You are on page 1of 174

Mk.

PENGELOLAAN SDALH

BIODRYING

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


SUSTAINANBLE ENERGY

http://www.epem.gr/waste-ccontrol/database/html/Biodrying-05.htm
Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013

Biodrying adalah proses


dimana limbah
biodegradable dengan
cepat dipanaskan melalui
fase-fase initial
pengkomposan untuk
menguapkan air dari
limbah sehingga
mengurangi bobotnya

(Choi , Richard , Ahn,


2001).
Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013

BIODRYING

BIODEGRADABLE WASTE

Biodrying is the process by which


biodegradable waste is rapidly heated
through initial stages of composting to
remove moisture from a waste stream and
hence reduce its overall weight.
Biodegradable waste is a type of waste,
typically originating from plant or animal
sources, which may be broken down by other
living organisms. Waste that cannot be
broken down by other living organisms may
be called non-biodegradable.
Biodegradable waste can be commonly
found in municipal solid waste (sometimes
called biodegradable municipal waste, or
BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper
waste, and biodegradable plastics. Other
biodegradable wastes include human waste,
manure, sewage, slaughterhouse waste.
Pengolahan Limbah
Through proper waste management, it can
be converted into valuable products by
composting, or energy by waste-to-energy
processes
such as anaerobic digestion and
http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/biodegradablewaste/treatment.html
diunduh
17/3/2012waste
incineration.
As part of an
integrated

BIODRYING
In biodrying processes, the drying rates are augmented
by biological heat in addition to forced aeration. The
major portion of biological heat, naturally available
through the aerobic degradation of organic matter, is
utilized to evaporate surface and bound water
associated with the mixed sludge. This heat generation
assists in reducing the moisture content of the biomass
without the need for supplementary fossil fuels, and
with minimal electricity consumption (Navaee-Ardeh ,
Bertrand , Stuart, 2006)
It can take as little as 8 days to dry waste in this
manner.
This enables reduced costs of disposal if landfill is
charged on a cost per tonne basis. Biodrying may be
used as part of the production process for refusederived fuels. Biodrying does not however greatly affect
the biodegradability of the waste and hence is not
stabilised. Biodried waste will still break down in a
landfill to produce landfill gas and hence potentially
contribute to climate change.

Choi
HL,
Richard
TL,
Ahn
HK
(2001).
"Composting high moisture materials: biodrying
poultry manure in a sequentially fed reactor". Compost Sci. and Util. 9
(4):
30311.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodrying
diunduh
7/3/2012
http://www.biocycle.net/CSUContents/2001/Autumn/303.html.

LIMBAH YANG DAPAT DIDEGRADASI


SECARA BIOLOGIS
Biodegradable waste is a type of waste,
typically originating from plant or animal
sources, which may be degraded by other
living organisms. Waste that cannot be
broken down by other living organisms are
called non-biodegradable.
Biodegradable waste can be commonly
found in municipal solid waste (sometimes
called biodegradable municipal waste, or
BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper
waste, and biodegradable plastics.

Limbah-limbah biodegradable
lainnya, termasuk limbah
manusia, kandang ternak, rumah
potong hewan, limbah dapur.
Dalam kondisi tidak ada oksigen,
libah-limbah ini akan mengalami
perombakan anerobik
menghasilkan gas methan.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_waste diunduh

BIODEGRADASI
Biodegradation or biotic degradation or biotic
decomposition is the chemical dissolution of materials
by bacteria or other biological means.
The term is often used in relation to ecology, waste
management, biomedicine, and the natural environment
(bioremediation) and is now commonly associated with
environmentally friendly products that are capable of
decomposing back into natural elements.
Organic material can be degraded aerobically with
oxygen, or anaerobically, without oxygen.
A term related to biodegradation is biomineralisation, in
which organic matter is converted into minerals.

Biosurfactant, merupakan
surfaktan ekstraseluler yang
dihasilkan oleh mikroba, dapat
memacu proses biodegradasi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation diunduh 7/3/2012

BIODEGRADABLE MATTER
Biodegradable matter is generally organic material such
as plant and animal matter and other substances
originating from living organisms, or artificial materials
that are similar enough to plant and animal matter to be
put to use by microorganisms.
Some microorganisms have a naturally occurring,
microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or
accumulate a huge range of compounds including
hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals.
Major methodological breakthroughs in microbial
biodegradation have enabled detailed genomic,
metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other highthroughput analyses of environmentally relevant
microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into
key biodegradative pathways and the ability of
microorganisms to adapt to changing environmental
conditions.
Ada kalanya produk yang
dipasarkan dengan label
BIODEGRADABLE ternyata juga
mengandung bahan yang nonbiodegradable
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation diunduh

BAHAN ORGANIK
Organic matter (or organic material, Natural
Organic Matter, or NOM) is matter that has come
from a once-living organism; is capable of decay, or the
product of decay; or is composed of organic compounds.
The definition of organic matter varies upon the subject
for which it is being used.
Organic matter is broken down organic matter that
comes from plants and animals in the environment.
Organic matter is a collective term, assigned to the
realm of all of this broken down organic matter. Basic
structures are created from cellulose, tannin, cutin, and
lignin, along with other various proteins, lipids, and
sugars.
It is very important in the movement of nutrients in the
environment and plays a role in water retention on the
surface of the planet. These two processes help to
ensure the continuance of life on Earth.
"Natural Organic Matter," GreenFacts, 22 Apr, 2007 <
http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/mno/natural-organic-matte
Bahan organik mempunyai peranan sangat
r-NOM.htm

penting dalam menentukan ketersediaan


unsur hara dalam tanah, retensi lengas
tanah dan kualitas tanah lainnya

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_material diunduh

BIOMASA
Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is biological
material from living, or recently living organisms. As an
energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or
converted into other energy products such as biofuel.
In the first sense, biomass is plant matter used to
generate electricity with steam turbines & gasifiers or
produce heat, usually by direct combustion. Examples
include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches
and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even
municipal solid waste.
In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal
matter that can be converted into fibers or other
industrial chemicals, including biofuels.
Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types
of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp,
corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety
of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm
(palm oil).
T.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, E. Neuhauser, E. Gray, C.
Demeter, C. Lindsey, J. Jarnefeld, D.J. Aneshansley, R. Pellerin
and S. Edick (October 1519, 2000). "Developing a Willow
Biomass Crop Enterprise for Bioenergy and Bioproducts in the
United States". Proceedings of Bioenergy 2000. Adam's Mark
Hotel, Buffalo, New York, USA: North East Regional Biomass
Industri biomasa
dapat berupa
Program.

Hutan Tanaman, Perkebunan,


Pertanian, Agroforestry dan lainnya

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass diunduh

RDF = REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL


Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel/
specified recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by
shredding and dehydrating solid waste (MSW) with a
Waste converter technology.
RDF consists largely of combustible components of
municipal waste such as plastics and
biodegradable waste.
RDF processing facilities are normally located near a
source of MSW and, while an optional combustion
facility is normally close to the processing facility, it may
also be located at a remote location.
SRF can be distinguished from RDF in the fact that it is
produced to reach a standard such as CEN/343 ANAS.

Velis
C. et al. (2010) Production and quali
ty assurance of solid recovered fuels
using mechanicalbiological treatment
(MBT) of waste: a comprehensive assess
ment

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refuse-derived_fuel diunduh

RDF

PROCESSING METHODS

Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are


removed during the post-treatment processing cycle
with an air knife or other mechanical separation
processing. The residual material can be sold in its
processed form (depending on the process treatment) or
it may be compressed into pellets, bricks or logs and
used for other purposes either stand-alone or in a
recursive recycling process.
Advanced RDF processing methods (pressurised steam
treatment in an autoclave) can remove or significantly
reduce harmful pollutants and heavy metals for use as a
material for a variety of manufacturing and related
uses. RDF is extracted from municipal solid waste using
mechanical heat treatment, mechanical biological
treatment or waste autoclaves.

The production of RDF may involve some but not all of


the following steps:
1. Preliminary liberation (not required for autoclave
treatment)
2. Size screening (post-treatment step for autoclave
treatment)
3. Magnetic separation (post-treatment for autoclave
treatment)
4. Coarse shredding (not required for autoclave
treatment)
5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refuse-derived_fuel
Refining separation
diunduh

Biological processing
The "biological" element refers to either:
Anaerobic digestion
Composting
Biodrying
Anaerobic digestion harnesses anaerobic microorganisms to break down the biodegradable
component of the waste to produce biogas and soil improver. The biogas can be used to
generate electricity and heat.
Biological can also refer to a composting stage. Here the organic component is broken down by
naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms. They breakdown the waste into carbon dioxide and
compost. There is no green energy produced by systems employing only composting treatment
for the biodegradable waste.
In the case of biodrying, the waste material undergoes a period of rapid heating through the
action of aerobic microbes. During this partial composting stage the heat generated by the
microbes result in rapid drying of the waste. These systems are often configured to produce a
refuse-derived fuel where a dry, light material is advantageous for later transport combustion.
By processing the biodegradable waste either by anaerobic digestion or by composting MBT
technologies help to reduce the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming.

Usable wastes for this system:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Municipal solid waste


Commercial and industrial waste
Sewage sludge
Possible products of this system:
Renewable fuel (biogas) leading to renewable power
Recovered recycable materials such as metals, paper, plastics, glass etc.
Digestate - an organic fertiliser and soil improver
Carbon credits additional revenues
High calorific fraction refuse derived fuel - Renewable fuel content dependent upon biological
component
10. Residual unusable materials prepared for their final safe treatment (e.g. incineration or
gasification) and/or landfill

Further advantages:
11. Small fraction of inert residual waste
12. Reduction of the waste volume to be deposited to at least a half (density > 1.3 t/m), thus the
lifetime of the landfill is at least twice as long as usually
13. Utilisation of the leachate in the process
14. Landfill gas not problematic as biological component of waste has been stabilised
15. Daily covering of landfill not necessary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_biological_treatment diunduh

REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF)


Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is classified as an innovation of waste-toenergy technology created by shredding and drying out municipal solid
waste material. The raw material mostly used for conversion is the
combustible fraction of waste which usually consists of plastics and
biodegradable matter.
Refuse-derived fuel facilities are usually located near landfills and
dumpsites for efficiency of access and acquisition of waste materials
and less transportation cost.
Refuse Derived Fuel production starts by collection and transportation of
raw materials, and then comes the separation and sorting of municipal
solid waste. In this process, the noncombustible and recyclable
materials are removed since it does not have the potential to be
converted to energy. The noncombustible can still be useful after taking
treatment to improve their value. It can be recycled and reserved for
use in other purposes.
Compression is a good way to reduce the amount of space need for the
storage and transportation of the noncombustible. The combustible
components on the other hand are prepared to undergo the conversion
process. In the conversion process, the RDF is extracted and removed
from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The process is performed by using
any of the three methods: autoclaves, applying extreme mechanical
heat treatment, or using mechanical biological treatment. Pressurized
steam treatment can also be used to remove the existence of heavy
metals and other hazardous elements from the raw material.
The conversion process is divided into five stages. The process may be
divided into five stages: Preliminary Liberation, size screening, magnetic
separation, coarse shredding where shredding and compression comes
to make it easier to dissolve the waste to energy, and refining
separation. Electricity Generation is the primary use of Refuse Derived
Fuel. It helps resolve the underlying concerns due to consumption of
energy means. Refuse derived fuel process is also classified as a type of
green energy as the production of Refuse Derived Fuel use waste which
also lessens and eliminates raw materials in exchange for a clean
energy source. It is considered as one of the great innovation of our
http://www.spectrumbluesteel.com/blog/2011/08/09/refuse-derived-fuelpresent time because it resolves both waste management and energy
rdf-process/

diunduh
7/3/2012
dilemmas. This process
lessens
the
emission
of gas in the air, and it

Specified Recovered Fuel or Solid


Recovered Fuel (SRF)
Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is a kind of fuel that is
produced from municipal solid waste or MSW. It is also
known as Specified Recovered Fuel or Solid
Recovered Fuel (SRF) which is derived from the process
it originated. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is made up of
domestic or residual trash after the recoverable
materials had been collected separately.
The main process in producing RDF is thru shredding
and dehydrating or burning the solid waste materials.
The waste materials included are mainly plastics and
biodegradable trash. These waste materials are treated
and processed to have a product that consists of high
calorific value.

