You are on page 1of 146

FOUNDATIONS

Prepared by: Rahul


Matariya
Lecturer
Atmiya institute of
technology

FOUNDATION
Every structure consists of two parts:
Sub-structure or foundation and
Super structure

Foundation : It is the lowest part of a structure


which is constructed below the ground level.
The function of foundation is to transmit
the weight of super structure to the sub soil.

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
1. SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS (D<= B)
2. GDEEP FOUNDATIONS
(D>=L B)

FOUNDATION

TYPES OF FONDATIONS
1.

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
SPREAD FOOTING
ISOLATED COLUMN
FOUNDATION
COMBINED FOUNDATION
MAT OR RAFT
FOUNDATION
GRILLAGE FOUNDATION
STRAP FOOTING

2. DEEP FONDATIONS
PILE FOUNDATIONS
COFFER DAM
WELL FOUNDATIONS
OR CAISSON

SPREAD FOOTING
1.
2.
3.
4.

WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING


REINFORCED CONCRETE FOOTING
INVERTED ARCH FOOTING
COLUMN FOOTING OR ISOLATED
FOOTING

WALL FOUNDATION

WALL

PCC

WALL

II FOOTING

I FOOTING

SIMPLE
FOUNDATION

PCC

STEPPED
FOUNDATION

SIMPLE WALL FOOTING

STEPPED WALL FOOTING

REINFORCED CONCRETE
FOOTING

INVERTED ARCH FOOTING

COLUMN FOOTING OR ISOLATED


FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING

CANTILEVER OR STRAP
FOOTING

RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATION

GRILLAGE FOUNDATION

DEEP FOUNDATION
1.PILE FOUNDATIONS
2.COFFER DAM
3.WELL FOUNDATIONS OR
CAISSON

What is Pile Foundation?


Pile foundation is a special kind of deep
foundation, where the depth of the foundation is
much greater than the width of the foundation.
Today, pile foundation is much more common than any other
type of deep foundation.

It is used;
1.where the soil is compressible,
2.where the soil is water logged and
3.when stratum of required bearing capacity is at
greater depth.
The major uses of piles:
To carry vertical compression loads,
To resist uplift loads
To resist horizontal or inclined loads

Classification of Piles:
Based on the function;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

End bearing Pile


Friction Pile
Compaction Pile
Tension Pile or Uplift Pile
Anchor Pile
Fender Pile and Dolphins
Batter Pile
Sheet Pile

Based on the material & composition;


1.
2.
3.
4.

Concrete Pile
Timber Pile
Steel Pile
Composite Pile: Concrete & Timber, Concrete & Steel

Based on the method of installation;


1. Driven Pile
2. Cast-in-situ Pile

3.Driven and cast- in- situ Pile

Situations Which Demand Pile


Foundation
Sub-soil water table is so high that it can easily
affect the other foundations.
Load coming from the structure is heavy and non
uniform.
Where grillage or raft foundations are either very
costly or their adoption impossible due to local
difficulties.
When it is not possible to maintain foundation
trenches in dry condition by pumping, due to
very heavy inflow of seepage or capillary water.
When it is not possible to timber the excavation
trenches in the case of deep strip foundation.
(strip foundation- spread footing under wall ).

Situations Which Demand Pile


Foundation
When overlay soil is compressible, and water(Contd)
logged and firm hard bearing strata is located at

quite a large depth.


When structures are located on river-bed or seashore and foundations are likely to be scoured
due to action of water.
Large fluctuations in sub-soil water level.
Canal or deep drainage lines exist near the
foundations.
In the construction of docks, piers and other
marine structures they are used as fender piles.

Types of Piles Based on


Function
a) Classification based on Function or Use
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Bearing Piles or End Bearing Piles


Friction Piles or Skin Friction Piles
Tension Piles or Uplift Piles
Anchor Piles
Batter Piles
Fender Piles
Compaction Piles
Sheet Piles

CLASSIFICATION OF PILES
BASED ON FUNCTION
PILES
END BEARING PILES FRICTION PILES

COMPACTION PILES

TENSION PILES

ANCHOR PILES

CLASSIFICATION OF PILES
BASED ON MATERIALS AND
COMPOSITION
PILES

CONCRETE PILES TIMBER PILES

STEEL PILES

COMPOSITE PILES

PRE-CAST PILES

H - PILE

CONCRETE AND TIMBER

CAST-IN SITU PILES

PIPE PILE

CONCRETE AND STEEL

SHEET PILE

Types of Piles Based on Function


(contd)
Bearing Piles

Driven into the ground until a hard stratum is


reached.

