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The Point of Integration
Functions of the Nervous System
Sensory Input- sensory receptors monitor internal & external stimuli, it travels along nerves to the spinal cord & brain where they are interpreted. Integration- brain & spinal cord are major organs for processing sensory input & initiating responses, input may produce immediate response, may be stored as memory, or may be ignored. Homeostasis- the nervous system can stimulate or inhibit the activities of other systems to help maintain a constant internal environment.
Mental activity- brain is the center of mental activity, including consciousness, memory & thinking. Control of muscles and glands- skeletal muscles normally contract only when stimulated by the NS, thus, it controls the major movements of the body it also participates in controlling cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, & many glands.
Divisions of the Nervous System
CNS (Central Nervous System) Brain & spinal cord PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) nerves and ganglia PNS has sensory division that transmits action potentials to the CNS Motor division carries action potentials away from the CNS
Somatic motor nervous system innervates skeletal muscle and is mostly voluntary control. The autonomic nervous system innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands & it is mostly under involuntary control Autonomic nervous system is divided into sympathetic, parasympathetic & enteric portions
The Nervous System
Organization of the Nervous System
Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons 1. Neurons receive stimuli and transmit action potentials. A neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. 2. Neurons are multipolar, bipolar and unipolar.
Neuroglia The support cells of the nervous system. They include astrocytes, microglia, ependymalcells, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
N e u r o n
Types of Neurons
(a) Multipolar neuron has many dendrites & one axon. (b) Bipolar neuron has a dendrite & an axon. (c) Unipolar neuron has an axon & no dendrites.
Types of Neuroglia
(a) Astrocytes, w/ foot processes surrounding a blood capillary. (b) Ependymal cells, w/ cilia extending from the surfaces. (c) Microglia.
(d) Oligodendrocyte, forming a myelin sheath around parts of three axons w/in the CNS. (e) Schwann cell forming part of the myelin sheath of an axon in the PNS.
1. Unmyelinated Axons- rest in indentions of the oligodendrocytes in the CNS & the Shwann cells in the PNS. Myelinated Axons- have specialized sheath , called myelin sheaths, wrapped around them. Nodes of Ranvier- gaps in the myelin sheath, current flows easily between the extracellular fluid & axon, & action potentials can develop.
Comparison of Unmyelinated & Myelinated Axons
Is an involuntary reaction in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery & transmitted to the CNS. Reflex Arc- is the neuronal pathway by w/c the reflex occurs. - is the basic functional unit of the nervous system because it is the smallest, simplest pathway capable of receiving a stimulus & a yielding process. - 5 Basic Components: (1) sensory receptor (2) sensory neuron (3) interneurons (4) motor neuron (5) effector organ
Organization of the Nervous Tissue
Consists of white matter & gray matter. Gray forms the cortex & nuclei in the brain & ganglia in the PNS. White matter forms nerve tracts in the CNS & nerves in the PNS.
A. Central Nervous System
1. Spinal Cord Extends from the foramen magnum to the second lumbar vertebra below which is the cauda equina Has a central gray part organized into horns and peripheral white part forming nerve tracts. Roots of spinal nerves extend out of the cord
Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerve Roots
Cross Section of the Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord Reflexes
The knee-jerk reflex occurs when the quadriceps femoris muscle is stretched. The withdrawal reflex removes a body part from a painful stimulus.
Spinal Cord Converging & Diverging
The spinal nerves exit from the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions. The nerves are grouped into plexuses Phrenic nerve, supplying the diaphragm, is the most important branch of the cervical plexus The brachial plexus supplies nerves to the upper limb The lumbosacral plexus supplies nerves to the lower limb
P l e x u s e s
1. 2. 3. 4. Brainstem Cerebellum Diencephalon Cerebrum
Regions of the Right Half of the Brain
1. The Brainstem contains several nuclei, as well as ascending and descending tracts. 2. The medulla oblongata contains nuclei that control such activities as heart rate, breathing, swallowing, and balance. 3. The pons contains relay nuclei between the cerebrum and cerebellum 4. The midbrain is involved in hearing and in visual reflexes. 5. The reticular formation is scattered throughout the brainstem and is important in regulating cyclical motor functions. It is involved in maintaining consciousness and in the sleep-wake cycle.
Brainstem & Diencephalon
This is attached to the brainstem which means the little brain. Has cerebellar peduncles which provide routes of communication between the cerebellum & other parts of the CNS.
Part of the brain between the brainstem & the cerebrum. Parts are: Thalamus- main relay center & influences mood registers an unlocalized uncomfortable perception of pain. Epithalamus- involved in the emotional & visceral response to odors. Pineal body located here that plays role in onset of puberty or sexual maturation. Hypothalamus- important in maintaining homeostasis
Has two hemispheres (Left & Right) divided into lobes Frontal Lobe is important in the control of voluntary motor functions, motivation, aggression, mood & olfactory (smell) reception. Parietal Lobe reception & conscious perception of most sensory information such as touch, pain, temperature, balance and taste
Occipital Lobe functions in reception and perception of visual input Temporal Lobe involved in olfactory and auditory sensations playing an important role in memory. Anterior and inferior portions are referred to as psychic cortex associated with functions such as abstract thought and judgment.
