This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
BONES AND JOINTS
BONES CARTILAGE TENDONS LIGAMENTS
The Skeletal System
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Support- Cartilage provides a model for bone
formation and growth, provides a smooth cushion between adjacent bones and provides firm,flexible support.
Protection- It protects organs it surrounds Movement- Skeletal muscles attach to bones by
tendons, which are strong bands of connective tissue. Contraction of the skeletal muscles moves the bones, making body moves.
Storage- Some minerals in the blood are taken into bone and stored. Should blood levels decrease, the minerals are released from bone into the blood. Calcium and phosphorous are the principal mineral.Fat is also stored in the bone cavities. Blood cell production- Bone marrow gives rise to blood cell and platelets.
Connective tissue consists of matrix and the cells that produce matrix. Varying amounts of collagen, proteoglycans, and mineral in matrix determine the characteristics of the connective tissue.
Types of Bones
According to shape Long Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid (develops w/in a tendon or a joint capsule)
Young long bone (femur) showing epiphysis, epiphyseal plates & diaphysis.
(b) Adult long bone w/ epiphyseal lines.
(c) Internal features of a portion of the diaphysis in (a).
General Features of Bone
Consists of : 1. Shaft called diaphysis (growing between) 2. Epiphyses (ends) 3. Epiphyseal plates ( growth plates)
Medullary Cavity – cavities big and small filled with either yellow or red marrow. Marrow soft tissue in the medullary cavities of the bone Red bone marrow consists of blood-forming cells and is the only site of blood formation in adults Periosteum ( around the bone) covers the bone made of dense connective tissue ( nerves and blood vessels)
Endosteum – thinner connective tissue membrane that lines surface of the medullary cavity ( has osteoblasts ) Osteoblasts are bone forming cells for repair, growth and remoding Lamellae- thin sheets of extracellular matrix made of ostocytes or bone cells found in the hollow spaces called lacunae Canaliculi- or small canal are places where cell process extend
Types of Bones According to Histological Structure
Bone Cancellous bone
Compact bone tissue consists of osteons or haversian canals. Osteons consist of osteocytes organized into lamellae surrounding central canals.
Fine structure of a compact bone. Photomicrograph of compact bone.
Cancellous Bone or Spongy Bone
Consists of trabeculae without central canals. Also called spongy bones because of its appearance is located mainly in the epiphyses of long bones, and it forms the interior of all other bones. No blood vessels but nutrients are carried through canaliculi by diffusion
Cancellous Bone Beams of bone, the trabeculae, surround spaces in the bone. In life, the spaces are filled w/ red or yellow bone marrow & w/ blood vessels. Transverse section of trabecula.
Bone Ossification (Formation of Bone)
Bone ossification is either intramembranous or endochondral. Ossification if bone formation by osteoblasts. Intramembranous ossification occurs within connective tissue membranes. Endochondral ossification occurs within cartilage.
Bone Formation- Intramembranous ossification occurs in a 12-week-old fetus at ossification centers in the flat bones of the skull (yellow). Endochondral ossification occurs in the bones forming the inferior part of the skull (blue).
Bone growth occurs by a position. Bone elongation occurs at the epiphyseal plate as chondrocytes proliferate, hypertrophy, die and are replaced by bone.
This consists of removal o existing bone by osteoclasts an deposition of new bone by osteoblasts.
During bone repair, cells move into the damaged area and form a callus, which is replaced by bone
Osteoclasts break down bone and release calcium into the blood, and osteoblasts remove calcium from the blood to make bone. PTH regulates blood calcium levels by indirectly stimulating osteoclast activity, resulting in increased calcium release into the blood.Calcitonin plays a minor role in calcium maintenance by inhibiting osteoclast activity In the kidneys, PTH increases calcium reabsorption from urine. PTH forms Vit D increasing calcium reabsorption in SI.
General Considerations of Bone Anatomy
206 bones Foramen – hole in the bone or foramina (pl) If the bone is elongated it is called a canal or a meatus. Fossa- depression in the bone Lump on a bone is called a tubercle or tuberosity and a projection is called a process.
Branch of medical science which is a study of the external surface of the body. It also concerns the internal organs as they relate to external surface landmarks and as they are seen or felt by the through the skin. Palpation (touching) is feeling external structures through the skin with the fingers.
List of Bones
1. 2. 3.
Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic cage
1. 2. 3. 4.
Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle Lower Limb
The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.
It consists of 22 bones; 8 forming the braincase, & 14 facial bones. The hyoid bone & auditory ossicles are associated with the skull. From a lateral view, the parietal, temporal & sphenoid bones can be seen. From a frontal view, the orbits & nasal cavity can be seen, as well as associated bones & structures, such as the frontal bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla & mandible.
4. The interior of cranial cavity contains three fossae with several foramina. 5. Seen from below, the base of the skull reveals numerous foramina & other structures, such as processes of muscle attachment.
Lateral View of the Skull
(a) Seen form the front.
(b) Bony landmarks of the face.
(a) Frontal View (b) Anterior View
Floor of the Cranial Cavity
Base of the Skull
It contains vertebra 7 cervical bone, 12 thoracic, & 5 lumbar vertebrae, plus 1 sacral & 1 coccygeal bone. Each vertebra consists of a body, an arch & processes.
