350

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

freq, GHz

41

Design a bandpass filter with Butterworth (maximally

flat) response.

N=3

Center frequency fo = 1.5 GHz

3 dB Bandwidth = 200 MHz or f1 = 1.4 GHz, f2 =

1.6 GHz

Impedance = 50

42

From table, design the low pass prototype (LPP) for 3rd order

Butterworth response, c = 1.

Zo=1

2<0o

g2

2.000H

g1

1.000F

g3

1.000F

g4

1

Simulated result

using PSpice

c 2f c 1

f c 21 0.1592 Hz

Voltage across g4

43

Impedance denormalization

1 2 1.4GHz

2 2 1.6GHz

fo

and impedance denormalization

LZ o

o

o LZ o

50

Vs

f1 f 2 1.497GHz

2

o

C

o Z o

79.58 nH

0.133

Z o

oC

0.1414 pF

RL

15.916 pF

0.7072 nH

15.916 pF

0.7072 nH

50

44

Simulated result using PSpice:

Voltage across RL

45

tra

x

E

There is also another class of filter known as the All Pass Filter (APF).

This type of filter does not produce any attenuation in the magnitude

response, but provides phase response in the band of interest.

compensate for phase distortion.

|H(f)|

Arg(H(f))

1

0

Nonlinear

phase in

passband

f

|H(f)|

Arg(H(f))

1

0

|H(f)|

BPF

APF

Zo

Arg(H(f))

1

0

Linear

phase in

passband

f

46

Discrete Components

CPWSub

C

Ct3

C=Ct_value2 pF

L

Lt1

L=Lt_value nH

R=

Term

Term1

Num=1

Z=50 Ohm

C

Ct1

C=Ct_value pF

CP WSUB

CP WSub1

H=62.0 mil

Er=4.6

Mur=1

Cond=5.8E+7

T=1.38 mil

TanD=0.02

Rough=0.0 mil

S-PARAMETERS

Var

E qn

S_P aram

SP 1

Start=0.1 GHz

Stop=3.0 GHz

Step=1.0 MHz

INDQ

1_0pF_NP O_0603

CP WG

L4

C1

CP W1

L=15.0 nH

Q=90.0

Subst="CP WSub1"

b82496c3229j000

4_7pF_NPF=

O_0603

800.0 MHz

W=50.0 mil

L2

C2

G=10.0 mil

Mode=proportional to freq

param=

SIMID

0603-C

(2.2

nH

+

-5%)

L=28.0 mm

Rdc=0.1 Ohm

VAR

VAR1

Lt_value=4.8

Ct_value=3.5

Ct_value2=2.9

C

Ct2

C=Ct_value pF

CP WG

CP W2

b82496c3229j000

Subst="CP WSub1"

L3

W=50.0

mil

4_7pF_NP

O_0603

param=SIMID 0603-C (2.2

nH +-5%)

G=10.0 mil

C3

L=28.0 mm

L

Lt2

L=Lt_value nH

R=

C

Ct45

C=Ct_value2 pF

T erm

T erm2

Num=2

Z=50 Ohm

47

BPF synthesis

using synthesis

tool E-syn

of ADS2003C

48

|s21|/dB

Measured

Simulated

-20

-20

Agilent 8753ES Vector Network

Analyzer, using Full OSL calibration

-40

-40

Arg(s21)/degree

-60

-60

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

freq, GHz

freq, GHz

200

200

phase(RF_BPF_measured..S(2,1))

phase(RF_BPF_m

easure

d))

..S(2,1))

phase(S(2

,1

phase(S(2,1))

dB(RF_BPF_measured..S(2,1))

dB(RF_BPF_m

eB(S(2

asure,1

d..S(2

d

)) ,1))

dB(S(2,1))

100

100

-100

-100

-200

-200

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

freq, GHz

freq, GHz

49

Stripline Structures

50

51

Lumped-element filter realization using surface

mounted inductors and capacitors generally works well

at lower frequencies (at UHF, say < 3 GHz).

At higher frequencies, the practical inductors and

capacitors loses their intrinsic characteristics.

Also, a limited range of component values is available

from the manufacturer.