Acts as pillars supporting the super-structure and


transmitting the load to the ground.

END BEARING PILE : These piles are used to transfer


load
through water or soft
soil to a suitable
bearing
stratum.

SOFT
SOIL
END BEARING PILE

End Bearing Piles

PILES

ROCK

SOFT SOIL

Types of Piles Based on Function


(contd)

Friction Piles
Piles are driven at a site where soil is weak or soft to a
considerable depth and it is not economical or
rather possible to rest the bottom end of the pile on
the hard stratum,
Load is carried by the friction developed between
the sides of the pile and the surrounding ground
( skin friction).
The piles are driven up to such a depth that skin
friction developed at the sides of the piles equals
the load coming on the piles.

Types of Piles Based on Function


(contd)

Friction Piles
Skin friction should be carefully evaluated and
suitable factor of safety applied
The load carrying capacity of friction pile can be
increased by increasing diameter of the pile
increasing the depth of pile
increasing the number of piles (use as group of
piles)
making surface of the pile rough

Friction Piles

SOFT SOIL

FRICTION PILE:These piles are used to transfer loads


to a
depth of a friction load
carrying material by
means of skin friction along the length
of
pile.

FRICTION
PILE

Types of Piles Based on


Function (contd)

COMPACTION PILE: These piles are used to compact


loose
soils, thus increasing their bearing
capacity. The compaction piles themselves do not
carry any load. Hence they may be of weaker
material (sand). The pile
tube, driven to compact
the soil, is gradually taken out
and sand is filled
in its place thus forming a sand pile.

COMPACTION PILE

Types of Piles Based on Function


(contd)
Anchor Piles

Piles are used to provide anchorage against


horizontal pull from sheet piling wall or other
pulling forces.

Batter piles:

Piles are driven at an inclination to resist large


horizontal and inclined forces.

Types of Piles Based on Function


(contd)
Fender piles:

Piles are used to protect concrete deck or other


water front structures from the abrasion or
impact caused from the ships or barges.
Ordinarily made up of timber.

Types of Piles Based on


Function (contd)

o
o
o
o
o
o

Sheet Piles
Sheet piles are never used to provide vertical
support but mostly used to act as retaining walls.
They are used for the following purposes:
To construct retaining walls in docks, and other marine
works.
To protect erosion of river banks.
To retain the sides of foundation trenches.
To confine the soil to increase its bearing capacity.
To protect the foundation of structures from erosion by
river or sea.
To isolate foundations from adjacent soils.

Types of Piles Based on


Function (contd)

Figure: Sheet Piles

Types of Piles Based on


Function (contd)

Types of Piles Based on


Materials
b) Classification based on Materials
1.

Timber Piles

2.

Concrete Piles

3.

Composite Piles

4.

Steel Piles

5.

Sand Piles

Timber
Concrete; Site cast or Precast
Composite
Steel; H- piles, Steel pipe

Types of Piles Based on


Materials (contd)
1. Timber Piles:

Transmission of load takes place by the frictional


resistance of ground and the pile surface.
Economical to support light structure.
Piles made from timber of tree like Sal, Teak, Deodar,
Babul, Kail etc.
May be circular, square in x-section.
Piles are driven with the help of pile driving machine
in which drop hammers delivers blows on the pile
head.
Brooming of pile head is prevented by providing an
iron ring of less than 25mm in diameter than the pile
head at the pile top.

Types of Piles Based on


Materials (contd)
1. Timber Piles:

To facilitate driving, the lower end is pointed and


provided with a cast iron conical shoe.
Piles should not be spaced less than 60 cm center
to center, the best spacing is 90 cm c/c. closer
spacing destroys frictional resistance.
Max load should not exceed 20 tonnes.
Piles are subjected to decay for alternate dry and
wet condition (on account of variation of ground
water level)
Diameter varies from 30 to 50cm.
Length should not be more than 20 times the least
sectional dimension.