Regional differences in vertebrae are as follows: cervical vertebrae have long spinous processes & attachment sites for the ribs; lumbar vertebrae have rectangular transverse & spinous processes, & the position of their facets limit rotation; the sacrum is a single, fused bone; the coccyx is four or fewer fused vertebrae.
V E R T E B R A L C O L U M N
Regional Differences in Vertebrae
Vertebral Column Damage: Ruptured Disk
Defects of the Vertebral Column
Kyphosis (Hunchback)- an abnormal curvature of the spine, mostly in upper thoracic region, resulting in hunchbak condition. Lordosis (Curving Forward)- an abnormal curvature of the spine, mainly in the lumbar region , resulting the swayback condition. Scoliosis- an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
The thoracic cage consists of thoracic vertebrae, ribs & sternum. There are 12 pairs of ribs: 7 true ribs & 5 false ribs (2 of the false ribs are also called floating ribs). The sternum consists of the manubrium, body & xyphoid process.
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper & the lower limbs & girdle.
The pectoral girdle includes the scapulae & clavicles.
It consists of the arm (humerus), forearm (ulna & radius), wrist (8 carpal bones), & hand (5 metacarpals, 3 phalanges in each finger, & 2 phalanges in the thumb).
Bones of the Pectoral Girdle & Upper Right Limb
Right Scapula & Clavicle
Right Ulna & Radius
Posterior View of Bones of the Right Wrist & Hand
It is made up of the two coxae. Each coxa consists of an ilium, ischium & pubis. The coxae, sacrum & coccyx form the pelvis.
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Anterior View of the Complete Pelvis
(a) R coxa, lateral view. (b) R coxa, medial view.
The lower limb includes the thigh (femur), leg (tibia & fibula), ankle (7 tarsals), & foot (metatarsals & phalanges, similar to the bones in the hand).
Right Femur & Patella
Right Tibia & Fibula (Anterior View)
Bones of the Right Foot
An articulation or joint is a place where bones come together. A joint is usually considered movable, but not always the case. Many joints exhibit limited movement, & others are completely, or almost completely immovable. Synarthrosis (nonmovable joint), Ampiarthrosis (slightly movable joint) & Diarthrosis (freely movable joint).
Functional Classification of Joints According to Degree of Motion
Synarthrosis (Non-movable Joint)- ex. Sutures between the bones of the skull Ampiarthrosis (Slightly movable joint)ex. Pubic symphysis; joint between bodies of vertebrae Diarthrosis (Freely movable joint)- ex. Plane or gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball & socket joints or ellipsoid.
(Synarthrosis or Immovable)
Consist of bones united by fibrous connective tissue. They allow little or no movement. Ex. Sutures between the bones of the skull.
Fetal Skull Showing Fontanels & Sutures.
(Ampiarthrosis or Slightly Movable)
Consist of bones united by cartilage, & they exhibit slight movement. Ex. Pubic symphysis; joints between bodies of vertebrae
(Diarthrosis or Freely Movable Joints)
Consist of articular cartilage over the uniting bones, a joint cavity lined by a synovial membrane & containing synovial fluid & a joint capsule. They are highly movable joints.
Structure of Synovial Joint
Structure of Synovial Joints
a. b. c. d. e.
Joint cavity- contains synovial fluid Ligaments- hold joint together Joint Capsule- strengthens & protects joint Articular cartilage- covers ends of bones Bursae- fluid-filled sacs near joints; cushion & protect joints & surrounding tissue.
Types of Synovial Joints
Types of Movement
Flexion- is a bending motion that decreases the angle between bones, as in bending the fingers to close the hand. Extension- is a straightening motion that increases the angle between bones, as in straightening the fingers to open the hand. Abduction- is movement away from the midline of the body, as in moving the arms straight out to the sides.
Adduction- is movement toward the midline of the body, as in bringing the arms back to their original position beside the body. Supination- is the act of turning the palm up or forward. Pronation- turns the palm down or backward Inversion- is the act of turning the sole inward, so that faces the opposite foot. Eversion- turns the sole outward, away from the body.
Dorsiflexion- the foot is bent upward at the ankle, narrowing the angle between the leg & top of the foot. Plantar Flexion- toes point downward, as in toe dancing , flexing the arch of the foot. Circumduction- the arm moves that it describes a cone with the shoulder joint at the apex. Rotation- refers to a twisting or turning of a bone on its own axis, as in turning the head from side to side to say “no”.
Protraction- is a movement in which a structure , such as the mandible, glides anteriorly. Retraction- the structure glides posteriorly. Elevation- closing the mouth involves elevation of mandible. Depression- opening the mouth involves depression of the mandible.
Excursion- moving of mandible from side to side. Opposition- movement unique to the thumb & little finger. Tips of thumb & little finger are brought toward each other across the palm of the hand. Reposition- returns the digits to the anatomic position.
Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System & Joints
Bone matrix becomes brittle & decreases the total amount during aging. Joints lose articular cartilage and become less flexible with age.
Thank You !!!