Therefore, for microwave frequencies (> 3 GHz), the

passive filter is usually realized using distributed circuit

elements such as transmission line sections.

Here we will focus on stripline microwave circuits.

52

(contd)

of terminated Tline can be used to approximate an inductor and a

capacitor.

This concept forms the basis of transforming the LC passive filter into

distributed circuit elements.

l

Zc ,

l

Zc ,

L

Zo

Zc ,

Zc ,

Zo

Zc ,

Zo

Zo

53

(contd)

Zc ,

between the actual LC filter response and those implemented with

terminated Tline.

Also, the frequency response of the distributed circuit filter is periodic.

Other issues are shown below.

Connection of physical

How do we implement a series Tline

length cannot be

connection? (only practical for

ignored at the

certain Tline configuration)

microwave region,

Zo

comparable to

Zo

Zc ,

Zc ,

Thus

Thussome

sometheorems

theoremsare

areused

usedtoto

facilitate

facilitatethe

thetransformation

transformationof

ofthe

theLC

LC

circuit

circuitinto

intostripline

striplinemicrowave

microwavecircuits.

circuits.

Chief

Chiefamong

amongthese

theseare

arethe

theKurodas

Kurodas

Identities

Identities(See

(SeeAppendix

Appendix1)

1)

54

Tline: Richards Transformation

Z in jZ c tan l jL jL

tan l

Zin

Zc L

Zc ,

(3.1.1a)

we allow Zc to be a variable too.

l

Zin

Zc ,

tan l

(3.1.1b)

Yc 1 C

that:

tan l c 1

Zc

Wavelength at

cut-off frequency

tan

l 1 l

(3.1.1c)

8

c

55

fc = 1.5 GHz.

g3

1.000H

g4

1

g2

2.000F

Zc=1.000

Zo=1

g1

1.000H

Length = c/8

for all Tlines

at = 1 rad/s

Zc=0.500

1 0.500

2.000

Zc=1.000

56

Step 4: Add an extra Tline on the series

connection and apply Kurodas

2nd Identity.

Z1 1.0

Z2=1

Yc

1

n2Z

0.5

2

n2Z1=2

Zc=1.000

Extra Tline

Zc=1.000

Extra Tline

Z

n2 1 2

Z1

1 1 2

1

Zc=1.0

Zc=1.0

Zc=0.500

Similar operation is

performed here

Length = c/8

for all Tlines

at = 1 rad/s

57

After applying Kurodas 2nd Identity

1

Zc=2.0

Zc=2.0

Zc=2.000

Zc=0.500

Zc=2.000

Length = c/8

for all Tlines

at = 1 rad/s

Since

Sinceall

allTlines

Tlineshave

havesimilar

similarphysical

physical

length,

length,this

thisapproach

approachto

tostripline

striplinefilter

filter

implementation

implementationisisalso

alsoknown

knownas

as

Commensurate

CommensurateLine

LineApproach.

Approach.

58

Step 5: Impedance and frequency denormalization

50

Zc=100

impedance with Zo = 50

Zc=100

Zc=100

Zc=25

Zc=100

Length = c/8

for all Tlines at

f = fc = 1.5 GHz

50

Zc/

50

25

100

/8 @ 1.5 GHz/mm

13.45

12.77

14.23

W/mm

2.85

8.00

0.61

We

Wecan

canwork

workout

outthe

thecorrect

correctwidth

widthW

Wgiven

giventhe

the

impedance,

dielectric

constant,

and

thickness.

impedance, dielectric constant, and thickness.

From

FromW/H

W/Hratio,

ratio,the

theeffective

effectivedielectric

dielectricconstant

constant

eff can

be

determined.

Use

this

together

with

eff can be determined. Use this together with

frequency

frequencyatat1.5

1.5GHz

GHztotofind

findthe

thewavelength.

wavelength.