RDF dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar


langsung sendirian , atau dicampur
dengan bahan bakar lainnya.
Beneficiation of RDF
The use of mechanical screening to produce a
very high-quality RDF in terms of a reasonably
high heating value, a low moisture content, and
a low ash content .
http://www.spectrumbluesteel.com/blog/2011/08/03/rdf-turning-wasteinto-good-use/ diunduh 7/3/2012

REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL
RDF is produced by processing MSW to increase the fuel value
of the waste. The processing removes incombustible materials
such as dirt, glass, metals, and very wet organics, and it makes
RDF more consistent in size than raw MSW. RDF can be burned
for fuel by itself or cofired with other fuels.
In addition, the data presented in this section cover only new
facilities. Emissions and energy balances for older facilities
might differ from those presented here.
Teknologi Produksi RDF
Typical Processes. All RDF processes typically begin with
shredding MSW to a finer size; many then separate the fuel
fraction from the residue. In plants where no additional
preparation is included, the operation is called a "shred-andburn" RDF facility.
Frequently, however, the separated fuel fraction is further
processed to recover metals and sometimes glass. The normal
sequence of RDF preparation is shredding, air
classifying/screening, magnetic separation, and sometimes
eddy current separation for nonferrous metal recovery. Many
variations of the process have been developed, each of which
has certain advantages.

RDF

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is a fuel produced by


shredding municipal solid waste (MSW). Once the
non-combustible materials such as glass and metals
are removed the RDF material consists largely of
organic, plastic and biodegradable waste. The
residual material can be sold in its processed form
or it may be compressed into pellets, bricks or logs
and used for other purposes either stand-alone or in
a recursive recycling process.
http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/11/10516/refuse.html diunduh

BIO-DRYING
Biological Drying: Increasing the Calorific Value of
Organic Combustibles

http://comp-any.com/company/index.php?id=56 diunduh 7/3/2012

BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI


Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from
biological carbon fixation.
Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion,
as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various
biogases.
Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient carbon
fixation, they are not considered biofuels by the
generally accepted definition because they contain
carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a
very long time.
Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific
attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the
need for increased energy security, concern over
greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support
from government subsidies.

Bahan bakar hayati semakin


penting terkait dengan
masalah-masalah:
1. Harga minyak yang mahal
2. Keamanan energi
3. Emisi gas rumah kaca,
4. Subsidi minyak
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel diunduh 7/3/2012

BIO ETHANOL
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly
from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops
such as corn or sugarcane.
Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources such
as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a
feedstock for ethanol production.
Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure
form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to
increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.
Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil.
Current plant design does not provide for converting the
lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components
by fermentation.
Biomasa
Selulosik
Biomasa lignin

fermentasi

Bio-etanol

Bioethanol itu
apa?
The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute for road
transport vehicles is bioethanol. Bioethanol fuel is mainly
produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it
can also be manufactured by the chemical process of
reacting ethylene with steam.
The main sources of sugar required to produce ethanol
come from fuel or energy crops. These crops are grown
specifically for energy use and include corn, maize and
wheat crops, waste straw, willow and popular trees,
sawdust, reed canary grass, cord grasses, jerusalem
artichoke, myscanthus and sorghum plants. There is also
ongoing research and development into the use of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel
ethanol
diunduhfuel.
7/3/2012
municipal solid wastes to produce

BIODIESEL
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats.
Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure
form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce
levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and
hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles.
Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using
transesterification and is the most common biofuel in
Europe. Hielscher - Ultrasound
Technology
Basically, making
biodiesel from oil,
methanol (or ethanol)
and catalyst, is a simple
chemical process. The
problem lies in the
chemical reaction
kinetics. The
conventional
transesterification of the
triglycerides to fatty
methyl esters (FAME) and
glycerin is slow and not
complete.
During the conversion
process not all fatty acid
chains are turned into
alkyl esters (biodiesel).
This reduces your
http://www.hielscher.com/ultrasonics/biodiesel_processing_efficiency.htm
biodiesel quality and
diunduh 7/3/2012
yield, significantly.

BIODIESEL
Spesifikasi biodiesel tergantung pada minyak
nabati yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku dan
kondisi operasi pabrik serta modifikasi dari
peralatan yang digunakan. Biodiesel sebagai
bahan bakar motor diesel dapat dikatakan layak
karena angka cetannya minimal 47, sedangkan
minyak diesel angka cetan sekitar 50. Apabila
angka biodiesel terlalu dapat merusak motor
(TEKNOLOGI PROSES PRODUKSI BIODIESEL,
Martini Rahayu.
http://www.oocities.org/markal_bppt/publish/bio
fbbm/biraha.pdf
)

http://www.oocities.org/markal_bppt/publish/biofbbm/biraha.pdf
diunduh 17/3/2012

PRODUKSI BIODIESEL
Blok Diagram Proses Biodiesel
(TEKNOLOGI PROSES PRODUKSI BIODIESEL, Martini Rahayu.
http://www.oocities.org/markal_bppt/publish/biofbbm/biraha.pdf
)

Teknologi proses biodiesel yang umum


digunakan pada skala komersial yaitu
transesterifikasi antara minyak nabati
dan metanol menggunakan katalis basa
NaOH atau KOH.
Sebaiknya digunakan minyak nabati
dalam hal ini CPO yang kadar asam
lemak bebas (ALB)-nya rendah (< 1%).
Apabila ALB lebih, maka perlu dilakukan
pretreatment karena dapat
mengakibatkan efisiensi proses rendah.
http://www.oocities.org/markal_bppt/publish/biofbbm/biraha.pdf
diunduh 18/3/2012

TRANS-ESTERIFIKASI
In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of
exchanging the organic group R of an ester with the organic
group R of an alcohol.
These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid
or base catalyst. The reaction can also be accomplished with
the help of enzymes (biocatalysts) particularly lipases
(E.C.3.1.1.3).
Strong acids catalyse the reaction by donating a proton to the
carbonyl group, thus making it a more potent electrophile,
whereas bases catalyse the reaction by removing a proton from
the alcohol, thus making it more nucleophilic.
Transesterification: alcohol + ester different alcohol +
different ester
Reaksi Transesterifikasi Triolein
Apabila triolein dalam minyak nabati beraksi dengan
methanol akan menghasilkan 3 molekul methil oleat
inilah yang disebut sebagai biodiesel dan satu molekul
gliserol
(TEKNOLOGI PROSES PRODUKSI BIODIESEL, Martini Rahayu.
http://www.oocities.org/markal_bppt/publish/biofbbm/biraha.pdf)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transesterification diunduh

PRODUKSI BIODIESEL
Produksi biodiesel adalah proses memproduksi
biofuel, biodiesel, baik melalui transesterifikasi
atau alkoholisis.
Ini melibatkan reaksi minyak nabati atau lemak
hewan SECARA katalisis dengan alkohol alifatik
rantai pendek (biasanya metanol atau etanol).
USDE: The Alternative
Fuels and Advanced
Vehicles Data Center
(AFDC)
Biodiesel can be produced
using a variety of
esterification technologies.
The oils and fats are filtered
and preprocessed to remove
water and contaminants. If
free fatty acids are present,
they can be removed or
transformed into biodiesel
using special pretreatment
technologies. The
pretreated oils and fats are
then mixed with an alcohol
(usually methanol) and a
catalyst (usually sodium
hydroxide or potassium
hydroxide). The oil
molecules (triglycerides) are
broken apart and reformed
into methyl esters and
glycerin, which are then
separated from each other
and purified. Roughly
speaking, 100 pounds of oil
or fat are reacted with 10

http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/biodiesel_production.html.. diunduh

TAHAPAN SITENSIS BIODIESEL


The major steps required to synthesize biodiesel are as follows:
Feedstock pretreatment
If waste vegetable oil (WVO) is used, it is filtered to remove dirt, charred
food, and other non-oil material often found. Water is removed because
its presence causes the triglycerides to hydrolyze, giving salts of the
fatty acids (soaps) instead of undergoing transesterification to give
biodiesel.
Determination and treatment of free fatty acids
A sample of the cleaned feedstock oil is titrated with a standardized
base solution in order to determine the concentration of free fatty acids
(carboxylic acids) present in the waste vegetable oil sample. These
acids are then either esterified into biodiesel, esterified into bound
glycerides, or removed, typically through neutralization.
Reactions
While adding the base, a slight excess is factored in to provide the
catalyst for the transesterification. The calculated quantity of base
(usually sodium hydroxide) is added slowly to the alcohol and it is stirred
until it dissolves. Sufficient alcohol is added to make up three full
equivalents of the triglyceride, and an excess of usually six parts alcohol
to one part triglyceride is added to drive the reaction to completion.

Pemurnian Produk
Produk reaksi tidak hanya mencakup biodiesel,
tetapi juga produk sampingan, sabun, gliserin,
alkohol berlebih, dan sedikit air. Semua produk
sampingan tersebut harus dihilangkan,
meskipun urutan penghilangannya tergantung
pada proses. Kepadatan gliserin lebih besar
daripada biodiesel, dan perbedaan sifat ini
dimanfaatkan untuk memisahkan produk
sampingan gliserin. Sisa metanol biasanya
dikeluarkan melalui penyulingan dan digunakan
kembali, meskipun dapat dicuci (dengan air)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production diunduh 7/3/2012
sebagai limbah. Sabun dapat diambilatau diubah

REAKSI TRANS-ESTERIFIKASI
Transesterifikasi
Triglycerides (1) are reacted with an alcohol such as
ethanol (2) to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and
glycerol (4):

Animal and plant fats and oils are typically made of triglycerides
which are esters containing three free fatty acids and the
trihydric alcohol, glycerol. In the transesterification process, the
alcohol is deprotonated with a base to make it a stronger
nucleophile. Commonly, ethanol or methanol are used. As can be
seen, the reaction has no other inputs than the triglyceride and
the alcohol.
Normally, this reaction will proceed either exceedingly slowly or
not at all. Heat, as well as an acid or base are used to help the
reaction proceed more quickly. It is important to note that the
acid or base are not consumed by the transesterification reaction,
thus they are not reactants but catalysts.
Almost all biodiesel is produced from virgin vegetable oils using
the base-catalyzed technique as it is the most economical
process for treating virgin vegetable oils, requiring only low
temperatures and pressures and producing over 98% conversion
yield (provided the starting oil is low in moisture and free fatty
acids). However, biodiesel produced from other sources or by
other methods may require acid catalysis which is much slower.
Since it is the predominant method for commercial-scale

REAKSI TRANS-ESTERIFIKASI
Biodiesel dapat dibuat dengan proses esterifikasi
jika minyak nabati yang digunakan mengandung
asam lemak bebas tinggi. Asam lemak bebas dan
alkohol dapat dikonversi menjadi ester (biodiesel)
dan air dengan katalis asam sesuai reaksi :
RCOOH + CH3OH ------------- RCOOCH3 + H2O
Asam lemak Metanol
Metil ester
Air
Adapun mekanisme reaksinya adalah

Reaktor, Vol. 12 No. 1, Juni 2008, Hal. 19-21


KAJIAN AWAL PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK DEDAK PADI
DENGAN PROSES ESTERIFIKASI (Aprilina Purbasari dan Silviana.
2008).
An example of the transesterification reaction equation, shown in
skeletal formulas:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production diunduh

REAKSI ESTERIFIKASI
Since natural oils are typically used in this process, the
alkyl groups of the triglyceride are not necessarily the
same. Therefore, distinguishing these different alkyl
groups, we have a more accurate depiction of the
reaction:
R1, R2, R3: Alkyl group.

