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V.PADMA SHEELA IIYEAR
Running Injuries - Running Injury Welcome to the quest of running injury free! This site is for the thousands of runners, joggers, and walkers who are not concerned with how fast they can ... www.runnersrescue.com/ - Cached - Similar · Running Injury - Common Injuries in Runners 21 Dec 2009 ... Running places extraordinary demands on an athlete's feet, legs, and entire body. Many common conditions affect runners, ... orthopedics.about.com/cs/sportsmedicine/.../ru nninginjury.htm - Cached - Similar · PDF] Microsoft PowerPoint - Common Orthopedic Running Injuries File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View Running Injuries: An Illustration. Dr. Raju
Introduction Biomechanics of running Common Injuries and Treatments Causes of Common Injuries Measures to Avoid Injury
BIOMECHANICS OF RUNNING
MOST COMMON RUNNING INJURIES
Muscle Tears Low back pain Medial Tibial Stress syndrome ( shin splints ) Iliotibial band syndrome Quads strain Hamstring strain Runner ’ s knee Runner ’ s cramp Peroneal
sprain Plantar Fasciitis Stress fractures Hip bursitis Groin pain Patello femoral pain syndrome ACL / PCL injury Meniscal injury Prepatellar bursitis Popliteal cyst
MOST COMMON RUNNING INJURIES
schlatter ’ s disease Osteoarthritis Side stitch Athletes foot Blisters Verruca ( warts ) Hadelung deformity
o Turf toe Calcanei apophysitis Morton ’ s neuroma Metatarsalgia Entrapment syndromes Compartment syndromes
CAUSES OF INJURIES
by 1) Training errors 2) Inappropriate footwear 3) Inadequate strength 4) Inadequate flexibility 5) Poor biomechanics
FACTORS RELATED TO RISKS OF RUNNING INJURIES
üPrevious injury üLack of running experience üCompetitive running üExcessive weekly running distance üLow body mass
Assessment Physical Assessment
COMMON ANATOMICAL DISORDERS
ØReduced ankle ROM ØLeg- length asymmetry ØIncreased quadriceps angle ØBow legs ØKnock knees, club foot ØSubtalar hyper mobility ØHigh arch/flat foot
ACUTE MUSCLE TEAR
Ice Strengthening Stretching
CHRONIC MUSCLE TEAR
LOW BACK PAIN
Contributing factors : üWeak abdominals üBack muscles üTight hamstrings üFoot imbalance
caused by : ØRunning on hard surfaces, ØRunning on tip toes & sports where a lot of jumping is involved.
ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME
SITE OF PAIN
Signs / Symptoms : Pain on outer side of knee Pain usually increases with run Subsides slowly after run
Grade I strain: ü C/o tightness in thigh ü Passive knee flexion beyond 90 painful Grade II strain : ü Snapping/tearing during explosive activities Grade III strain : ü Extremely painful & ambulation not possible.
frequently strained muscles in the body & are typically caused by rapid contraction of muscle during ballistic action/ violent stretch.
CAUSES : üOver pronation üWeak quadriceps üIncorrect/ worn shoes üOver training
cause of cramps is
Occurs as lack of stretching/ loosening of muscles Occur from dehydration/ electrolyte deficiency shallow breathing which ultimately leads to a lack of oxygen. cramps is eating too much / not enough before a race or workout. Some foods that take longer to digest could be in your stomach for hours &will likely make their presence known if you chose to “eat & run”.
of the diaphragm muscle
with fast running & uncomfortable breathing requires breathing out fully rather than panting
TREATMENT : üImmobilization üMedications üPhysical therapy üBracing
Inflammation of the Achilles tendon most often occurring at the insertion on the back of the heel.
TOTAL RUPTURE OF ACHILLES TENDINITIS
ØCommon in older men who are recreational athletes.
CAUSES: ØRunning on uneven surface. ØFoot imbalance ØOver pronation
PLANTAR FASCITIS/ HEEL PAIN
ØThe Plantar Fascia is a broad, thick band of tissue that runs from under the heel to the front of the foot
PLANTAR FASCITIS/ HEEL PAIN
DEFINITION : Inflammation of plantar fascia most often occurring at the origin on the heel (inside edge).
