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CHAPTER 6

METALS

1.1.

Muhammad Aiman bin Sabree


Daniel Fazlan bin Atan
3.3. Aimi Amira binti Mohd Hisham
4.4. Nurul Atikah binti Johari
5.5. Nuryasmin Nadira binti Norazlan
2.2.

Metallic Material
Metals & Alloy

Ferrous
Eg: Steel, Cast Iron

Nonferrous
Eg: Copper,
Aluminium

Metallic Material
Ferrous

Metals

and alloys that


contain a large percentage
of iron such as steels and
cast irons

Nonferrous

Metals

and alloys that do


not contain iron.

If

they do contain iron, it is


only in a relatively small
percentage.

Most metals are


first melted in a
furnace.

Some small parts


can be cast as
final product.

Alloying is done
if required.

Channels and
other shapes are
produced by
extrusion.

Large ingots are


then cast.

Processing of
Metal-Casting

Sheets and
plates are then
produced from
ingots by rolling
(wrought alloy
products).

Hot Rolling of Steel


Rolling

the steel at high


temperature (> 1700F) above
recrystallization temperature

Can

be shape easily

Can

be made in much larger size

Cheaper

than cold rolling steel

Does

not require the heating of


the steel

When

the steel cools off, it will


shrink slightly. Therefore, less
control of the size & shape on the
finish product

Uses;

welding & construction

Cold Rolling of Steel


Essentially

hot roll steel has had further

processing
Process

further in cold reduction mills


when the material is cooled at room T
followed by annealing & tempers rolling

Produce

steel with closer dimensional


tolerances & a wider range of surface
finishes.

Consists

of;

1.

Cold drawing- increase the yield & tensile


strengths

2.

Turning- Gets rid of surface imperfections

3.

Grinding- Narrows the original size of


tolerance range

4.

Polishing- improves surface finish

%Cold work = Initial metal thickness Final metal thickness


Initial metal thickness

x 100

Extrusion

Metal under high pressure is forced through opening in a die.

Common Products are cylindrical bar, hollow tubes from copper,


aluminum etc.

Normally done at high temperature.

Indirect extrusion needs less power however has limit on load applied

Indirect extrusion use less


power than direct
extrusion

Forging
Open die fogging
Carried

out between two flat


dies and simple shapes.

Commonly

used for large


objects and small quantities.

Used

to perform the work


piece for closed die fogging.

Closed die fogging


When

the dies come together


for finishing step, excess
metal squirts out a cavity of a
thin ribbon of metal called
Flash.

In

order to prevent the


formation of a very wide flash,
a flash gutter is provided.

Drawing

Wire drawing :- Starting rod or


wire is drawn through several
drawing dies to reduce diameter.

% cold work = Change in crosssectional area x 100


Original area

Deep drawing :- Used to


shape cup like articles from
flats and sheets of metals

Mechanical Properties of Metal


Stress
Strain
Hardness
Impact

Energy

Fracture
Toughness
Fatigue
Creep

STRESS

Engineering stress ,
= F
A0

Metals

undergo deformation
under uniaxial tensile force.

Plastic

deformation: is a
change in shape of a material at
low stress that is recoverable
after the stress is removed.

Plastic

deformation: the
metal is deformed to such an
extent such that it cannot
return to its original
dimension.

Units of Stress
are PSI
or N/M2in
Engineering
strain,
= change
(Pascals)
length
original
1 PSI = 6.89 x 103Pa
length
= -o =
o

Units of strain are in/in or m/m.

Shear Stress

Shear strain

T = Shear stress = s
A

Shear strain, = Amount of sheer displacement


Distance h over which sheer acts

Modulus of elasticity (E) or Youngs


modulus
Stress

and strain are linearly related in elastic region. (Hooks law)

E = (stress)
(strain)

Strain

E =

Stress
Linear portion of the stress strain curve

Higher the bonding strength, higher is the modulus of elasticity.

Examples:

Modulus of Elasticity of steel is 207 Gpa.

Modulus

of elasticity of Aluminum is 76 Gpa