59

Step 6: The layout (top view)

60

Simulated results

S-PARAMETERS

MSub

MTEE

Tee1

Subst="MSub1"

W1=2.85 mm

W2=0.61 mm

W3=0.61 mm

MLIN

TL1

Subst="MSub1"

W=2.85 mm

L=25.0 mm

Term

Term1

Num=1

Z=50 Ohm

MTEE

Tee3

Subst="MSub1"

W1=0.61 mm

W2=0.61 mm

W3=8.00 mm

MLIN

TL3

Subst="MSub1"

W=0.61 mm

L=14.23 mm

MLOC

TL6

Subst="MSub1"

W=0.61 mm

L=14.23 mm

MTEE

Tee2

Subst="MSub1"

W1=0.61 mm

W2=2.85 mm

W3=0.61 mm

MLIN

TL4

Subst="MSub1"

W=0.61 mm

L=14.23 mm

MLOC

TL5

Subst="MSub1"

W=8.0 mm

L=12.77 mm

MLIN

TL2

Subst="MSub1"

W=2.85 mm

L=25.0 mm

MLOC

TL7

Subst="MSub1"

W=0.61 mm

L=14.23 mm

L

L2

C

L=5.305 nH

C1

R=

C=4.244 pF

Term

Term2

Num=2

Z=50 Ohm

m1

freq=1.500GHz

m1=-6.092

Term

Term2

Num=2

Z=50 Ohm

dB(Butter_LPF_LC..S(2,1))

dB(S(2,1))

MSUB

MSub1

H=1.57 mm

Er=4.6

Mur=1

Cond=1.0E+50

Hu=3.9e+034 mil

T=0.036 mm

TanD=0.02

Rough=0 mil

Term

Term1

Num=1

Z=50 Ohm

S_Param

SP1

Start=0.2 GHz

Stop=4.0 GHz

Step=5 MHz

L

L1

L=5.305 nH

R=

m1

-10

-20

-30

-40

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

freq, GHz

61

Further tuning is needed to optimize the frequency

response.

The method illustrated is good for the low pass and

bandstop filter implementation.

For high pass and bandpass, other approaches are

needed.

62

63

Approach

A relatively easy way to implement LPF using

stripline components.

Using alternating sections of high and low

characteristic impedance Tlines to approximate the

alternating L and C elements in an LPF.

Performance of this approach is marginal as it is an

approximation, where a sharp cutoff is not required.

As usual, beware of parasitic passbands!!!

64

T-network equivalent circuit

Z11 Z12

Z11 Z12

Z12

Positive

susceptance

Z11 Z12 jZ c

jZ c

1

sin l

jZ c

sin 2

l

2

l

2

1 cos 2

jZ c tan

l

cos

sin l

2 sin 2 cos 2

l

2

Positive reactance

2 sin 2 2

l

2

l

2

l

2

Zc

Z11 Z 22 jZ c cot l

(3.2.1a)

o e o e k o

(3.2.1c)

65

When l < /2, the series element can be thought of as an inductor and

the shunt element can be considered a capacitor.

X

l

Z11 Z12 Z c tan

2

2

Z11 - Z12

1

1

B

sin l

Z12

Zc

X ZH l

B0

1

X 0

B

l

ZL

Z11 - Z12

When Zc >> 1

l < /4

Z12

jX/2

X ZH l

jX/2

jB

When Zc 1

l < /4

B YLl

66

Tline with high Zc (e.g., ZH) approximates an inductor.

lL

c L

ZH

c CZ L

lC

(3.2.2a)

(3.2.2b)

ZH = 100 to 150 , ZL = 10 to 15 .

67

Impedance Tline Network

(Butterworth).

Let us use the microstrip line. Since a microstrip Tline with low

Zc is wide and a Tline with high Zc is narrow, the transformation

from circuit to physical layout would be as follows:

L1=4.061 nH

g0=1/50

L2=9.803 nH

C1=3.921 pF

C2=1.624 pF

RL= 50

68

Zc = 15

Zc = 50

Zc = 110

W/d

10.0

2.0

0.36

d/mm

1.5

1.5

1.5

W/mm

15.0

3.0

0.6

e

3.68

3.21

2.83

L eL ko eL 2f c 3.3356 10 9 60.307 s 1

H eH ko eH 2f c 3.3356 10 9 53.258s 1

69

l1

c L1

6.5mm

ZH H

Verification:

H l1 0.392 4 0.7854

L l2 0.490 4 0.7854

CZ

l2 c 1 L 9.2mm

L

H l3 0.905 4 0.7854

l3 15.0mm

l4 3.8mm

3.0 mm

L l4 0.202 4 0.7854

l1

l2

l3

Nevertheless we still

proceed with the implementation. It will be seen

that this will affect the

accuracy of the 3 dB cut-off

point of the filter.

l4

50 line

50 line

To 50

Load

15.0 mm

0.6 mm

70

ADS Software

Microstrip step junction

model

71

ADS Software (contd)

m1

freq=1.410GHz

dB(S(2,1))=-3.051

0

m1

dB(S(2,1))

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

freq, GHz

72

ADS Software (contd)

However if we extent the stop frequency for the S-parameter

simulation to 9 GHz...