Types of Piles Based on


Materials (contd)
Advantages of Timber Piles:
Economical where timber is easily available.
Can be driven rapidly & as such saves time.
Because
of
elasticity,
timber
piles
are
recommended for sites subjected to unusual
lateral forces e.g. ship, ferry terminals.
Do not need heavy machinery and expensive
technical supervision.
Being light, they can be easily handled.
They can be easily withdrawn if needed.

Types of Piles Based on


Materials (contd)
Disadvantages of Timber Piles:
Liable to decay or deteriorate by salt
water/insects.
Restricted length. It is rather difficult to procure
piles in required size and length.
Low bearing capacity.
They are not very durable unless suitably
treated.
It is difficult or rather impossible to drive these
piles into hard stratum

Driven Piles(Timber, Steel Pipe


Piles)

Concrete Piles (contd)


Advantages of Concrete piles:
Durability is independent of ground water level.
For large size and greater bearing power number of
piles required is much less.
Can be cast to any length, size or shape.
Can be used to marine work without any treatment.
Material required for manufacture is easily
obtainable.
Concrete piles can be monolithically bonded into
pile cap which is not possible in wooden piles.

Concrete Piles (contd)


Disadvantages of Concrete piles:
Costlier than timber piles.
Can not be driven rapidly.
Required costly technical supervision and heavy
driving machines.
Must be reinforced to withstand handling stresses.

Concrete Piles
Concrete Piles are of 2 types:

a. Pre-cast Piles
b. Cast in situ Piles

Concrete Piles (contd)


a. Pre-cast Piles:

Reinforced concrete piles, molded in circular,


square, rectangular or octagonal form.
Cast and cured in the casting yard, then
transported to the site of driving.
If space available it can be cast and cured near the
work site.
Driven in similar manner as timber piles with the
help of piles drivers.
Diameter normally varies from 35cm to 65cm,
length varies from 4.5m to 30m.

Concrete Piles (contd)


a. Pre-cast Piles:

Function of reinforcement in a pre-cast pile is to


resist the stresses during handling, driving and final
loading on the pile rather than strengthen the pile
to act as a column.
Longitudinal reinforcements usually 20mm to
50mm in diameter, stirrups 6mm to 10mm in dia.
For 90 cm length at head and toe, stirrups spacing
is 8cm c/c and for remaining intermediate length it
is about 30cm c/c.
A concrete cover of 5cm is maintained throughout,
over the main steel bars.

Precast Concrete Plies

RCC
Square
Piles

Pile Lifting

Pile Positioning

Concrete Piles (contd)

Concrete Piles (contd)


b. Cast-in-Situ Piles:

Cast in position inside the ground.


First of all a bore is dug
Then the soil from the bore is drawn out
Reinforce cage is placed in
and filled with cement concrete

Concrete Piles (contd)


Advantages

of

Cast-in-Situ

Concrete

Piles:

Not limited in length


Can be cast at any place
Requires less equipment
Cost is less and is depended on the size

Disadvantages of

Cast-in-Situ Concrete

Piles:

Quality control is difficult

Concrete Piles (contd)

Figure:

Cast-in-Situ
Pile

Site Cast Concrete Piles


Cased Piles

Uncased Piles

Pile Cap for Column Footing (Cast-in-situ Pile)

Footing

65

Beam seat elevation


Applied Loads

Loose Sand

Fz
Fy

-My
Mx

Rock
Fx

Composite Piles

Piles of two different materials are driven one over


the other, so as to enable them to act together to
perform the function of a single pile.
This type of composite pile is used with the object
of achieving economy in the cost of piling work.

Composite Piles

UNDER REAMED PILE


In black cotton soils and other expansive
type of soils, buildings often crack due to
relative ground movements. This is caused
by alternate swelling and shrinking of the
soil due to changes in its moisture
content.
The under-reamed pile is used to safe
guard this movement effectively. Generally
this foundation is used for machine
foundation, factory building, transmission
line towers and other tall structures also.