Esterification is a reversible reaction. Esters undergo


hydrolysis under acid and basic conditions. Under
acidic conditions, the reaction is the reverse reaction of
the Fischer esterification. Under basic conditions,
hydroxide acts as a nucleophile, while an alkoxide is
the leaving group. This reaction, saponification, is the
basis of soap making.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ester)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production diunduh

KATALISATOR PROSES ESTERIFIKASI


During the esterification process, the triglyceride is
reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst,
usually a strong alkali (NaOH, KOH, or Alkoxides).
The main reason for doing a titration to produce
biodiesel, is to find out how much alkaline is needed to
completely neutralize any free fatty acids present, thus
ensuring a complete transesterification. Empirically 6.25
g / L NaOH produces a very usable fuel.
One uses about 6 g NaOH when the WVO is light in
colour and about 7 g NaOH when it is dark in colour.

Alkohol bereaksi dengan asam


lemak untuk membentuk ester
mono-alkil (atau biodiesel) dan
gliserol mentah.
Reaksi antara biolipid (lemak
atau minyak) dan alkohol adalah
reaksi reversibel sehingga
alkohol harus ditambahkan
berlebih untuk mendorong reaksi
ke arah kanan dan memastikan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production diunduh

Base-catalysed
transesterification mechanism
The transesterification reaction is base catalyzed. Any
strong base capable of deprotonating the alcohol will do
(e.g. NaOH, KOH, Sodium methoxide, etc.). Commonly
the base (KOH, NaOH) is dissolved in the alcohol to
make a convenient method of dispersing the otherwise
solid catalyst into the oil. The ROH needs to be very dry.
Any water in the process promotes the saponification
reaction, thereby producing salts of fatty acids (soaps)
and consuming the base, and thus inhibits the
transesterification reaction. Once the alcohol mixture is
made, it is added to the triglyceride. The reaction that
follows replaces the alkyl group on the triglyceride in a
series of steps.

Karbon pada ester dari


trigliserida memiliki muatan
positif, dan oksigen karbonil
memiliki muatan negatif.
Polarisasi dari ikatan C = O
inilah yang menarik RO- ke
situs reaksi.
Ini menghasilkan tetrahedral
intermedier yang memiliki
muatan negatif pada oksigen
karbonil
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production diunduh

ENERGI DARI SAMPAH DOMESTIK


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) contains organic as well as
inorganic matter.
The latent energy present in its organic fraction can be recovered
for gainful
utilisation through adoption of suitable Waste Processing and
Treatment
technologies. The recovery of energy from wastes also offers a
few additional
benefits as follows:
1. The total quantity of waste gets reduced by nearly 60% to
over 90%, depending upon the waste composition and the
adopted technology;
2. Demand for land, which is already scarce in cities, for
landfilling is reduced;
3. The cost of transportation of waste to far-away landfill sites
also gets reduced proportionately; and
4. Net reduction in environmental pollution.

Oleh karena itu, logis bahwa, segala


upaya harus dilakukan untuk
meminimalkan produksi limbah dan
mendaur ulang & menggunakan
kembali limbah itu sebanyak
mungkin, pilihan recovery Energi
dari Limbah juga harus
dipertimbangkan. Kalau
memungkinkan, pilihan ini harus
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf
diunduh

BASIC TECHNIQUES OF ENERGY


RECOVERY
Energy can be recovered from the organic fraction of waste
(biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable) basically through
two methods as follows:
(i) Thermo-chemical conversion : This process entails thermal
de-composition of organic matter to produce either heat
energy or fuel oil or gas; and
(ii) Bio-chemical conversion: This process is based on
enzymatic decomposition of organic matter by microbial
action to produce methane gas or alcohol.
The Thermo-chemical conversion processes are useful for
wastes containing high percentage of organic nonbiodegradable matter and low moisture content. The main
technological options under this category include Incineration
and Pyrolysis/ Gasification.

BIOMETHANASI

The bio-chemical conversion processes are preferred for


wastes having high percentage of organic bio-degradable
(putrescible) matter and high level of moisture/ water content,
which aids microbial activity. The main technological options
under this category is Anaerobic Digestion
(Biomethanation).
Methanogenesis (bacteria) The microbial formation of
methane, which is confined to anaerobic habitats where occurs
the production of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formic acid,
methanol, methylamines, or acetatethe major substrates
used by methanogenic microbes (methanogens). In freshwater or marine sediments, in the intestinal tracts of animals,
or in habitats engineered by humans such as sewage sludge or
biomass digesters, these substrates are the products of
anaerobic bacterial metabolism. Methanogens are terminal
organisms in the anaerobic microbial food chainthe final
product, methane, being poorly soluble, anaerobically inert,
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf
and not in equilibrium with the reaction which produces diunduh
it.

PARAMETERS AFFECTING ENERGY RECOVERY


The main parameters which determine the potential of
Recovery of Energy from Wastes (including MSW), are:
Quantity of waste, and
Physical and chemical characteristics (quality) of the waste.
The actual production of energy will depend upon specific
treatment process employed, the selection of which is also
critically dependent upon (apart from certain other factors
described below) the above two parameters. Accurate
information on the same, including % variations thereof with
time (daily/ seasonal) is, therefore, of utmost importance.
The important physical parameters requiring
consideration include:
1. Size of constituents
2. Density
3. Moisture content
Smaller size of the constituents aids in faster decomposition of
the waste.
Wastes of the high density reflect a high proportion of
biodegradable organic matter and moisture. Low density
wastes, on the other hand, indicate a high proportion of paper,
plastics and other combustibles.
High moisture content causes
biodegradable waste fractions to
decompose more rapidly than in dry
conditions.
It also makes the waste rather
unsuitable for thermo-chemical
conversion (incineration, pyrolysis/
gasification) for energy recovery as

PARAMETERS AFFECTING ENERGY RECOVERY


The important chemical parameters to be considered for
determining the energy recovery potential and the suitability of waste
treatment through biochemical or thermo-chemical conversion
technologies include: 1. Volatile Solids
2. Fixed Carbon content
3. Inerts,
4. Calorific Value
5. C/N ratio (Carbon/Nitrogen ratio)
6. Toxicity
The desirable range of important waste parameters for technical
viability of
energy recovery through different treatment routes is given in the Table
15.1. The parameter values indicated therein only denote the desirable
requirements for adoption of particular waste treatment method and do
not necessarily pertain to wastes generated / collected and delivered at
the waste treatment facility. In most cases the waste may need to be
suitably segregated/ processed/ mixed with suitable additives at site
before actual treatment to make it more compatible with the specific
treatment method.
This has to be assessed and ensured before hand. For example, in case
of Anaerobic digestion, if the C/N ratio is less, high carbon content
wastes (straw, paper
etc.)is
may
be added;
if it is high, high nitrogen
What
Calorific
Value?
content
wastes
(sewage
slaughter
house power
waste and
etc.)ismay be
Calorific
value
(CV) sludge,
is a measure
of heating
added, toupon
bringthe
thecomposition
C/N ratio within
the
desirable
dependent
of the
gas.
The CVrange.
refers
to the amount of energy released when a known volume of
gas is completely combusted under specified conditions.
The CV of gas, which is dry, gross and measured at standard
conditions of temperature and pressure, is usually quoted in
megajoules per cubic metre (MJ/m3).
Gas passing through the National Grid pipeline system has a
CV of 37.5 MJ/m3 to 43.0 MJ/m3, with the exception of
Stornoway which receives liquid petroleum gas.
(http://www.nationalgrid.com/uk/Gas/Data/misc/reports/desc
ription/)

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

Desirable range of important waste parameters for


technical
viability of energy recovery:

METHANOGENS
Methanogens are the only living organisms that produce
methane as a way of life. The biochemistry of their
metabolism is unique and definitively delineates the group.
Two reductive biochemical strategies are employed: an eightelectron reduction of carbon dioxide to methane or a twoelectron reduction of a methyl group to methane. All
methogens form methane by reducing a methyl group. The
major energy-yielding reactions used by methanogens utilize
substrates such as hydrogen, formic acid, methanol, acetic
acid, and methylamine. Dimethyl sulfide, carbon monoxide,
and alcohols such as ethanol and propanol are substrates
that are used less frequently
(http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Biomethanation).

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY


POTENTIAL
A rough assessment of the potential of recovery of energy from
MSW
through different treatment methods can be made from a
knowledge of its calorific value and organic fraction, as under:
In thermo-chemical conversion all of the organic matter,
biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable, contributes to the
energy output :
Total waste quantity : W tonnes
Net Calorific Value : NCV k-cal/kg.
Energy recovery potential (kWh) = NCV x W x 1000/860 = 1.16
x NCV x W
Power generation potential (kW) = 1.16 x NCV x W/ 24 = 0.048
x NCV x W
Conversion Efficiency = 25%
Net power generation potential (kW) = 0.012 x NCV x W
If NCV = 1200 k-cal/kg., then Net power generation
potential (kW) = 14.4 x W

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

KONVERSI BIOKIMIA
In bio-chemical conversion, only the biodegradable
fraction of the organic matter can contribute to the
energy output :
In general, 100 tonnes of raw MSW with 50-60% organic
matter can
generate about 1- 1.5 Mega Watt power, depending
upon the waste characteristics.

Calorific value.
The calories or thermal units contained in one unit
of a substance and released when the substance is
burned.
Calorific value : the quantity of heat produced by
the complete combustion of a given mass of a fuel,
usually expressed in joules per kilogram
(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/calorific+value)
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS
There are various technological options which can be employed
for recovery of energy from MSW (Fig. 15.1). While some of
these have already been applied at a large scale, some others
are under advanced stages of development. A brief on these
technologies is given below.
Anaerobic Digestion (AD)
In this process, also referred to as bio-methanation, the organic
fraction of wastes is segregated and fed to a closed container
(biogas digester) where, under anaerobic conditions, the
organic wastes undergo bio-degradation producing methanerich biogas and effluent/ sludge. The biogas production ranges
from 50- 150m3/tonne of wastes, depending upon the
composition of waste. The biogas can be utilised either for
cooking/ heating applications, or through dual fuel or gas
engines or gas / steam turbines for generating motive power or
electricity. The sludge from anaerobic digestion, after
stabilisation, can be used as a soil conditioner, or even sold as
manure depending upon its composition, which is determined
mainly by the composition of the input waste.
Fundamentally, the anaerobic digestion process can be divided
into three stages with three distinct physiological groups of
micro-organisms:
Stage I: It involves the fermentative bacteria, which
include anaerobic and facultative micro-organisms. Complex
organic materials, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are
hydrolyzed and fermented into fatty acids, alcohol, carbon
dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia and sulfides.
Stage II: In this stage the acetogenic bacteria consume
these primary products and produce hydrogen, carbon
dioxide and acetic acid.
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

PROSES ANAEROBIK
Factors, which influence the Anaerobic Digestion
process, are temperature, pH (Hydrogen Ion
Concentration), nutrient concentration, loading rate,
toxic compounds and mixing. For start-up a good
innoculum such as digested sludge is required. A
temperature of about 35-38oC is generally considered
optimal in mesophilic zone (20-45oC) and higher gas
production can be obtained under thermophillic
temperature in the range of 45-60oC. Provision of
appropriate heating arrangements and insulation may
become necessary in some parts of the country.