Parasitic passbands,

artifacts due to using

m1

freq=1.410GHz

transmission lines

dB(S(2,1))=-3.051

0

m1

-5

dB(S(2,1))

-15

-25

0

freq, GHz

73

The 3 dB point is around 1.417 GHz!

2000. The Agilent 8720D Vector

Network Analyzer is used to perform

the S-parameter measurement.

74

Microstrip Line

a

xtr

50

Vs

79.58 nH

15.916 pF

To source

network

o

4

J1

90o

0.7072 nH

Admittance

inverter

Tline

J2

90o

0.1414 pF

15.916 pF

and Kurodas identities)

J3

90o

J4

90o

To RL

An array of coupled

microstrip line

o

4

Section 1

0.7072 nH

RL

50

An equivalent circuit

model for coupled Tlines

with open circuit at

two ends.

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

o ==wavelength

wavelengthatatoo

o

75

Microstrip Line (contd)

a

xtr

E

d. These parameters can be determined from the values of the odd and

even mode impedances (Zoo & Zoe) of each coupled line.

W

Zoo and Zoe are in turn depend on the gain of the corresponding

admittance inverter J.

From Example 2.3

Z oe Z o 1 JZ o JZ o 2

fo

Z oo

f1 f 2 1.497GHz

2

o

2 g1

J1 Z1

Z 1 JZ

1 2 1.4GHz

2 2 1.6GHz

0.133

JZ

o

o

J n 2 Z1

for n 2,3,4 N

g n 1g n

o

J N 1 Z1

2 g N g N 1

76

Microstrip Line (contd)

a

xtr

E

Section 1:

J1

0.009163

2 g1

1

Zo

Section 2:

J2

1

2Zo

Z oe1 Z o 1 J1Z o J1Z o 2 83.403

Z oo 2 Z o 1 J 2 Z o J 2 Z o 2 43.680

0.002969

g1g 2

Z oe 2 Z o 1 J 2 Z o J 2 Z o 2 58.523

0.002969

g 2 g3

Z oe3 83.403

0.009163

2 g3 g 4

Z oe 4 58.523

Section 3:

J 3 2 Z1

Z oo3 37.588

Section 4:

J 4 Z1

o

Z oo 4 43.680

Note:

Note:

gg1=1.0000

1=1.0000

gg2=2.0000

2=2.0000

gg3=1.0000

3=1.0000

gg4=1.0000

=1.0000

4

77

Microstrip Line (contd)

a

xtr

E

the coupled transmission line structures needed in the BPF. Stripline

does not suffer from dispersion and its propagation mode is pure TEM

mode, however it is more difficult to implement physically due to the

fact that the trace is buried within the dielectric.

Design equations for coupled microstrip line implemented are widely

tabulated.

Here we will use FR4 (r = 4.6, r = 1.0) substrate with 1.0mm dielectric

thickness, and 1 ounce copper (about 36m thick) copper laminate.

The conductivity of copper is around 5.8107 Siemens/meter.

Furthermore we will use the LineCal tool in Advanced Design System

to work out the dimensions needed for the coupled microstrip line.

78

tra

x

E

the Coupled Microstrip Line (contd)

Using the LineCal tool to work out the dimensions for sections

1 and 3.

Strategy:

1) We tune the W and

S for the specified

Zoo and Zoe.

2) Then we tune the length L

to meet the electrical length of

/2 (quarter wavelength) at

1.5GHz.

Zoe

Zoo

Zo

Fix the frequency at Voltage coupling

Electrical length (l ), 90o for quarter

1.5GHz, the center factor in dB

wavelength.

of passband

79

tra

x

E

the Coupled Microstrip Line (contd)

Using the LineCal tool to work out the dimensions for

sections 2 and 4.

