High Temp Superconductors Lecture

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High Temp Superconductors Lecture

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phenomenology of HiTc

superconductors.

Patrick Lee and T. Senthil

MIT

Nagaosa and Wen, Rev Mod Phys,78,17(2006) and Lee, Reports of Progress in

Physics, 71,012501(2008))

Thermodynamic measurements: specific heat, spin susceptibility.

Transport: resistivity, Hall, magneto-resistance (angle dependence ADMR).

thermo-power, thermal conductivity.

quantum oscillations.

AC conductivity, optical, microwave and IR, time domain spectroscopy.

Neutron scattering

NMR

ARPES

Tunneling and STM.

3. Pseudo-gap physics.

eg

dz2, dx2-y2

3d

t2g

dxy,dyz,dzx

Octahedral

field splitting

X2-y2

z2

system

One hole per site: should be a metal according to band theory.

Mott insulator.

Mott Insulator due to

e- - e- interaction

Virtual hopping induces

AF exchange J=4t2/U

La3+ Sr2+: La2-xSrxCuO4

Mott insulator

Electron picture

Hole picture

measured by neutron scattering. (also

needs a small ring exchange term.)

Also from Raman scattering.

bonds, costs 3J.

metal oxide, except for the Cu-O

chain compound where J=220meV.

Due to AF exchange

between Cu and O, the

singlet symmetric orbital

gains a large energy, of

order 6 eV. This singlet

orbital can hop with

effective hopping t given

by:

Symmetric orbital

centered on Cu.

Anti-symmetric orbital

Single band Hubbard model, or its strong

coupling limit, the t-J model.

Dope

holes

1) low dimension

nn S S

2) H = J

i

j

large J = 135 meV

t3J

Competition:

J favors ordering of localized spins

(NNN hopping t may explain asymmetry

Between electron and hole doping )

1. Well defined quasi-particles exist provided 1/<<E near the Fermi energy.

Usually 1/ ~ T^2. The electron spectral function has the form

same as free fermion, ie For n carriers it is n/2 mod 1

of the area of the BZ.

3. Physical quantities are given by free fermion

expressions except for Landau parameters.

Except for tunneling, z does not appear.

is doubled. We have small

pockets of total area equal to x

times the area of BZ.

Area in the reduced BZ is

Total Fermi surface area is

1. Single hole.

2. Small doping

3. Superconducting state.

4. Fermi liquid.

5. Pseudo-gap.

How many ways does Nature have to deal with doping a Mott insulator?

Electron doped.

Micro phase separation: stripes

Organic ET salts.

Possibility of a spin liquid.

Doping yields a superconductor.

A second family of HiTc superconductors!

electrons are localized.

What is the origin of the p-h asymmetry? Hopping of electron on

Cu (d10) is physically different from hopping of a Zhang-Rice

singlet located on the oxygen. One possibility is polaron effect is

stronger on the electron side.

J=31 meV

X<0.2 commensurate spin order,

localized hole. (polaron effect?)

0.2<x diagonal stripe with 1 hole

per Ni. (microscopic phase

separation into Ni2+ and Ni3+).

Non-metallic until x=0.9

Smaller J means it is deeper in the Mott phase.

Effective hopping is also small and polaron

effects favor localized carriers.

the stripe (2 Cu sites) : mobile charge.

3 dim perovskite structure.

X=0 is a band insulator, x=1 is a Mott insulator.

For x=1, Ti is d1 and has S=1/2. Very small

optical gap (0.2eV). Surprisingly small TN=150K,

(reduced due to orbital degeneracy).

Specific heat = T

Diverging mass near the Mott insulator. m*/m=1/xh, z=xh.

e^2n/m*

is proportional to xh , even

though Fermi surface is large and has

volume x=1-xh as inferred from the Hall effect.

U/t

AF Mott insulator

Cuprate superconductor

Tc=100K, t=.4eV, Tc/t=1/40.