Anaerobic Digestion (AD) of MSW offers


certain clear advantages over the option of
Aerobic process, in terms of energy
production/ consumption, compost quality
and net environmental gains:
1. AD process results in net production of
energy.
2. The quality of the digested sludge
(compost) is better as Nitrogen is not lost
by oxidation.
3. Its totally enclosed system prevents
escape of polluted air to atmosphere.
4. The net environmental gains are positive.
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

MAIN STEPS IN ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF


MSW

Pre-treatment: to remove inerts and nonbiodegradable materials,


upgrade and homogenise the feedstock for
digestion and to promote downstream treatment
processes.
Anaerobic Digestion: and to produce biogas
for energy to de-odorise, stabilise and
disinfect the feedstock.
Post-Treatment: to complete the
stabilisation of the digested material and to
produce a refined product of suitable moisture
content, particle size and physical structure for
the proposed end-use as organic manure.
Effluent Treatment: to treat the liquid
effluent to specified standards before final
disposal.

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh
8/3/2012

Different Designs and Configurations of AD


Systems
Different designs and configurations of AD systems have been
developed by
various companies to suit different total solid concentration in
the feed and
microbial activity i.e. single phase, bi-phasic, multi-phasic. The
more popular ones are broadly categorised as low/ medium and
high solids, two phase and leach bed systems.
(i) Low / Medium Solid Digestion Systems:
A large number of systems presently available worldwide for
digestion of solid wastes are for low (< 10%) or medium (1016%) solid concentrations. Some of these systems, when
applied to MSW or Market Waste, require the use of water,
sewage sludge or manure.
(ii) High Solid Continuous Digestion Systems:
These systems have been developed since the late eighties
principally for the
organic fraction of municipal solid waste but have also been
extended to other
industrial, market and agricultural wastes. The digestion occurs
at solid content of 16% to 40%. These systems are referred to
as Dry Digestion or Anaerobic
Composting when the solid concentration is in the range of 2540% and free water content is low. Systems in this category
vary widely in design and include both completely mixed and
plug-flow systems.
(iii) Two Stage Digestion Systems:
In these systems the hydrolysis, acidogenesis and acetogenesis
of the waste
are carried out separately from the methanogenesis stage.
Since each step is optimised separately, so that each of the
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh
reactions (i.e. acidogenesis, methanogenesis, etc.) is operated
8/3/2012

(iv) Dry Batch Digestion/ Leach Bed Process


This design concept is closest to the processes occurring
naturally in a
landfill. The reactor containing the organic material is
inoculated with previously digested waste from another reactor,
sealed and allowed to digest naturally. The leachate from the
bottom of the reactor is re-circulated and heated, if required, to
promote the degradation process.
In Leach Bed systems also referred to as SEBAC systems
(Sequential Batch Anaerobic Composting) this leachate is
treated in a wastewater digester prior to recirculation, and thus
the solid phase digester essentially acts like a hydrolysis / acid
forming stage of a two phase system. This approach has the
distinct advantage of reduced materials handling but overall
degradation of the organic matter can be lower than other
systems.

A great deal of experience with


biomethanation systems already exists in
India, but a large part of this is related to
farm-scale biogas plants and industrial
effluents. There is little experience in the
treatment of solid organic waste, except
sewage sludge and animal manure.
However, several schemes for biomethanationof MSW and Vegetable Market
Yard Wastes, are currently planned for
some cities of the country .

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL (RDF) BASED POWER


PLANTS:
In an RDF plant, waste is processed before burning. Typically,
the noncombustible items are removed, separating glass and
metals for recycling. The combustible waste is shredded into a
smaller, more uniform particle size for burning. The RDF thus
produced may be burned in boilers on-site, or it may be shipped
to off-site boilers for energy conversion. If the RDF is to be used
off-site, it is usually densified into pellets through the
process of pelletisation.
Pelletisation involves segregation of the incoming waste
into high and low calorific value materials and shredding
them separately, to nearly uniform size. The different heaps of
the shredded waste are then mixed together in suitable
proportion and then solidified to produce RDF pellets. The
calorific value of RDF pellets can be around 4000 kcal/ kg
depending upon the percentage of organic matter in the waste,
additives and binder materials used in the process, if any. Since
pelletisation enriches the organic content of the waste through
removal of inorganic materials and moisture, it can be very
effective method for preparing an enriched fuel feed for other
RDF plants involve
significantly
moreGasification,
sorting and apart
thermo-chemical
processes
like Pyrolysis/
handling
than Mass
Burn facilities
andistherefore
providecan
from
Incineration.
Additional
advantage
that the pellets
greater be
opportunity
to remove
environmentally
conveniently
stored and
transported. harmful
materials from the incoming waste prior to combustion.
However, it is not possible to remove the harmful
materials completely.
Several years ago RDF was used mainly along with coal
fired boilers but now, because of the stricter restrictions
w.r.t. air emissions, it is usually burned in dedicated
boilers designed and built specially for the RDF. In case of
RDF Pellets too, it needs to be ensured that the pellets
are not burned indiscriminately or in the open, but only in
dedicated Incineration facilities or other well designed
combustion systems, having all the necessary pollution
http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf
diunduh

PROSES ANAEROBIK
Schematic diagram of complete anaerobic digestion of complex
polymers. Names in brackets indicate the enzymes excreted by
hydrolytic bacteria. Numbers indicate the bacterial groups
involved:
1. Fermentative bacteria
2. Hydrogenproducing acetogenic bacteria
3. Hydrogenconsuming acetogenic bacteria
4. Aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria
5. Carbon dioxidereducing methanogenic bacteria

Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production


Satoto Endar Nayono. 2009 diunduh 8/3/2012

LIMBAH UNTUK ENERGI


Schematic diagram of a waste to energy concept which is
applied in the city of Karlsruhe

Bagasse Calorific Value


Gross calorific value, also known as the higher calorific value (HCV)
of bagasse, is calculated from the following formula:
HCV=[19 605 - 196,05(moisture % sample) - 196,05(ash % sample) 31,14(brix % sample)]kJ.kg-1
The net calorific value, also known as the lower calorific value (LCV),
assumes that the water formed by combustion and also the water of
constitution of the fuel remains in vapour form. In industrial practice
it is not practicable to reduce the temperature of the combustion
products below dew point to condense the moisture present and
recover its latent heat, thus the latent heat of the vapour is not
available for heating purposes and must be subtracted from the HCV.
By ASTM standards the HCV is calculated at atmospheric pressure
and at 20C. LCV of bagasse is calculated by the formula:
LCV=[18 309 - 207,6 (moisture % sample) - 196,05 (ash % sample) 31,14 (brix % sample)] kJ.kg-1
(http://www.sugartech.co.za/extraction/bagasseCV/index.php)

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Anaerobic digestion is described as a series of processes
involving microorganisms to break down biodegradable
material in the absence of oxygen. The overall result of
anaerobic digestion is a nearly complete conversion of the
biodegradable organic material into methane, carbon dioxide,
hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and new bacterial biomass
(Veeken ., 2000; Kelleher , 2002; Gallert and Winter, 2005).
Buswell (1952 as cited in Gallert and Winter, 2005) proposed a
generic formula describing the overall chemical reaction of the
anaerobic fermentation process of organic compounds which
can be used for the prediction of biogas production:

In the anaerobic digestion process different types of bacteria


degrade the organic matter successively in a multistep process
and parallel reactions.
The anaerobic digestion process of complex organic polymers is
commonly divided into three inter related steps: hydrolysis,
fermentation (also known as acidogenesis), oxidation
(acetogenesis) and methanogenesis which are schematically
illustrated in figure
(Stronach ., 1986; Pavlosthatis and Giraldo Gomez, 1991).

http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf diunduh

TEMPERATURE
Temperature is one of the major important parameters in
anaerobic digestion. It determines the rate of anaerobic
degradation processes particularly the rates of hydrolysis and
methanogenesis. Moreover, it not only influences the metabolic
activities of the microbial population but also has a significant
effect on some other factors such as gas transfer rates and
settling characteristics of biosolids (Stronach ., 1986 and
Metcalf & Eddy Inc., 2003).
Anaerobic digestion commonly applies two optimal temperature
ranges: mesophilic with optimum temperature around 35C and
thermophilic with optimum temperature around 55C
(MataAlvarez, 2002).

Influence of temperature on the rate of anaerobic digestion process.


Optimum temperature for mesophilic around 30 40 C and for
thermophilic 50 60 C

er 9th, 2011 by Cars Centre

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

Sustainable energy is the sustainable provision of


energy that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their needs.
Technologies that promote sustainable energy include
renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity,
solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal
energy, and tidal power, and also technologies designed
to improve energy efficiency.
Sustainable energy
Sources People are
constantly keeping an
eye out for new sources
of fuel because of the
constantly high price of
gasoline. Drivers are
generally upset that they
pay more every time
they fill at the gas pump.
Sumber:
http://carscentre.com/tag
/sources-of-energy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_energy diunduh 7/3/2012

EFISIENSI ENERGI
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars
of sustainable energy. Some ways in which sustainable energy has
been defined are:
"Effectively, the provision of energy such that it meets the needs of
the present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs. ...Sustainable Energy has two key components:
renewable energy and energy efficiency." Renewable Energy and
Efficiency Partnership (British)
"Dynamic harmony between equitable availability of energy-intensive
goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for
future generations." And, "the solution will lie in finding sustainable
energy sources and more efficient means of converting and utilizing
energy." Sustainable energy by J. W. Tester, et al., from MIT Press.
"Any energy generation, efficiency & conservation source where:
Resources are available to enable massive scaling to become a
significant portion of energy generation, long term, preferably 100
years.." Invest, a green technology non-profit organization.
"Energy which is replenishable within a human lifetime and causes no
long-term damage to the environment." Jamaica Sustainable
Development Network
This sets sustainable energy apart from other renewable energy
terminology such as alternative energy and green energy, by focusing
on the ability of an energy source to continue providing energy.
Sustainable energy can produce some pollution of the environment, as
long as it is not sufficient to prohibit heavy use of the source for an
indefinite amount of time. Sustainable energy is also distinct from
Low-carbon energy, which is sustainable only in the sense that it does
not add to the CO2 in the atmosphere.
Green Energy is energy that can be extracted, generated, and/or
consumed without any significant negative impact to the environment.
The planet has a natural capability to recover which means pollution
that does not go beyond that capability can still be termed green.
Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those
renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest

TEKNOLOGI ENERGI TERBARUKAN


Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to sustainable
energy as they generally contribute to world energy security, reducing
dependence on fossil fuel resources, and providing opportunities for
mitigating greenhouse gases. The International Energy Agency states
that:
Conceptually, one can define three generations of renewables
technologies, reaching back more than 100 years . First-generation
technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the
19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion, and
geothermal power and heat. Some of these technologies are still in
widespread use.
Second-generation technologies include solar heating and cooling,
wind power, modern forms of bioenergy, and solar photovoltaics. These
are now entering markets as a result of research, development and
demonstration (RD&D) investments since the 1980s. The initial
investment was prompted by energy security concerns linked to the oil
crises (1973 and 1979) of the 1970s but the continuing appeal of these
renewables is due, at least in part, to environmental benefits. Many of
the technologies reflect significant advancements in materials.
Third-generation technologies are still under development and include
advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, concentrating
solar thermal power, hot dry rock geothermal energy, and ocean energy.
Advances in nanotechnology may also play a major role.
International Energy Agency,RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ENERGY
SUPPLY, An IEA Fact Sheet
First- and second-generation technologies have entered the markets,
and third-generation technologies heavily depend on long term research
and development commitments, where the public sector has a role to
play.
A 2008 comprehensive cost-benefit analysis review of energy solutions
in the context of global warming and other issues ranked wind power
combined with battery electric vehicles (BEV) as the most efficient,
followed by concentrated solar power, geothermal power, tidal power,
photovoltaic, wave power, coal capture and storage, nuclear energy,
diunduh 7/3/2012
and finally biofuels.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Moving towards energy sustainability will require changes not only in
the way energy is supplied, but in the way it is used, and reducing the
amount of energy required to deliver various goods or services is
essential. Opportunities for improvement on the demand side of the
energy equation are as rich and diverse as those on the supply side, and
often offer significant economic benefits.
Renewable energy and energy efficiency are sometimes said to be the
twin pillars of sustainable energy policy. Both resources must be
developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Efficiency slows down energy demand growth so that rising clean energy
supplies can make deep cuts in fossil fuel use. If energy use grows too
fast, renewable energy development will chase a receding target.
Likewise, unless clean energy supplies come online rapidly, slowing
demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions; reducing the
carbon content of energy sources is also needed. Any serious vision of a
sustainable energy economy thus requires commitments to both
renewables and efficiency.
Renewable energy (and energy efficiency) are no longer niche sectors
that are promoted only by governments and environmentalists. The
increased levels of investment and the fact that much of the capital is
coming from more conventional financial actors suggest that
sustainable energy options are now becoming mainstream.