80

tra

x

E

the Coupled Microstrip Line (contd)

Alternatively we can implement our own design tool, as shown below implemented on

Microsoft Excel .

J.,Characteristics of coupled microstriplines, IEEE

Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques,

MTT-27, No.7, pp. 700-705,July 1979.

Strategy:

1) We tune the W and

S for the specified Zoo and Zoe.

2) Based on the width W of

a single trace, we work out

the effective permittivity, and

use this to calculate the phase

velocity.

3) From this we find the

wavelength at 1.5GHz and

work out the required quarter

wavelength.

81

Software

a

xtr

E

Ideal open circuit

Ideal coupled tline

82

Software (contd)

a

xtr

E

elements, these are not present if lumped components

are used.

1.0

mag(S(2,1))

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

2fo

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

freq, GHz

83

ADS Software (contd)

a

xtr

Open circuit

model

84

Software (contd)

a

xtr

E

1.0

0.9

0.8

mag(S(2,1))

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

freq, GHz

85

Network analysis and realizability theory

Synthesis of terminated RLCM 1-port circuits

Ideal impedance and admittance inverters and

practical implementation

Periodic structures theory

Filter design by the Image Parameter Method (IPM).

86

LPF

HPF:

BPF:

SMD capacitor

87

More BPFs:

BSF:

88

89

Kurodas Identities

As extracted from

Ref. [2]

l

1

Z2

Z1

Z2

Z1

Z1

n

n2Z1

1

2

n Z2

Z2/n

Note:

Note:The

The

length

lengthofofall

all

transmission

transmission

lines

linesisis

l l==/8

/8

1: n2

2

Z1

n2

l

1

Z2

l

Z1

Z2

Z1

Z2/n

l

Z1

Z

n2 1 2

shorted Tline while the capacitor

represents the open-circuit Tline.

n2Z1

n2: 1

1

n2Z

90

References

[1] R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering, 2nd Edition 1992,

McGraw-Hill.

[2] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 2nd Edition 1998, John-Wiley &

Sons.* (3rd Edition 2005, John-Wiley & Sons is now available)

Other more advanced references:

[3] W. Chen (Editor), The Circuits and Filters Handbook, 1995, CRC

Press.*

[4] I. Hunter, Theory and Design of Microwave Filters, 2001, The Institution

of Electrical Engineers.*

[5] G. Matthaei, L. Young, E.M.T. Jones, Microwave Filters, ImpedanceMatching Networks, and Coupling Structures, 1980, Artech House.*

[6] F. F. Kuo, Network Analysis and Synthesis, 2nd Edition 1966, JohnWiley & Sons.

**Recommended

Recommended

91

- _delineation of the Subsurface Structures and Tectonics of QarunUploaded byShadi Garma
- Filter DesignUploaded bywferry27
- EE 230 Remote ReceiverUploaded byBrittany Duffy
- Butterworth FilterUploaded bySauravAbidRahman
- Electronics CauglinUploaded byOdbhoot Sei Cheleti
- A Circuit Model for Two-path Cutoff Waveguide Dr Filters - DticUploaded byAmador Garcia III
- filtercad3.0Uploaded byAlberto Alonso
- FiltersUploaded byJarfo
- Order of FilterUploaded byIqraJahan
- Ah 34207211Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- A49!3!4 Jurisic08 Low Sensitivity Single Amplifier Active RC Allpole Filters Using TablesUploaded byDrazen Jurisic
- Microwave Filter[3755]Uploaded byPrince
- ME3100 Slide07 Active Filter Design and Implementation - V1.10Uploaded byHans Blacido
- sintesis filtrosUploaded byAndres Lopez
- MfcUploaded byAlexander Wiese
- 3907 RFcircuit Synthesis Webcast Mar28 07Uploaded byMariano Diaz
- Analog Filter DesignUploaded bykemo_750252831
- TestingUploaded byNur Athirah
- tp4 traitement (1)Uploaded byDhekra Jbeli
- Frequency TransformationUploaded byGuru Velmathi
- Lab1Uploaded byFatima Adly
- AD State Variable Filter DesignUploaded byKinkhKayo
- PS-IDG-0650-00-03Uploaded byJaspreet Singh
- Lab PrintUploaded byமனோஜ் தர்மராஜன்
- Lab DspmanUploaded byPradeep Kumar Singhal
- 32 Filters - In Radio Communications.pdfUploaded byAVINASH
- MfcUploaded byAlexander Wiese
- MfcUploaded byAlexander Wiese
- MfcUploaded byAlexander Wiese
- Lab 9 RC Active Filters.docxUploaded byAhmad Raheel

