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Towards Total
Sanitation in
Presentation to 2nd South Asia Conference on
Sanitation, Islamabad, September 2006

Republic of Indonesia
Population: 215m with 57% in villages
Geography: 17,000 islands over 5000kms
Socio-Economy: GDP per capita US$3,700;
<30 million (17.8%) below poverty line
Religion: Muslim(88%), Christian (8%),
Hindu, Buddhist, others (4%)
Culture: More than 300 ethnic groups; 580
languages and dialects; national language
Bahasa Indonesia

MDG challenge

to rural
sanitation 38% (69%
access rural water)
After 20 years 74m
people not covered,
especially poor (2004
MDG target: 69% by
2015 (annually 3.7m
people over 10 years)

To halve proportion of rural

people without access to
sanitation needs MORE THAN
200 YEARS at current rate

Why such slow progress?

1. Poor not reached by projects
Failure of hardware subsidies/credit approaches
(eg WSLIC-2 revolving funds had <10%
coverage change)
Community power structures mean same h/hs
get aid
2.No scale up strategy in place
target few households, not total community
3. Poor sustainability of infrastructure
No ownership by users (abandoned/unused
Revolving credit loans not repaid or revolved
Imposed ideas (teaching, coercion, in-kind

Village Luk, Sumbawa: who benefits?

Toilet part-funded
by WSLIC-2
Project revolving
credit in 2004

Abandoned toilet
from 1996 ESWS

Story of CLTS in Indonesia (1)

Mid 2004: Review of WSLIC 2 recommends overhaul of
rural sanitation approaches
Sep 2004: Feasibility assessment for CLTS in Indonesia
Nov 2004: Exposure visits to Bangladesh and India
Feb 2005: GOI decides to trial CLTS in 2 RWSS projects
May 2005: Vietnam study tour to IDEs Sanitation
Market Development
May 2005: CLTS field trials launched in 12 villages (8
districts). 1st batch of villages at each site
achieves ODF and 100% access in 2 weeks3 months (6400 h/hs)
Sept 2006:CLTS spread spontaneously across provinces
to almost 100 communities, resulting in 72
open-defecation-free (ODF) communities
and 3 whole ODF sub-districts.

Story of CLTS in Indonesia (2)

Aug 2006: Minister for Health declares CLTS as
national approach for rural
sanitation programs in Dept of Health
(lead agency)
Sept 2006: WSLIC 2 (WB) replacing revolving
credit with CLTS approach (WB)
CWSH (ADB) project adopted CLTS
as entry point in 20 districts
Jan 2007: PAMSIMAS (WB) has $10m for CLTS
& 10m for sanitation marketing
for 109 districts in 15 provinces
Pro-Air (GTZ) adopting CLTS in 4
districts in one of poorest provinces
Breaking news.GATES Foundation given $2m for
scaling up CTLS in Indonesia during 2006-2008


required to achieve
have weare
significant improvements in rural sanitation as
required to meet the MDGs.
Faster and more effective response and more
community initiative for CLTS in areas
untouched by projects with hardware/cash/credit
Results change mindsets local government
skeptical at first and now very motivated to adopt
CLTS after seeing results.
National operational strategy is needed for
scaling up and donor harmonisation for no-subsidy

Moving forward.

How to generate demand

and build local supply
capacity for sanitation
sustainably for poor and
How to ensure consistency
of approaches
(harmonisation) in scaling
up rural sanitation at
district and provincial level
How to build local
commitment and capacity
in scaling up CLTS during
2007-2011 in 15 provinces


Dept. Health establishing multisectoral Technical Team for

widespread scaling up for CLTS
Min. Planning funding a
Workshop in November to
develop National Rural
Sanitation Operational Strategy
and build national multistakeholder/ partner consensus
PAMSIMAS program will conduct
advocacy and capacity building
with local governments &
politicians in 15 provinces
PAMSIMAS also providing
complementary support for
sanitation supply chain capacity
development and marketing