Climate change concerns coupled with high oil


prices and increasing government support are
driving increasing rates of investment in the
sustainable energy industries, according to a
trend analysis from the United Nations
Environment Programme.

ENERGI HIJAU = Green energy


Green energy includes natural energetic processes that
can be harnessed with little pollution.
Anaerobic digestion, geothermal power, wind power,
small-scale hydropower, solar energy, biomass power,
tidal power, wave power, and some forms of nuclear
power (which is able to "burn" nuclear waste through a
process known as nuclear transmutation, and therefore
belong in the "Green Energy" category).
Some definitions may also include power derived from
the incineration of waste.

The goal of green energy is generally to create


power with as little pollution as possible
produced as a by-product. Every form of energy
collection will result in some pollution, but those
that are green are known to cause less than
those that are not. Most people who advocate
greener sources of energy claim that the result
of worldwide use of green energy will result in
the ability to preserve the planet for a longer
time. Greenhouse gases, a by-product of
traditional sources of energy such as fossil fuels
are thought to be causing global warming, or the
process of the Earth heating up at an
accelerated pace.

diunduh 7/3/2012

ENERGI HIJAU
Some people, including George Monbiot and James
Lovelock have specifically classified nuclear power as
green energy (Lovelock, James , 2006. The Revenge of
Gaia. Reprinted Penguin, 2007).
Others, including Greenpeace disagree, claiming that
the problems associated with radioactive waste and the
risk of nuclear accidents (such as the Chernobyl
disaster) pose an unacceptable risk to the environment
and to humanity. However, newer nuclear reactor
designs are capable of utilizing what is now deemed
"nuclear waste" until it is no longer (or dramatically
less) dangerous, and have design features that greatly
minimize the possibility of a nuclear accident.

Green energy is energy that is produced in a


manner that has less of a negative impact to
the environment than energy sources like
fossil fuels, which are often produced with
harmful side effects.
Greener types of energy that often come to
mind are solar, wind, geothermal and hydro
energy. There are several more, even
including nuclear energy, that is sometimes
considered a green energy source because of
its lower waste output relative to energy
sources such as coal or oil.
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-green-energy.htm diunduh

GREEN ELECTRICITY
In several countries with common carrier arrangements,
electricity retailing arrangements make it possible for
consumers to purchase green electricity (renewable electricity)
from either their utility or a green power provider.
When energy is purchased from the electricity network, the
power reaching the consumer will not necessarily be generated
from green energy sources.
The local utility company, electric company, or state power pool
buys their electricity from electricity producers who may be
generating from fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable energy
sources. In many countries green energy currently provides a
very small amount of electricity, generally contributing less
than 2 to 5% to the overall pool.

In some U.S. states, local


governments have formed regional
power purchasing pools using
Community Choice Aggregation and
Solar Bonds to achieve a 51%
renewable mix or higher, such as in
the City of San Francisco (San
Francisco Community Choice Program
Design, Draft Implementation Plan
and H Bond Action Plan, Ordinance
447-07, 2007).

diunduh 7/3/2012

GREEN ENERGI
Green energy consumers either obligate the utility companies
to increase the amount of green energy that they purchase
from the pool (so decreasing the amount of non-green energy
they purchase), or directly fund the green energy through a
green power provider.
If insufficient green energy sources are available, the utility
must develop new ones or contract with a third party energy
supplier to provide green energy, causing more to be built.
However, there is no way the consumer can check whether or
not the electricity bought is "green" or otherwise.

The Green Energy Future


Green Energy means producing renewable energy and fuels,
and a lot more.
1. Saving energy through good decision-making.
2. Reducing waste by capturing energy value from byproducts.
3. Generating valuable by-products.
4. Contributing to Ontario's energy supplies in an
environmentally sustainable manner.
5. Creating rural economic development opportunities and
partnerships.
6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Efisiensi energi merupakan titik-awal dari
energi Hijau. Petani, pengolah pangan,
pedagang dan pemukim dapat mereduksi
penggunaan energinya dnegan jalan
memperbaiki lampu penerangan, motor,
ventilation, pemanas ruangan, peralatan
dan insulation, serta menerapkan teknologi
konservasi energi yang tersedia.
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/grenergy.htm

GREEN ENERGY
Farm fields are natural energy collectors. Energy is captured from
the soil, sun, wind and water:
1. Soil and sun combine to produce energy crops and biomass
for fuel.
2. Sun and wind present energy opportunities to harvest power.
3. Water is also an energy resource in the form of untapped
streams that flow through farms. Dams can be used to tap
this resource.
Farms and food processors can be more than energy collectors;
they can produce energy in marketable products such as
switchgrass
pellets,
biodiesel,
ethanol
and electricity.
Green Energy
Opportunities
- Energy
efficiency,
producing renewable
energy, production opportunities across the province, economic
development opportunities, waste recycling and using renewable energy
by-products.

SUMBER: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/grenergy.htm
diunduh 7/3/2012

LISTRIK ENERGI SURYA


The World Wide Fund for Nature and several green electricity
labelling organizations have created the Eugene Green Energy
Standard under which the national green electricity certification
schemes can be accredited to ensure that the purchase of
green energy leads to the provision of additional new green
energy resources (Eugene Green Energy Standard, Eugene
Network. Retrieved 2007-06-07)

Production of electricity from solar energy


Heating the coolant directly with solar rays turns water into
steam, which then turns the turbo-alternator to produce
electricity.

Sumber: http://visual.merriam-webster.com/energy/solar-energy/production-electricityfrom-solar-energy.php diunduh 17/3/2012

Bioenergy
Bioenergy is stored energy from the sun contained in materials
such as plant matter and animal waste, known as biomass.
Biomass is considered renewable because it is replenished
more quickly when compared to the millions of years required
to replenish fossil fuels. The wide variety of biomass fuel
sources includes agricultural residue, pulp/paper mill residue,
urban wood waste, forest residue, energy crops, landfill
methane, and animal waste.
Biomass is any organic matter, particularly cellulosic or lingocellulosic matter, which is available on a renewable or recurring
basis, including trees, plants and associated residues; plant
fiber; animal wastes; industrial waste; and the paper
component of municipal solid waste .

Plants store solar energy through photosythesis


in cellulose and lignin cells. Cellulose is defined
as a polymer, or chain, of 6-carbon sugars;
lignin is the substance, or glue, that holds
the cellulose chain together . When burned,
these sugars break down and release energy
exothermically, giving off CO2, heat and steam.
The byproducts of this reaction can be
captured and manipulated to create electricity,
commonly called biopower, or fuel known as
biofuel. (Both short for "biomass power" and
"biomass fuel" respectively) .
http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/index.html diunduh 8/3/2012

SIKLUS KARBON
Biomass is considered to be a replenishable resourceit
can be replaced fairly quickly without permanently
depleting the Earths natural resources. By comparison,
fossil fuels such as natural gas and coal require millions of
years of natural processes to be produced. Therefore,
mining coal and natural gas depletes the Earths resources
for thousands of generations. Alternatively, biomass can
easily be grown or collected, utilized and replaced.

Courtesy of NASA at
http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/carbon_cycle_diagram.jpg
http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/link1.htm diunduh 8/3/2012

Courtesy of ORNL at
http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/bioenergy_cycle.html

In order to curb CO2 emissions, we must take active strides to


reduce our emissions. At present, the United States is
responsible for 25% of the world's emissions, and is currently
dedicated to a policy which actually encourages the release of
more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, claiming it to be an
indication of economic growth.
Burning biomass will not solve the currently unbalanced carbon
dioxide problem. However, the contribution that biomass could
make to the energy sector is still considerable, since it creates
less carbon dioxide than its fossil-fuel counterpart.
Conceptually, the carbon dioxide produced by biomass when it
is burned will be sequestered evenly by plants growing to
replace the fuel. In other words, it is a closed cycle which
results in net zero impact (see diagram below). Thus, energy
derived from biomass does not have the negative
environmental impact associated with non-renewable energy
sources.

diunduh 8/3/2012

ENERGI BIOMASA
Biomass is an attractive energy source for a number of reasons.
First, it is a renewable energy source as long as we manage
vegetation appropriately. Biomass is also more evenly
distributed over the earth's surface than finite energy sources,
and may be exploited using less capital-intensive technologies.
It provides the opportunity for local, regional, and national
energy self-sufficiency across the globe. It provides an
alternative to fossil fuels, and helps to reduce climate change.
It helps local farmers who may be struggling and provides rural
job opportunites.

Energy from Biomass

Farmers and food processors produce or manage large volumes of


energy-rich organic materials, which can be further processed to
obtain usable forms of energy. There are several ways farmers and
other businesses can tap into the energy potential found in
biomass.
Production of New Energy Crops
Ontario farmers can grow new energy crops such as switchgrass
and specialized corn silage for anaerobic digesters, depending on
the location and type of operation they have. These crops may fit
into existing rotations and may be harvested by available
equipment.
Local Value-added Opportunities
Energy crops or agriculture and food biomass can be processed
locally before shipping. Local pelletizing of switchgrass or crop
residues can produce a value-added product that can be easily
transported for use in other markets.
On-site Production of Energy
Renewable energy systems can produce energy in the following
ways:
Anaerobic Digesters produce biogas by using manure and other
organic inputs (such as energy crops and food processing byproducts). Biogas can be used as a replacement for natural gas to
produce heat, electricity and/or transportation fuel.
Biomass Combustion Systems that burn energy crops, crop
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/grenergy.htm

KONVERSI ENERGI BIOMASA


Bioenergy conversion requires a comparison with other energy sources
that are displaced by the bioenergy. Thus, biomass for power must be
compared to coal, natural gas, nuclear, and other power sources
including other renewables. While comprehensive data is not available,
one study by REPP shows that emissions from biomass plants burning
waste wood would release far less sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide
(NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) than coal plants built after 1975.

The comparison with combined cycle natural gas


power plants is more ambiguous, since biomass
releases far more sulfur dioxide, similar levels or
greater levels of nitrogen oxide, but far less
carbon dioxide than combined cycle natural gas
plants.

There are five fundamental forms of biomass energy use.