- 41.basicUploaded bycaptainhass
- Prophet666.Com-Saraswati Mantras for Quick KnowledgeUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- Getting Started.pdfUploaded byahmad brata
- 5_6314528113342546032Uploaded byabhishek sharma
- Hindu ScienceUploaded bymanyascribda2
- advertisement.pdfUploaded byPriyanshi Agrawal
- Central AmericaUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- Brochure Hcs (Eb) 2017Uploaded byKkkk Zkskd
- Fr Esem 2018 EnglUploaded byNDTV
- competition actUploaded byRamapriyaiyengar
- frbm1Uploaded byDeepsekhar Choudhury
- 36837_b04e8506654a48178ad955f59503fc2fUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- jmazno.txtUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- jmaznoUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- 1allUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- 2018 GS Prelims Paper [Shashidthakur23.Wordpress.com]Uploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- jaUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- Demonetisation and Bank NotesUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- duck.txtUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- PTPS.pdfUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- Aaj Bhi Khare Hain TalaabUploaded byrajivdixitmp3.com
- Health Book FinalUploaded byrajivdixitmp3.com
- 352_32115_EC434_2012_4__3_1_Chapter_03Uploaded byAustin Hall
- Minor ProjectUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल
- chanakya neeti.pdfUploaded byहिमाँशु पाल

- KATHERINE JACKSON V AEG Live May 17th 2013 TRANSCRIPTS Marty Hom (Tour promoter)By video http://youtu.be/DepL_bnrLSwUploaded byTeamMichael
- Untold Pinoy Stories - SeriesUploaded byTechnicianTools
- Ros Repeater ExperienceUploaded byTuan Tocdai
- Globolisation and CultureUploaded byDavide Mwale
- GSM OSS Optimization LectureUploaded byEL Arellano Marasigan
- Are you dating a narcissist? Take our quizUploaded byzadanliran
- Snow White and the 7 DwarfsUploaded byRallia Saatsoglou
- MIMO Beam Forming for Multi Cast Services in 4G ScenariosUploaded byarun_sakre
- ISO_13406-2Uploaded bysofronije2005
- gcm theatre classesUploaded byapi-247354502
- Nec Ipasolink Vr Ex Exadv ShortUploaded byMadeline Curry
- Jazz in filmUploaded byAnonymous F6eJWM
- Music Events During the Classical PeriodUploaded byGeorge Petre
- 0738148423.pdfUploaded byJames Hudson Howlett
- Rainbow ConnectionUploaded bykarna78
- 40-exotic-guitar-scales-patterns-140607135456-phpapp02.pdfUploaded bysebastianhernandeze
- SP451Uploaded byFranklin Žuvić
- Ahd Digital DvrUploaded byRobson Cavalieri
- Costa Cálida Chronicle October 2014Uploaded bycostacalidachronicle
- Te Quiero Hombres g Bass OkUploaded byjassguitar
- Manual+de+Servicio+Cf500+y+Cf600Uploaded byWilson Bueno
- MyHomeilumManual03Uploaded bywilfredo
- MacNeil Audio Engineering CVUploaded byTopherJoseph
- BSCMTUploaded byqbit42
- Image Processing 7-FrequencyFiltering.pptUploaded bymhòa_43
- John Hughes - Ferris Bueller's Day Off ScriptUploaded byDiego Cunha
- Covach - The Hippie AestheticUploaded byCar Cortes Stefanoni
- Arizona Wing - Oct 2008Uploaded byCAP History Library
- elision.pdfUploaded byFari Daa
- Amsden Celebrated DuetsUploaded byJosh Shaevitz