TREATMENTS OF PLANTAR FASCIITIS
METATARSAL STRESS FRACTURE
concentration of stress Bones insufficiently strong Abnormal foot structure / mechanics.
NSAIDs , rest , u / s , IFT . Strengthening of hip abductors . Stretching for ITB , hip flexor , hamstring , gluteus .
Phase I : Static adductor exercise Abdominal curls Phase II : Gluteal leg raise Single leg squats Slide board skating
PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME
MANAGEMENT : CPRICE CROM within pain free limits CStrengthening exercises CCV fitness CBalance & proprioception CFunctional activities.
POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS : ØMilder cases : Intense pain & sense of stretching . ØTotal rupture : characteristic pop / snap is felt . ØEffusion & hemarthrosis occur rapidly .
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS: o Localized pain & joint line tenderness. o Pain will occur on rotation & extreme flexion of knee (deep knee squats) o May experience popping, grinding/clicking sensation
TREATMENT : Ice therapy A compressive wrap NSAIDs Avoid activities that irritate the condition § Corticosteroid injections. § § § §
cyst is swelling caused by fluid from the knee joint protruding to the back of the knee. When an excess of knee joint fluid is compressed by the body weight between the bones of the knee joint, it can become trapped & separate from the joint to form the fluid-filled sac of a Baker cyst.
OSGOOD SCHLATTERS DISEASE
TREATMENT: vReduce running & jumping activities vIcing vStretching quads.
(also called degenerative joint disease) is the degradation and degeneration of this articular cartilage
CAUSES : Due to excessive sweat. Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments . Not changing your socks . A common port of infection is in changing rooms in the gym as this condition can spread between individuals.
ØBlisters can occur anywhere on the foot but they are more likely to occur on the toes & the sole of the foot due to friction & traction forces.
a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes. This often leads to painful bursitis, which is an inflammation of the bursa (a fluid-filled sac between the tendon and bone).
CAUSES : COver pronation CHereditary factors
·Turf toe can occur after a very vigorous upward bending of the big toe
TREATMENT: ØRest ØIcing, NSAIDs ØHeel lifts, heel cups ØStrapping the foot ØFlexibility exercise ØStrengthening exercise
SYMPTOMS: 1. Numbness / tenderness in the foot 2. Pain, numbness, burning & tingling sensations can radiate around the foot. 3. Severe pain may be present at weight bearing.
Mechanism of Injury : qFaulty distribution of weight on the forefoot. qSudden trauma
Neuropathy Sciatic Neuropathy Meralgia Paresthetica Common Peroneal Neuropathy Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome – Tibial nerve entrapment Sural nerve entrapment Distal Peroneal Neuropathy
compartment syndrome deep posterior compartment (2030%)
compartment(1020%) Anterior compartment syndrome (50-60%)
HOW TO AVOID INJURY
SIDELINE PREPARATION FOR TEAM PHYSICIAN
GOAL : üAdequate onsite medical care & the safety of every athlete . üThis goal can be accomplished by intergrading medical systems that include üPreseason planning üGame - day planning & üPost - season evaluation
DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS & ATHLETICS
Reasons for taking supplements: Recommended by family member/friend Recommended by coach/trainer Recommended by nutritionist/dietician Recommended by physician/pharmacist Inadequate diet Improve athletic performance
better/increased energy levels Prevent illness Prevent disease Build muscle
THE AGING ATHLETE: RISKS & BENEFITS OF EXERCISE
Physiological changes of cardiopulmonary system that affect exercise. Decline in cardiac output Decline in max. HR Decline in VO2 max Decrease capillary- muscle peripheral blood flow Decrease myocardial muscle mass.
Physiological changes in MS that affect exercise after age 50. Decreased collagen water content Decreased lean body/muscle mass Decreased strength Decreased type II muscle fibres Decreased type IX articular cartilage Increased body fat
SOME BASIC TIPS
CDo not increase mileage by more than 10% a week. CDo not run more that 45 miles a week. CDo not run / stand on uneven surfaces. CDo not run on sand. CDo not run through pain. CIce often. CChange your running shoes every 450 miles. CWork regularly on strengthening.