1. the "traditional domestic" use in developing countries (fuelwood,
charcoal and agricultural residues) for household cooking (e.g. the
"three stone fire"), lighting and space-heating. In this role-the
efficiency of conversion of the biomass to useful energy generally
lies between 5% and 15%.
2. the "traditional industrial" use of biomass for the processing of
tobacco, tea, pig iron, bricks & tiles, etc, where the biomass
feedstock is often regarded as a "free" energy source. There is
generally little incentive to use the biomass efficiently so
conversion of the feedstock to useful energy commonly occurs at
an efficiency of 15% or less.
3. "Modern industrial." Industries are experimenting with
technologically advanced thermal conversion technologies which
are itemised below. Expected conversion efficiencies are between
30 and 55%.
4. newer "chemical conversion" technologies ("fuel cell") which are
capable of by-passing the entropy-dictated Carnot limit which
describes the maximum theoretical conversion efficiencies of
thermal units.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/T1804E/t1804e06.htm
diunduhdigestion
18/3/2012
5. "biological conversion" techniques, including anaerobic

TYPES OF BIOMASS
Domestic biomass resources include biomass processing
residues including pulp and paper operation, agricultural and
forestry wastes, urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes and
landfill gas, animal wastes and terrestrial and aquatic crops
grown solely for energy purposes, known as energy crops.
In large quantities, the biomass source is called a feedstock.
Making use of the waste is more productive than allowing it to
sit and decompose on its own, which is sometimes even more
hazaradous to the surrounding environment. Below is a more
detailed description of each of these types.

Producing Biofuels from Renewable Sources

Like biomass energy systems, solid and liquid biofuels


production from crops can reduce reliance on fossil fuels.
Unlike fossil fuels, biofuels are considered "carbon
neutral" because no net carbon is introduced into the
atmosphere through their use (i.e. they capture the same
amount of carbon dioxide in their growth as utilizing them
creates). Local biofuels production could also increase
rural economic development.
Fuel Types include:
Grain Ethanol: Ethanol for fuel is mostly created from fermented
corn.
Cellulosic Ethanol: Cellulosic ethanol will be produced from highvolume specialized crops (e.g. switchgrass), crop residues and
other forms of organic matter.
Biodiesel: Biodiesel can be created from a variety of agricultural
materials, including canola and soybeans, and from food
processing by-products.
Raw Biomass: Heat and electricity can be produced by burning
grains, crop residues or dedicated energy crops in burners or
boilers.
Pelletized Biomass: Switchgrass and other high-growth crops can
be harvested and pelletized for ease of transportation, storage
and use as a solid biofuel, primarily in heating systems.
Biogas: Refined biogas can directly replace natural
http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/link2.htm
gas.
diunduh

BIOMASS PROCESSING RESIDUES.


All processing of biomass yields byproducts and waste streams
collectively called residues, which have significant energy
potential. Not all residues can be used for electricity
generation, some must be used to replenish the source with
nutrients or elements. Still, residues are simple to use because
they have already been collected.
Forest residues, which includes wood from forest thinning
operations that reduce forest fire risk, biomass not harvested or
removed from logging sites in commercial hardwood and
softwood stands as well as material resulting from forest
management operations such as pre-commercial thinnings and
removal of dead and dying trees.

There are four main supply chains of forest residues


Recovery of forest residues
Forest residues consist of small trees, branches, tops and unmerchantable wood left in the forest after the cleaning, thinning
or final felling of forest stands, used as fuel without any
intermittent applications. Three main sources of forest residues
can be distinguished: slash from final fellings, slash and small
trees from thinnings and cleanings, and un-merchantable wood.
In Sweden for example, slash from final fellings constitutes the
largest share (over 71% in 1996 and even more dominating in
2003).
1. Terrain chipping
2. Chipping at a landing (generally roadside chipping)
3. Terminal chipping
4. Chipping at plant.
(sumber: http://www.eubia.org/191.0.html .... diunduh
17/3/2012
http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/link2.htm diunduh 8/3/2012

BIOMASA SISA PANEN TANAMAN


Agricultural or Crop Residues are the leftovers of harvesting. They
can be collected with conventional harvesting equipment while
harvesting the primary crop or afterwards into pellets, chips, stacks or
bales .
Agriculture crop residues include corn stover (stalks and leaves), wheat
straw, rice straw and processing residues such as nut hulls. With
approximately 80 million acres of corn planted annually, corn stover is
expected to become a major biomass resource for bioenergy
applications .
In some areas, especially dry climates, the residues must be left to
replenish the soil with nutrients for the next season and can not be
completely utilized . The soil can not take out all the nutrients from the
residues, which translates to rotting and wasted energy sitting on top of
the fields.

Forest chips harvesting methods integrated into wood raw


material harvesting ( Source: Alakangas, VTT)

http://www.eubia.org/191.0.html diunduh 8/3/2012

LIMBAH TERNAK
Animal waste, such as cattle, chicken and pig manure, can be
converted to gas or burned directly for heat and power
generation. In the developing world, dung cakes are used as a
fuel for cooking .
Furthermore, most animal wastes contain high levels of
methane. Thus, this method is very unsafe, as the levels of
harmful chemicals given off by the biomass is hazardous to the
health of users, causing 1.6 million deaths annually in the
developing nations . Since, animal wastes farms and animal
processing operations create large amounts of animal wastes
that constitute a complex source of organic materials with
environmental consequences, utilizing the manure to produce
energy properly lowers the environmental and health impacts.

These wastes can be used to make many


products and generate electricity through
methane recovery methods and anaerobic
digestion.
Anaerobic reactors are generally used for the
production of methane rich biogas from manure
(human and animal) and crop residues. They
utilise mixed methanogenic bacterial cultures
which are characterised by defined optimal
temperature ranges for growth. These mixed
cultures allow digesters to be operated over a
wide temperature range i.e. above 0C up to
60C.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/T1804E/t1804e06.htm diunduh 18/3/2012

LIMBAH DOMESTIK
Municipal Solid Waste. Residential, commercial, and
institutional post-consumer wastes contain a significant
proportion of plant derived organic material that constitute a
renewable energy resource. Waste paper, cardboard, wood
waste and yard wastes are examples of biomass resources in
municipal wastes. The International Energy Agency (IEA) is
conducting research on municipal wastes and their use in
creating
bioenergy.
BIOGAS
Generally biogas refers to a gas, which is produced by
the biological breakdown of organic matter in the
absence of oxygen. And biogas originates from biogenic
material and is a type of biofuel.

http://www.inverter-china.com/blog/articles/green-energy/Definition-ofbiogas.html diunduh 17/3/2012

TANAMAN ENERGI
Energy crops are bioengineered to be fast-growing plants,
trees or other herbaceous biomass which are harvested
specifically for energy production use. These crops can be
grown, cut and replaced quickly. For a complete list of potential
plants which may be used as energy crops, please see the
Handbook of Energy Crops.
Herbaceous Energy Crops
Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested
annually after taking two to three years to reach full
productivity. These include grasses such as switchgrass,
miscanthus (Elephant grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall
fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. These crops are
generally grown for fuel production.

Woody Energy Crops


Short-rotation woody crops are fast
growing hardwood trees harvested
within five to eight years after planting.
These include hybrid poplar (seen
below), hybrid willow, silver maple,
eastern cottonwood, green ash, black
walnut, sweetgum, and sycamore.

diunduh 8/3/2012

Industrial Crops
Industrial crops are being developed and grown to produce
specific industrial chemicals or materials. Examples include
kenaf and straws for fiber, and castor for ricinoleic acid. New
transgenic crops are being developed that produce the desired
chemicals as part of the plant composition, requiring only
extraction and purification of the product.
Agricultural Crops
These feedstocks include the currently available commodity
products such as cornstarch and corn oil; soybean oil and meal;
wheat starch, other vegetable oils, and any newly developed
component of future commodity crops. They generally yield
sugars, oils, and extractives, although they can also be used to
produce plastics and other chemicals and products.

Aquatic Crops
A wide variety of aquatic biomass
resources exist such as algae, giant
kelp, other seaweed, and marine
microflora. Commercial examples
include giant kelp extracts for
thickeners and food additives, algal
dyes, and novel biocatalysts for use in
bioprocessing under extreme
environments .
diunduh 8/3/2012

BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI


Biofuel is a renewable energy source that are produced from
recently living organisms or their byproducts. The term itself is
most commonly used to refer to liquid biofuels. They are fuels
developed from specifically grown agricultural products.
Before World War II, biofuels were seen as providing an
alternative to imported oil in European countries. After the war,
cheap Middle Eastern oil lessened interest in biofuels. But
since the 21st century, rising oil prices, concerns over the
potential oil peak, global warming, and instability in the Middle
East are pushing renewed interest in biofuels.

Indonesia's rich biodiversity and vast


potential for development of the
bioenergy utilization, together with
the integrated strategy and
incentives for investment developed
by the government, favorably
position the country to maximise the
promise of sustainable long-term
returns from the biofuel economy.

http://www.biofuelindonesia.com/about.html diunduh

ASAL-USUL BIOFUEL
The most common types of biofuel are originated from specifically
grown agricultural products. This include:
- Corn and Soybeans, primarily in the United States;
- Flaxseed and Rapeseed, primarily in Europe;
- Sugar Cane in Brazil;
- Palm Oil in South-East Asia;
- Jatropha Curcas, primarily in India.
Biofuel can also come from biodegradable outputs from industry,
agriculture, forestry and households. This include straw, timber,
manure, rice husks, sewage, biodegradable waste, and food leftovers.
They are converted to biogas through anaerobic digestion. Biomass
used as fuel often consists of underutilized types, like chaff and animal
waste.
Indonesia is currently focusing on developing Liquid Biofuel derived
from Jatropha Curcas, Palm Oil, and Sugar Cane.
Vegetable oil is used in several old diesel engines that have
indirect injection systems. This oil is also used to create biodiesel,
which when mixed with conventional diesel fuel is compatible for
most diesel engines. Used vegetable oil is converted into biodiesel.
Sometimes, water and particulates are separated from the used
vegetable oil and then this is used as a fuel.
Biodiesel is a famous biofuel in Europe. Its composition is just like
mineral diesel. When biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel, the
mixture can be used in any diesel engine. It is observed that in
several nations, the diesel engines under warranty are converted to
100% biodiesel use. It has also been proved that most people can
run their vehicles on biodiesel without any problem.
Bioalcohols are biologically produced alcohols. Common among
these are ethanol and rare among these are propanol and butanol.
Biobutanol can be used directly in a gasoline engine and hence is
considered a direct replacement for gasoline. The butanol can be
burned straight in the existing gasoline engines without any
alteration to the engine or car. It is also claimed that this butanol
produces more energy. Also, butanol has a less corrosive effect and
is less soluble in water than ethanol.
Ethanol fuel is the most commonly used biofuel in the world and
particularly in Brazil. Ethanol can be put to use in petrol engines as a
substitute for gasoline. Also, it can be mixed with gasoline in any
http://www.biofuelindonesia.com/about.html

ratio. The contemporary automobile petrol engines


candiunduh
work on

BIODIESEL
Biodiesel & Green Diesel
Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced locally,
thus helping to reduce Indonesia's dependence on imported
crude.
The processed biodiesel fuel is derived from Palm Oil, Jatropha
Curcas, Coconut Oil, or Soybean Oil.
Biodiesel can be readily used in diesel-engine vehicles either as
a substitue for Diesel, or as an additive. It provides power
similar to that produced by conventional diesel fuel.
Bioethanol
Bioethanol comes from anhydrous alcohol produced from the
fermentation of sugar cane, cassava, or corn. Green Diesel is a
blend of Plantation Oil and Crude Oil, processed in an oil
refinery without adding methanol.
The processed bioethanol fuel can be utilized for transportation
vehicles as an additive to fuel, up to 15% of total composition
without the need for any special equipment.
Pure Plant Oil (PPO) & Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
Pure Plant Oil and Straight Vegetable Oil are those that has not
undergone chemical change from its original characteristics.
Palm Oil, Straight Jatropha Oil (SJO) and Soybean Oil can all be
used as an additive for Diesel fuel (15% PPO, 85% Diesel)
without needing any special equipment. However, with the use
of convertor, PPO can be used to purely replace Diesel fuel (up
to 100% of the composition), resulting in discontinue need for
Diesel fuel.
PPO can also be
useddiunduh
to replace8/3/2012
Kerosene (20% PPO, 80%