Organic superconductor

Tc=12K, t=.05eV, Tc/t=1/40.

metal

ET

dimer model

X

Mott insulator

X = Cu(NCS)2, Cu[N(CN)2]Br,

Cu2(CN)3..

t t

t

anisotropic triangular lattice

t / t = 0.5 ~ 1.1

AF?

Slater vs Mott.

answer is yes.

A digression on spin liquid.

Q2D antiferromagnet

-Cu[N(CN)2]Cl

t/t=0.75

Q2D antiferromagnet

-Cu[N(CN)2]Cl

t/t=0.75

-Cu2(CN)3

t/t=1.06

No AF order down to 35mK.

J=250K.

C nuclear

[A. Kawamoto et al. PRB 70, 060510 (04)]

energy spin excitation (spinon Fermi surface ?)

is about 15 mJ/K^2mole

surface due to spinon pairing?

one at T=0.

Thermal conductivity

ET2Cu(NCS)2 9K sperconductor

ET2Cu2(CN)3

Pressure data form Taniguchi et al, J. Phys soc Japan, 76, 113709 (2007).

Proximity to Mott insulator.

singlet and d-wave pairing.

repulsive models, and if so, how do we understand it?

energy. By making singlet pairs, we can gain exchange

energy.

Theory for t-J model: self consistent Born approx. of hole scattered by AF

magnon works very well. (Kane,Lee and Read, 1989 , Schmitt-Rink et al,.).

Main conclusions: the dispersion is given by an effective hopping of order J. The

hole spectrum has a coherent part with relative spectral weight (J/t) and a broad

incoherent part spreading over t.

ARPES data: review by X. J. Zhou et al, cond-mat0604284)

Not the whole story: line width very broad (300meV) and comparable to

dispersion. To explain this, need to include strong electron phonon

coupling (polaron). Line-shape is interpreted as Franck-Condon effect as

in molecular H2. However, the peak of the spectral function is still given

by the bare dispersion.

Message: one band t-J model works, but need strong e-phonon coupling.

conserved. Measure ejected electron energy

and infer the energy and momentum of the hole

left behind.

Surface sensitive probe.

Resolution a few meV.

Recent Laser ARPES employs VUV lasers

(about 7 eV). Energy resolution 0.26meV.

Deeper penetration. Limited k space coverage.

No tunability.

Light Source

Energy Resolution (meV)

Momentum Resolution

(-1)

Photon Flux(Photons/s)

Electron Escape Depth

(A)

Photon Energy Tunability

k-Space Coverage

VUV Laser

0.26

0.0036

(6.994eV)

Synchrotron

5~15

0.0091

(21.1eV)

1014~1015

30~100

1012-1013

5~10

Limited

Small

Tunable

Large

BSCCO or Bi-2212

LSCO

YBCO

Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+

Bi-2201

(Bi2Sr2CuO6+x)

Simple, x is known,

Cleanest. Doping by varying

disorder. Low Tc.

oxygen conc. on chains.

Cleavage plane.

Disorder.

.

064512 (2004)

of layers, Tc does not

go up further. The

inner planes have less

hole and may be AF

ordered.

2. Small doping.

DC transport.

Boltzmann conductivity:

=ne^2/m

Hall effect:

RH=1/nec

Anomalous T dependence.

Optical conductivity

Timusk and Statt,Rep Prog Phys 62,61 (99)

From reflectivity or ellipsometry,

deduce Re and Im parts of

Extended Drude formula:

incoherent part.

No divergent mass enhancement. m*/me~4.

Drude spectral wt (n/m*) is proportional to x with no T

dependence. This wt becomes the superfluid density in the SC.

Scattering rate is roughly 2kT and becomes linear in at high

frequencies.

the superfluid density and is

proportional to x

Neutron scattering:

In the absence of long range order, we can measure equal time

correlation function by integrating over

Reduced from classical moment of

unity due to quantum fluctuations of

S=1/2.

NMR

Very important for the study of new materials.

but free from impurity contributions. Line is often

broadened by random distribution of local fields.

Need good quality material. The shift and onset of

line broadening can be used to measure spin order.