Ascending tracts transmit action potentials from the periphery to the brain. Each tract carries a specific type of sensory information.
Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
1. Ascending tracts project to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. 2. Association areas are involved in recognition of the sensory input.
1. Motor functions include involuntary and voluntary movements. 2. Upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex connect to lower motor neurons in the spinal cord or cranial nerve nuclei.
Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Primary motor cortex located in the osterior portion of the frontal lobe anterior to the central sulcus, and this controls voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles. It projects specific regions of this cortex to parts of the body Premotor area of the frontal lobe is the staging area where motor functions are organized before initiated in the primary motor cortex Prefrontal area- anterior portion of frontal lobe associated with motivation and regulation of emotional behavior and mood.
Ascending Tracts of the Spinal Cord
The dorsal column transmits action potentials dealing w/ touch, position, & pressure.
Functional Regions of the Lateral Side of the Left Cerebral Cortex
Project directly from upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex to lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem or project indirectly through basal nuclei or cerebellum.
Descending Tracts of the Spinal Cord
Example of a Direct Tract
Basal nuclei help plan, organize, & coordinate motor movements and posture. People with basal nuclei disorders exhibit increased muscle tone and exaggerated, uncontrolled movements when at rest.
The cerebellum is involved in balance and muscle coordination. An important function is to compare the intended action with what is occurring and modify the action to eliminate differences. When damaged, muscle tone decreases, and fine motor movements become very clumsy.
Other Brain Functions
A. Right and Left Hemispheres 1. Each hemisphere controls the opposite half of the body. 2. Commissures connect the two hemispheres. 3. The left hem is the dominant analytical hemisphere, right hem is for spatial perception and musical ability.
Alpha Waves, often seen in a relaxed individual w/ eyes closed. Beta Waves, typical of an alert individual. Theta Waves, seen in the first stage of sleep. Delta Waves, characteristic of deep sleep.
EEG monitors brain waves, which are a summation of the electrical activity of the brain. Electro-encephalogram
The sensory speech area, the motor speech area and the interactions between them and other cortical areas.
Consists of sensory (less than one second) Short term (lasting few minutes) Long term ( permanent) memory
Includes the olfactory cortex, deep cortical regions & nuclei. Responds to olfactory stimulation is involved with memory, motivation , mood & other visceral functions.
The Limbic System
Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Meninges 3 connective tissue meninges cover the CNS - Dura mater- (latin word mater “mother” & dura “hard”) thickest & toughest of the meninges - Arachnoid mater- loosely attached to the deepest of the meninges by weblike fibers, allowing a space for the movement of CSF. - Pia mater- (pia, “tender” or “soft” innermost layer around the brain.
The brain and spinal cord contain fluid-filled cavities: - lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemisphere-3rd ventricle in the diencephalon - A cerebral aqueduct in the midbrain - 4th ventricle at the base of the cerebellum - A central canal in the spinal cord
Ventricles of the Brain Viewed from Left
Formed in the choriod plexuses in the ventricles, it exits through the fourth ventricle and it reenters the blood through arachnoid granulations in the superior sagittal sinus.
Flow of CSF
12 Cranial Nerves & Their Functions
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. (Number, Name, Gen. Fx., Spesific Fx.) Olfactory, S, Smell Optic, S, Vision Oculomotor, M,P, Motor to 4 of 6 eye extrinsic muscles & upper eyelid; parasympathetic constricts pupil; thickens lens Trochlear, M, Motor to 1 extrinsic eye muscle Trigeminal, S,M, Sensory to face & teeth; motor to muscles of mastication (chewing) Abducens, M, Motor to one extrinsic eye muscle
VII. Facial, S,M,P, Sensory: taste; Motor to muscles of facial expression; parasympathetic to salivary & sweat glands VIII. Vestibulocochlear, S, Hearing & balance IX. Glossopharyngeal, S,M,P, Sensory: taste & touch to back of tongue; motor to pharyngeal muscles; parasympathetic to salivary glands X. Vagus, S,M,P, Sensory to pharynx, larynx, & viscera; motor to palate, pharynx & larynx; parasympathetic to viscera of thorax & abdomen XI. Accesory, M, Motor to 2 neck& upper back muscles XII. Hypoglossal, M, Motor to tongue muscles
Inferior Surface of the Brain Showing the Origin of the Cranial Nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
1. The autonomic nervous system contains preganglionic and postganglionic neurons 2. The autonomic nervous system has sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions and enteric portion.
of Organs by the ANS
Involved in preparing the person for action by increasing heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate. Preganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic division lie in the thoracic and upper lumbar regions of the spinal cord. Post ganglionic cell bodies are located in the sympathetic chain ganglia or in collateral ganglia.
This division is involved in vegetative activities, such as digestion of food, defecation & urination. Preganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathetic division are associated with some of the cranial & sacral nerves. Postganglionic cell bodies are located in terminal ganglia, located either near or w/in target organs.
Enteric Nervous System
1. Forms plexuses n the digestive tract wall. 2. Enteric neurons are sensory motor or interneurons, & receive CNS input.
EFFECTS OF AGING
General decline in sensory and motor functions with age Mental functions, including memory may decline with age, but this varies from person to person.
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