Under reamed piles have mechanically formed enlarged


bases that have been as much as 6 m in diameter.
According to the research carried out at Central Building
Research Institute Roorkee (INDIA) and elsewhere it is
found that under reamed piles provide an ideal solution
for foundation in black cotton soil.
The form is that of an inverted cone and can only be
formed in stable soils. In such conditions they allow very
high load bearing capacities.
The diameter of the pile stem(D)varies from 20 to 50
cm. The diameter of the under-ream bulbs (Du) is
normally 2.5 times the diameter of the pile stem. It may
however, vary form 2 to 3 times (D) under special
circumstances. In case of double or multi-under-reamed
piles, the centre to centre vertical spacing between two
bulbs may vary from 1 to 1 times the under-reamed
diameter (Du).

Thelengthof under-reamed piles varies from 3


to 8 meter and their centre to centre spacing
should normally be not less than 2 times the
under-reamed diameter.
Under reamed piles are the most safe and
economical foundation in Black cotton soil.
Under reamed piles are bored cast in situ
concrete piles having bulb shaped enlargement
near base. A Pile having one bulb is called single
under reamed pile. In its closed position, the
under reamer fits inside the straight section of a
pile shaft, and can be expanded at the base of
the pile to produce the enlarged base.
The cost advantages of under-reamed piles are
due to the reduced pile shaft diameter, resulting
in less concrete needed to replace the excavated

BORE HOLE

UNDER-REAMED
EQUIPMENT

UNDER-REAMED PILE

CAISSON

CAISSON
Caisson is derived from French word caisse
meaning a box.
It is relatively large deep foundation.
It is a box structure in shape of rectangular,
round

which is sunk from the surface of water or

land to the desire depth.


It is permanent structure and part of the substructure.
81

Uses
Transferring the load of structure to the hard
strata.

Used

for

foundation

of

bridges,

piers,

abutments in river or lake.


Used as impervious core wall of earth dams.
To provide an access to a deep shaft or tunnel.

82

Material
Following materials are used for
caissons:
1) RCC
2) Steel
3) Timber
4) Cast Iron
83

types
Box caisson (open at top and closed at
bottom)
Open or well type (open at top and bottom)
Pneumatic type ( closed at top and open at
bottom)

84

Box caisson
It is strong water tight vessel open at top and

closed at bottom and made of timber, steel or


RCC.
It is build on land , cured and then float or

launched to pier site where it is placed in


position.
Mainly it is used for shallow depth and for light

weight.
85

Box caisson

86

Box caisson
The caisson is sunk by filling sand, gravel, or
concrete in the empty space inside.
The place where the caisson base is to rest
must be levelled and as such box caissons are
used in places where the strata of sufficient
bearing capacity is available near the ground.
In normal practice, the soft natural bottom soil of
the river bed is dredged out to some depth and
the trench thus formed is filled with sand to have
a levelled base.
The function of the sand layer is to uniformly
distribute the superimposed loads over the soil
87
below and thus avoid tilting of the caisson.

Box caisson

88

Box caisson

89

Box caisson

90

Open or well caisson


common shapes of caisson

91

Well components
Cutting edge
Curb
Steining
Bottom plug
Well cap
Top plug
Sand filling

92

PIER
WELL CAP
TOP PLUG

STEINING
SAND FIILING
CURB
CUTTING EDGE

BOTTOM PLUG

WELL FOUNDATION

Well component function


Cutting edge : provides sharp edge to cut the soil
below during sinking operation.
Curb : during sinking it acts as extension of cutting
edge and provide support the well. It is made of
RCC.
Steining : it is main body of the well. Made of RCC or
masonry with minimum thickness of 45 cm.
Bottom plug : made of concrete and designed for an
upward load equal to the soil pressure minus self
weight of the bottom plug and sand filling.

94

Well component function


Top plug : it supports the well cap.
Well cap : it transfers the load from pier to
the well.
Sand filling : it transfers a portion of load
from well cap to the bottom plug.