TANAMAN ENERGI
Bio-Fuel menjadi primadona dengan kemasan yang
ramah lingkungan. Walaupun ada juga pihak yang
menentang BioFuel dengan alasan akan adanya
pertarungan antara Food untuk manusia dan Food untuk
Kendaraan bermotor dan Industri.
Apa komoditi dan bahan baku utama Bio-Fuel?
Ada 4 bahan baku utama yang saat ini digunakan:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Palm: atau juga dikenal dengan Kelapa Sawit


Jatropa Curcas: atau Jarak Pagar
Sugar cane: atau tanaman Tebu
Cassave: atau Ubi Kayu

http://www.praj.net/agri_servic
es.asp

http://don85.wordpress.com/2008/01/16/biofuel-development-diindonesia/ diunduh 8/3/2012

PRODUK DARI BIO-FUEL


Bio-Ethanol: digunakan sebagai pengganti BBM
(Gasoline) pada transportasi, dengan target 10%. Bahan
bakunya adalah dari Sugar cane (Tanaman Tebu) dan
Cassava (Ubi Kayu).
Bio-Diesel: akan menjadi pengganti Bahan Bakar Diesel
(Solar) yang akan digunakan untuk Transportasi (10%)
dan Power Plant (50%). Bahan Bakunya adalah dari
Kelapa Sawit dan jarak Pagar.
Bio-Oil mempunyai 3 turunan yaitu:
Bio-Kerosin: sebagai pengganti Minyak Tanah di
rumah tangga (10%) dengan berbahan baku Kelapa
Sawit dan Jarak Pagar
Bio-Oil: sebagai pengganti Automotive Diesel Oil
(ADO) untuk transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant
(10-50%), dan Bio-Oil sebagai pengganti Industry
Diesel Oil (IDO) untuk Transportasi Laut dan Kereta
Api (10%), juga bahan baku yang sama dengan BioKerosin.
Bio-Oil: sebagai pengganti Minyak Bakar (Fuel Oil)
untuk Industry sebanyak 50%. Bahan baku nya
adalah Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar.
Bio-Diesel: sebagai pengganti Bahan Bakar Solar
pada Transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (50%).
http://don85.wordpress.com/2008/01/16/biofuel-development-diBahan bakunya
adalah diunduh
Kelapa Sawit
dan Jarak
indonesia/
8/3/2012

TARGET PENGEMBANGAN BIOFUEL

Pemerintah Indonesia sendiri, dalam kerangka


pengembangan BIOFUEL ini, ini mempunyai target untuk
tahun 2010 sebagai berikut:
1. Menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan bagi 3.5 juta orang
2. Meningkatkan pendapatan petani minimal menyamai
UMR
3. Mengembangkan tananaman bahan Biofuel di 5.5 juta
hektar tanah
4. Terbentuknya 1000 Daerah yang-Self-Sufficient-Energy
(DESA MANDIRI) dan 12 daerah khusus BIOFUEL
5. Mengurangi ketergantungan akan Fossil Fuel paling
tidak 10%
6. Menghemat Valuta Asing
sampai US$10 Milliar
Biodiesel
7. Memenuhi
Biodiesel is created
kebutuhan
through BIOFUEL
mixture of an
dalam
organicenegri
oil, most dan
commonly
vegetable oil, and an alcohol. This process of converting
eksport.
oils to biodiesel is known as transesterification. While plant-based
oil is the most common ingredient in biodiesel, other types of oils
can be used such as animal fat or algae. Biodiesel is a substance
very similar to diesel however modern diesel engines cannot use it
readily as an energy source without slight modifications to the
engine. The biodiesel available at gas stations is mixture of 5%
biodiesel and 95% ordinary diesel fuel. However, more biodiesel
friendly vehicles are being produced, chief amongst them are
railway cars which can run on up to a 20% biodiesel mixture. Some
hobbyists also convert diesel to complete biodiesel powered
vehicles.
The only problem with biodiesel is the fact that, while bioalcohols
use any biomass to produce energy, biodiesel must be produced
from oil rich crops, which require large amounts of fertile land. This
is a problem as it increases the costs of biodiesel and uses land

BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI = BIOFUEL


Bahan bakar hayati atau biofuel adalah setiap bahan bakar baik
padatan, cairan ataupun gas yang dihasilkan dari bahan-bahan organik.
Biofuel dapat dihasilkan secara langsung dari tanaman atau secara
tidak langsung dari limbah industri, komersial, domestik atau pertanian.
Ada tiga cara untuk pembuatan biofuel: pembakaran limbah organik
kering (seperti buangan rumah tangga, limbah industri dan pertanian);
fermentasi limbah basah (seperti kotoran hewan) tanpa oksigen untuk
menghasilkan biogas (mengandung hingga 60 persen metana), atau
fermentasi tebu atau jagung untuk menghasilkan alkohol dan ester; dan
energi dari hutan (menghasilkan kayu dari tanaman yang cepat tumbuh
sebagai bahan bakar).
Proses fermentasi menghasilkan dua tipe biofuel: alkohol dan ester.
Bahan-bahan ini secara teori dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan
bahan bakar fosil tetapi karena kadang-kadang diperlukan perubahan
besar pada mesin, biofuel biasanya dicampur dengan bahan bakar fosil.
Uni Eropa merencanakan 5,75 persen etanol yang dihasilkan dari
gandum, bit, kentang atau jagung ditambahkan pada bahan bakar fosil
pada tahun 2010 dan 20 persen pada 2020. Sekitar seperempat bahan
bakar transportasi di Brazil tahun 2002 adalah etanol.
Biofuel menawarkan kemungkinan memproduksi energi tanpa
meningkatkan kadar karbon di atmosfer karena berbagai tanaman yang
digunakan untuk memproduksi biofuel mengurangi kadar
karbondioksida di atmosfer, tidak seperti bahan bakar fosil yang
mengembalikan karbon yang tersimpan di bawah permukaan tanah
selama jutaan tahun ke udara. Dengan begitu biofuel lebih bersifat
carbon neutral dan sedikit meningkatkan konsentrasi gas-gas rumah
kaca di atmosfer (meski timbul keraguan apakah keuntungan ini bisa
dicapai di dalam prakteknya). Penggunaan biofuel mengurangi pula
ketergantungan pada minyak bumi serta meningkatkan keamanan
energi.
Ada dua strategi umum untuk memproduksi biofuel. Strategi pertama
adalah menanam tanaman yang mengandung gula (tebu, bit gula, dan
sorgum manis) atau tanaman yang mengandung pati/polisakarida
(jagung), lalu menggunakan fermentasi ragi untuk memproduksi etil
alkohol. Strategi kedua adalah menanam berbagai tanaman yang kadar
minyak sayur/nabatinya tinggi seperti kelapa sawit, kedelai, alga, atau
jarak-pagar. Saat dipanaskan, maka keviskositasan minyak nabati akan
http://www.biofuelindonesia.com/about.html diunduh
berkurang dan bisa langsung dibakar di dalam mesin diesel, atau

BIODIESEL
Biodiesel merupakan biofuel yang paling umum di Eropa.
Biodiesel diproduksi dari minyak atau lemak menggunakan
transesterifikasi dan merupakan cairan yang komposisinya
mirip dengan diesel mineral. Nama kimianya adalah methyl
asam lemak (atau ethyl) ester (FAME). Minyak dicampur
dengan sodium hidroksida dan methanol (atau ethanol_ dan
reaksi kimia menghasilkan biodiesel (FAME) dan glycerol. Satu
bagian glycerol dihasilkan untuk setiap 10 bagian biodiesel.
Biodiesel dapat digunakan di setiap mesin diesel kalau
dicampur dengan diesel mineral. Di beberapa negara produsen
memberikan garansi untuk penggunaan 100% biodiesel.
Kebanyakan produsen kendaraan membatasi rekomendasi
mereka untuk penggunaan biodiesel sebanyak 15% yang
dicampur dengan diesel mineral. Di Eropa, campuran biodiesel
5% sudah banyak digunakan secara luas dan tersedia di stasiun
bahan bakar umum.

Di USA, lebih dari 80% truk komersial


dan bis kota beroperasi menggunakan
diesel. Oleh karena itu penggunaan
biodiesel AS bertumbuh cepat dari
sekitar 25 juta galon per tahun pada
2004 menjadi 78 juta galon pada awal
2005. Pada akhir 2006, produksi
biodiesel diperkirakan meningkat empat
kali lipat menjadi 1 milyar galon.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel diunduh 8/3/2012

BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI FOTOSINTESIS


Pentingnya fotosintesis dalam produksi biofuel.

http://solarbiofuels.org/consortium.php diunduh 8/3/2012

FOTOSINTESIS PENTING DALAM PRODUKSI BIOFUEL


Fotosintesis memainkan peran sentral dalam proses
produksi bio-fuel karena merupakan langkah pertama
dalam konversi energi surya (cahaya) menjadi energi
kimia dan OLEH karenanya bertanggung jawab untuk
mendorong produksi stok pakan yang diperlukan untuk
sintesis bahan bakar: proton & elektron (untuk bio-H2),
gula & pati (untuk bio-etanol), minyak (untuk bio-diesel)
dan biomassa (untuk BTL & bio-metana).
Consequently, any increase in photosynthetic efficiency will
enhance the competitiveness of bio-fuel production in general.
In higher plants and green algae, light is captured by
specialised Light Harvesting Complex proteins, referred to here
as LHCI and LHCII, which confer the ability to adapt to
changing light levels. The excitation energy is then funnelled to
the photosynthetic reaction centres of photosystem I (PSI) and
photosystem II (PSII). PSII uses this energy to drive the
photosynthetic water splitting reaction, which converts water
into protons, electrons and oxygen. The electrons are passed
along the photosynthetic electron transport chain via
plastoquinone (PQ), cytochrome b6f (Cyt b6f), photosystem I
(PSI), and ferredoxin (Fd) and on to NADPH. Simultaneously,
protons are released into the thylakoid lumen by PSII and the
PQ/PQH2 cycle.
This generates a proton gradient, which drives ATP production
via ATP synthase. The protons and electrons are recombined by
ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) to produce NADPH.
NADPH and ATP are used in the Calvin cycle and other
biochemical pathways to produce the sugars, starch, oils and
other bio-molecules (which collectively form biomass) that are
required to produce bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, bio-methane- and
BTL-based bio-fuels. Alternatively in some photosynthetic
http://solarbiofuels.org/consortium.php
diunduh 8/3/2012
micro-organisms like the green alga Chlamydomonas

Algae is the third and latest generation biofuel and


so it has an integral role to play in the future of
biofuels.
It earned that distinction by being environmentally friendly
(biodegradable) and more effective than the alternatives (30X more
energy per acre as compared to Soybeans). Third generation was
preceded by second generation biofuels (attractiveness comes from its
use of non food material such as wheat stalks and wood) and first
generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel).
The ethanol used in first generation biofuels is produced through
fermentation of sugars extracted from plants (sugar extracting methods
can be applied to almost any kind starch-based material). Drawback of
first generation's bioethanol: gas powered vehicles can only run on a
mixture of at most 15% bioethanol. A biofuel is by definition renewable
material since the matter within it must be at least 80% renewable.
Algenol's Algae-toEthanol Delivers 67%
to 87% Reduction in
CO2
Michael Graham
Richard
Technology / Clean
Technology
October 25, 2010
SUMBER:
http://www.treehugger.
com/cleantechnology/algenolsalgae-to-ethanoldelivers-67-to-87reduction-in-co2.html

http://grmike.blogspot.com/2011/08/biofuels-getting-heavy-investmentfrom.html diunduh 8/3/2012

THE BENEFITS OF MAKING ETHANOL


FROM ALGAE
Algae have many important advantages over other oilproducing crops, like corn, canola and soybeans. It can
be grown in almost any enclosed space and it
multiplies rapidly and requires very few inputs to
flourish - mainly just sunlight, water and carbon
dioxide. "Because algae has a high surface-area-tovolume ratio, it can absorb nutrients very quickly, and
its small size is what makes it mighty." The EROI Energy Returned is much higher than Energy Invested or
required to produce algae ethanol.