S (T)+ VV +core+impurity(T)

K=KS (T) + KVV + Kcore

K S ~ S

KVV ~ VV

energy spectrum of spin fluctuations.

For example, planar oxygen site does not see AF q=(

but Cu site does.

For metals, Korringa relation:

3. NQR. Measure local electric field distribution.

One component vs two component system: validity of the one band Hubbard model.

have identical T dependence.

with interaction V between Cu and O is needed. He

proposes the existence of orbital currents in the plane

between Cu and O. These currents occur within the unit cell

and does not change the unit cell.

neutron scattering. The onset of these

currents seem related to T*, the pseudogap scale.

However, the moments are about 45

degrees from the plane. Numerical studies

find orbital currents between planar and

apical oxygen. (Weber et al, ArXiv

0803.3983). Perhaps these effects do not

affect the Fermi surface.

(ferromagnetic like) by polar Kerr effect

at slightly lower temperature. (Xia,

Kapitulnik,PRL 100,127002 (08))

Pairing is d symmetry.

Phase sensitive measurements.

flux vortex at the junction.

Standard hc/2e votex

everywhere else.

2. Corner SQUID.

Wollman et al 1993.

Tsuei and Kirtley Rev Mod Phys 2000.

Superfluid stiffness Ks is related to the Drude spectral wt..

relaxation rate which measures the magnetic field

distribution near the vortex. Note very long several

thousand angstrom) implies very small stiffness or

superfluid density.

between Tc and ns/m*.

by the overlapping fields of vortices)

causes a damping of the oscillations.

Another set-up is zero field muSR, which is

very sensitive to static (on the scale of the

muon lifetime of 2 micro-sec) internal

magnetic field (as low as a few gauss) due

to magnetic ordering or spin glass freezing.

via the Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism of

proliferation of vortices and anti-vortices.

They predict a universal relation:

by the energy gap as in BCS

theory. Strong violation of BCS

relation 2/kTc~4.

The dynamics of phase fluctuations is probed

by microwave conductivity by Corson et al

Nature 398,221 (1999) in UD Bi-2212 Tc 74K.

For a SC:

Scaling function:

Isotope effect.

YBCO

Summary:

Substantial isotope effect on Tc for underdoped, but little

or no isotope effect for optimal and overdoped.

However, there is isotope effect on ns/m* for all doping.

(unexplained: needs better understanding of e-phonon

in strongly correlated materials.)

On the other hand there is no isotope effect on Fermi

velocity by Laser ARPES, while there is shift in kink

energy. (Iwasawa..Dessau,PRL101,157005(08)

m*/m=1+, but usually has no isotope effect.

that in UD, Tc is controlled by ns/m*.

If Tc~ns/m*, we expect Tc/Tc=-2line

but datais closer to Tc/Tc=- (line B)

complicated dependence on ns/m*.

1. Quasi-particle dispersion shifted by electromagnetic gauge field A.

Set R to the average spacing between vortices.

Predicts a specific heat which goes as sqrt(B)

and observed by K. Moler.

2. Universal ac conductivity and thermal

conductivity. ( Lee, 93, Durst and Lee 2000)

Devereaux and Hackl, Rev Mod Phys 79, 175(2007)

Non-resonant

resonant

of lattice point symmetry. For square lattice:

(k)=

(k)=

Expected contribution

from quasi-particle,

quasi-hole excitation.

The broad continuum comes from

incoherent electronic excitations.

Summary:

The superconducting state is singlet d-wave pairing. The nodes dominate

low temperature properties and are well characterized.

In the underdoped region, Tc is determined by phase fluctuation and not

by the vanishing of the pairing gap. As a result, the energy gap is large

even though Tc is small.

While unusual, a lot of the physical properties of the superconducting

state at low temperature can be understood based on a conventional

physical picture.

As we will see, questions remain as to what happens at higher

temperature above Tc and in a high magnetic field which restores the

resistive state. Furthermore, the precise behavior of the gap near the

anti-node ( remains to be clarified.

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