95

Single wall open caisson


This is a box type structure having no top or
bottom(during construction) and mainly consists of
vertical walls.
The method of construction of a typical single wall open
caisson is describe below:

Wherever necessary the site is made dry by dewatering the


area by adopting suitable method (By constructing cofferdam,
sheet piling etc.).
A pit of suitable size and about 3 to 4 meter deep is excavated
at the site where the caisson is to be sunk.
The cutting edge is then placed at the bottom of the pit. Above
the cutting edge, the wall reinforcements are suitably tied up
and the shuttering for casting the concrete wall is erected.
The caisson walls are then concreted in lifts to a suitable height.

96

Single wall open caisson

When the freshly laid concrete has gained sufficient strength,


sinking operation is started. The caisson sinks due to its own weight
when the soil from the space inside removed by use of clam shell or
any other method.

As sinking proceeds, additional sections of the caisson walls are


successively cast.
Sinking is stopped while each section is concreted and it is resumed
only after the concreted section has gained sufficient strength.
When the caisson is sunk to the required depth, its base is plugged
by providing 15 to45m thick layer of concrete (concrete seal).
The concrete for the seal is placed by use of a tremie pipe or by a
bottom dump bucket.
After the concrete seal has set, the water inside the caisson is
pumped out and the empty space is filled with sand, gravel or
concrete.
97

PREPARED BY- BHAIVN PUNJANI

Pneumatic caisson
This type of caisson is closed at top and open (during construction) at
the bottom. The water is excluded from the caisson chamber by
means of compressed air.
The construction of the pneumatic caisson is similar to the types
described above, except that, the working chamber and shaft are
made air-tight. In order that the workmen may carry out excavation
work underneath the caisson and the water may not find its way
inside from below, the pressure of the compressed air in the shaft is
kept just higher than that of the water at that depth.
Each caisson has two air locks. Through one air lock workmen go
down for working while through the other excavated material is taken
out. An air lock essentially consists of a steel chamber having two airtight doors.

98

PREPARED BY- BHAIVN PUNJANI

Pneumatic caisson

99

COFFER DAM

Contents

Definition
Uses
Selection of Coffer Dams
Types of Coffer Dams
Design features of coffer dams
Leakage Prevention
Economic Height

Definition
Cofferdams are temporary enclosures to keep out water
and soil so as to permit dewatering and construction of
the permanent facility (structure) in the dry.
A Coffer Dam is a temporary structure designed to keep
water and /or soil out of the excavation in which a
bridge pier or other structure is built.
Meaning of Coffer Dam : Coffer = Box
To take up the Foundation works in the Marine Region,
it is necessary to obstruct the water flow by means of
Coffer Dam.

PURPOSE TO USE COFFER DAM STRUCTURE

To retain Soil & Water


Can be used as either Temporary or Permanent
Main purpose is to provide dry working area for workers
It is constructed to facilitate pile driving operations.
It is used to place grillage as well as the raft foundations
It is used ,when the foundations for piers and abutments of a
bridge, dams, locks, etc. are to be constructed.
Some times it is also provided to store water temporarily.

Cofferdams can be used in all the sectors as explained below.


Civil Engineering: Underground Car Parking, Foundation,
Basement Construction
Transport Engineering: Bridge Pier, Support Walls, Ramps,
Ground Water Retention, Tunnel Work etc.
Water Engineering: Weirs, Culverts, Flood Protection
Walls, Scour Protection Walls, Securing Embankment etc.
Port Construction: Dock Works, Jetty Works etc.

SELECTION OF TYPES OF COFFERDAMS


1. Low heads of water earth fill cofferdams
2. Narrow Excavations single wall sheet pile
cofferdams otherwise double wall cofferdams or
cellular sheet piling are suitable for wide
excavations
3. The materials available at site of work for
construction
4. The possibility of overtopping by floods, tides, etc.
and sliding rock filled crib cofferdams

5. The nature of bed on which the cofferdam is to rest


deep deposits of soft clay, A heavy earth filled crib
or cellular cofferdam could not be suitable but
single wall sheet pile would be required in these
conditions.
6. The nature of velocity of flow,i.e. water flowing with
slow current or with swift current
7. The chances of bed erosion due to reduction of water
way caused by the construction of a cofferdam.
8. The facilities available for the transport of equipment
and material required for the construction of a
cofferdam.

Types of Coffer
Dam
1.Earth fill cofferdams - mainly for low level water
2. Sand Bag Coffer Dam to divert coarse of water
3.Rock fill cofferdams
4.Timber Crib or rock filled crib cofferdams - Construction on land
and than floated into place, which is also known as Gravity Dam
5.Braced / Sheet Pile Coffer Dam- Consisting of Sheet Piles, mainly
used in shallow water depth
(i). Single wall coffer dams
(ii). Double wall coffer dams
(iii). Cellular cofferdams
6. Movable or suspended cofferdams

EARTH FILL COFFERDAMS

Suitable for rivers or streams having shallow depth of


water, about 120 to 150 cm, with low velocity of flow
It is the simplest type of cofferdam.
Free board 60 to 90 cm
Top width of earth dyke one meter
Suitable side slope should be provided
Provided suitable drain
Its depends on soil availability and site conditions.
Dry conditions clay embankment provided
Wet condition sand materials suitable

ROCK FILL COFFERDAMS

The construction of rock fill cofferdams is similar to


earth fill dams
It can be constructed with steeper slopes
Water depths 3 m.
In case of high heads of water , this can be achieved
by a clay or concrete care wall
Impervious layer provided(concrete or caly corewall
or sheet pile ) for reducing entry of seepage

TIMBER CRIB OR ROCK FILLED CRIB


COFFERDAMS

It consists of timber cribs made from logs of wood


Constructed on land and floated into place
It consists of a unit or a cell open at the bottom and
having the framework of horizontal timber members.
Hollow space thus formed are then filled with rock or
gravel
Depth of water 10 to 20 m
Used for wide excavation and rocky river bottoms

SHEET PILE COFFER DAM


1. Single wall cofferdams
-it used in places, where the area to be enclosed is very
small
-depth of water is more = 4.5 to 6 m
- A single row of sheet piles is provided on the whole
length of the cofferdam
- Guide piles, Wales and struts (wood)
- guide piles are first driven deep in the river bed and
spacing between them 1.8 to 3.0 m
- The sand bags are stacked on the inside and outside
faces of the sheet to increase the stability of cofferdam


Use of Guide Block to prevent
twisting of Sheet Piles

2. Double wall cofferdams


- when the area to be enclosed is large it is
necessary to provide double wall cofferdam
- The double wall cofferdams are of two types:
(i) Ohio river type cofferdams
(ii) timber or steel sheeting cofferdams

3. Cellular Cofferdams
- The cellular cofferdams are mostly used for
dewatering large areas , where the depth of water may
be 19 to 21 m.
-Mostly used the constuction of marine structures like
Dams ,Locks etc.
- The two common shapes of the cellular cofferdam
are:
(i) Circular type
(ii) Diaphragm type

MOVABLE OR SUSPENDED COFFERDAMS


Where there are numbers of repetition work in under
water foundations ,such as in the piers of multi span
river bridges , it is economical to design the
cofferdams to be moved as a single unit from one
foundation to another.

Foundation in black cotton


soil

Pier foundation

Procedure of setting out


foundation

Timbering in trenches
Various Method of Timbering

Stay bracing
Box sheeting
Vertical sheeting
Runners
Sheet piling

Stay Bracing
Used method Firm
ground & depth
of excavation
does not exceed 2 m.

Box Sheeting

Used method- loose soil & depth of


excavation does not exceed 4 m.
A box like structure is formed by
providing polling board, wales &
struts.

Vertical Sheeting
This method is adopted
for deep trenches
(up to 10 m depth)
in soft ground.
The method is similar
to box sheeting except
that the excavation is
carried out in stages
and at the end of
each stage an offset
is provided.

Runners
In case of soft ground
runner system is
provided.
The system is similar
to vertical sheeting.

Sheet piling
This method is used
I.Soil to be excavated is loose or
soft.
II.Width of trench is large.
III.Depth of excavation is large.
IV.Sub soil water is present.