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2008/adit8i2/benefit.html

BIODIESEL FROM ALGAE


Problems with Biodiesel from Algae
1. Not enough CO2 in the atmosphere to produce enough
2. Temperature of water needs to be right on
3. Open ponds and algae become choked with invasive species
4. Very Expensive

Benefits of using algae


In the right conditions, algae can double its volume overnight
Unlike other biofuel products, algae can be harvested day after day
Up to 50% of an algas body weight is made of oil = more fuel
Algae is expected to produce 10,000 gallons per acre per year
Algae can double its volume overnight
Algae can grow in brackish water like the water thats in the desert in
the southwest
Algae can be grown using land and water unsuitable for plant or food
production, unlike some other first- and second-generation biofuel
feedstocks.
Select species of algae produce bio-oils through the natural process of
photosynthesis. Growing algae consume carbon dioxide; this provides
greenhouse gas mitigation benefits.
Bio-oil produced by photosynthetic algae and the resultant biofuel will
have molecular structures that are similar to the petroleum and refined
products we use today.
Algae have the potential to yield greater volumes of biofuel per acre of
production than other biofuel sources. Algae could yield more than 2000
gallons of fuel per acre per year of production. Approximate yields for
other fuel sources are far lower:
- Palm 650 gallons per acre per year
- Sugar cane 450 gallons per acre per year
- Corn 250 gallons per acre per year
- Soy 50 gallons per acre per year
1. Algae used to produce biofuels are highly productive. As a result,
large quantities of algae can be grown quickly, and the process of
testing different strains of algae for their fuel-making potential can
proceed more rapidly than for other crops with longer life cycles.
2. https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas
If successful, bio-oils from photosynthetic algae could be used to

ALGAE

FOR

BIODIESEL AND ETHANO L

GreenFuel Technologies Corporation that is based in Cambridge,


Massachusetts is based upon cultivating and producing algae
that can produce high numbers of biodiesel and ethanol.
Not having enough CO2 in the atmosphere was going to be a
problem for us to face with Algae biofuel production but there is
a solution. This solution could also be a solution for preventing all
the output of harmful stuff into the atmosphere that is destroying
the ozone. What would make algae production cheaper and more
efficient is putting it next to a big factory. These factories let off
CO2 and gases into the atmosphere. The CO2 let off from these
factories would sometimes go up and stay in the atmosphere and
be harmful to the ozone and our atmospheric protection. Being
beneficial to the environment and needing a lot of CO2, the
factories could channel their output into the algae plant. Having
this is very efficient since it both gets factory discharge and
produces energy for us.

CO2 digunakan dalam memproduksi energi ini


menyebabkan outputnya menjadi lebih sedikit
CO2 terutama dari pabrik-pabrik, dibandingkan
dnegan sumber energi terbarukan lainnya.
Ganggang tumbuh lebih cepat dengan semua CO2
yang berasal dari cerobong pabrik. Produksi
Ganggang ini dikatakan menyebabkan penurunan
jumlah CO2 atmosfir sebesar 40% , berarti lebih
sedikit emisi oksida-nitrous dari pabrik-pabrik.
https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas

ALGAE

untuk BIODIESEL & ETHANO L

GreenFuel Technologies Corporation that is based in


Cambridge, Massachusetts is based upon cultivating
and producing algae that can produce high numbers of
biodiesel and ethanol.

Bioalcohols
The main bioalcohol fuels used today are ethanol and to a lesser
extent methanol. Methanol is the simpler and less energy-rich fuel
of the two. It is most commonly produced by gasification of biomass
into a hydro-carbon rich gas called syngas from which methanol is
then obtained. While the process itself is not costly nor complicated,
it is only suitable for large scale production due to the large
quantities of biomass needed. Methanol has approximately half the
energy content of gasoline while at the same time costing much,
much less and producing about 20% less toxic emissions.
Ethanol is more energy rich when compared to methanol although it
is still slightly less energy rich than gasoline itself. The most popular
method of production of ethanol is simple fermentation of sugar.
Sugar can come from a number of crops depending on the
geographical location. Currently, the gasoline used in many
countries around the world contains up to 10% of ethanol to offset
the price. Ethanol is particularly popular in Brazil where many cars
have a so called Flex engine which can be run on pure ethanol or
gasoline or a mixture of both.
(http://renewableenergyindex.com/renewable-energy-

https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas
sources/biological-energy/types-of-biofuels)
diunduh 15/3/2012

ALGAE

untuk

BIODIESEL & ETHANO L

Five resources are required to turn algae into fuel: sunlight,


brackish or salt water, desert or other marginal land, carbon
dioxide and algae. We have plenty of all five and too much of
one carbon dioxide. But through photosynthesis, we can
take carbon dioxide pollution out of the atmosphere and
convert it into algae-based gasoline and fuel

Algae had a lot going for it as a potential source of biodiesel:


When exposed to sunlight, algae rapidly reproduce and
photosynthesize, converting carbon dioxide into sugar. The
sugar is metabolized into lipids, or oil. The oil is then mixed
with alcohol, such as ethanol, to produce biodiesel.
Additionally, certain strains of algae naturally produce as
much as 60 percent of their biomass as oil, while others are
powerfully resistant to extreme heat, salinity or acidity.

https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas

Sumber: http://climatelab.org/Biofuels ...... diunduh


10/3/2012

BIO-ALCOHOLS

Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, and colorless alcohol derived from


sugars and starches in biomass such as sorghum, wheat, rice, or
yard clippings; in the United States it is typically made from corn.
Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in varying concentrations,
usually to be used in gasoline engines. E10, which contains 10%
ethanol and 90% unleaded gasoline, can be used in almost all
conventional gasoline engines and is covered under warranty by
every major U.S. automobile manufacturer. E85, or 85% ethanol, is
considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of
1992.This blend can only be used in E85-capable flexible fuel
vehicles (FFVs), which are available in a variety of models from U.S.
and foreign automakers.
Ethanol produces fewer emissions of CO2 and benzene than
gasoline, but its emissions and energy balance vary based on
feedstock. According to the EPA corn-based ethanol generates about
30 percent more energy than the fossil fuel energy used to produce
it, and over its life cycle reduces petroleum use more than 90% over
gasoline.3 Still, other ethanol feedstocks may offer significant
environmental benefits over corn. For example the World Bank
estimates that sugarcane biodiesel produced in Brazil reduces
gasoline emissions by about 90 percent, whereas UScorn ethanol
lowers gas emissions by 10-30 percent.
Biobutanol can be produced from any type of biomass. It
offersadvantages over ethanol as it has a higher energy density, can
be blended with gas in any concentration to be used in conventional
gasoline engines, and can be transported through existing pipeline
infrastructure. While biobutanol has not been produced successfully
on a large scale the technology has received significant investment,
specifically through a joint venture being undertaken by the DuPont
corporation and British Petroleum (BP).
Cellulosic ethanol has the same chemical composition asfirstgeneration ethanol but is based from the cellulose and
hemicelluloses in woody fibers. Cellulosic technology has strong

Life Cycle of Medium to Large Scale, Agri-based Biofuels


Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a tool used to account for
inputs and outputs to complex systems. In essence, it
is a budgeting process that accounts for all inputs
(raw materials and energy) and outputs (products,
waste materials, and environmental impacting
components such as CO2). Some effective models
have been developed for life cycle analysis, including
these for biodiesel.
Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis accounts for inputs and
outputs associated with feedstock production through
to biofuel end use. Setting appropriate system
boundaries can be challenging. U.S. Dept. of Energy
Biomass Program

http://www.extension.org/pages/26614/life-cycle-analysis-forbiofuels diunduh 17/3/2012

BIO OILS: BIODIESEL


Biodiesel is a cleaner-burning alternative to petroleum
diesel that can be produced from virtually any fat or
vegetable oil. Through a chemical process called
transesterification, heavy glycerol molecules are swapped
with a lighter alcohol (most often methanol) under very high
temperatures, which lightens the fuel so that it runs through
any ignition-compression vehicle without modifications to
the engine. Pure biodiesel (B100) can be blended with
petroleum diesel in any proportion.
In the United States biodiesel has traditionally been made
from soybeans, but animal fats and other agri-crops such as
rapeseed, flax and canola have become increasingly
common. In countries across Central and South America,
Asia and Africa, biodiesel may alsobe produced from
Jatropha oil from the Jatropha Csucas tree.

Biodiesel tersedia secara luas di banyak negara


Eropa dalam bentuk B100, namun karena
sebagian besar adalah mandat negara , bahan
ini paling banyak dijual di Amerika Serikat
sebagai B2 (2% biodiesel) atau B5 (5%
biodiesel ).
Biodiesel harus mematuhi standar yang ketat
(ASTM D7651) agar dapat dijual untuk digunakan
di jalan raya di Amerika Serikat.

http://climatelab.org/Biofuels diunduh 8/3/2012

BIO OILS: VEGETABLE OIL


Straight vegetable oil, including "virgin"oils or recycled
oils, can be converted into biodiesel or used in diesel engines
that have undergone a conversion process. The conversion
creates a second tank intended for vegetable oil, while the
first tank holds diesel or biodiesel fuel. The driver starts the
car drawing fuel from the first tank, then switches to the
second tank when the engine has heated and the oil has
sufficiently thinned.
Algal biofuel can be derived from aquatic plants raised in
open ponds or incubating units. Algae produces vastly more
oil per acre than traditional feedstocks; the limiting factor is
actually access to carbon dioxide. As a result, current
technologies face significant cost limitations. The DOE
estimates that algal biofuel produced with currently-available
technology would cost over $8 per gallon, while the price of
soy biodiesel today hovers around $4 per gallon.

It is generally agreed that biodiesel fuel offers a


superior emissions profile to standard petroleum
diesel. According to the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory (NREL), a vehicle powered by B20
reduces life-cycle petroleum consumption by 19%,
carbon dioxide emissions by 16%, and further
reduces hydrocarbon emissions by 20%.
Higher blends mean even greater emissions
reductions. However there have been questions
concerning biodiesel's nitrogen oxide (NOx)
emissions, with studies by EPAand NRELshowing
both higher and lower NOx levels as compared to
diesel emissions.
http://climatelab.org/Biofuels diunduh 8/3/2012

BIOFUEL FROM SOLIDS AND GASES


Solid Biofuel refers to any type of solid biomass or other
matter that can be burned directly, such as wood, agricultural
waste,energy cropsand biochar. Burning solids releases heat
that can be harnessed for energy, as well as liquids and solids
that can be used as biofuel.
Biogas can be produced through the anaerobic digestion of
biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure or sewage. It
consists mostly of methane and carbon dioxide mixed with
other trace gases, and can be used to generate electricity or
compressed for use as a transportation fuel. Biodigesters are
often viewed as ideal partners for farms that produce animal
waste, as the digester doubles as an energy source and
sanitation device.

Syngas ("synthetic gas") is produced


by heating and compressing any
material that contains carbon, such as
biomass or coal, and is comprised of
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and
hydrogen.
It can be made into transportation
fuels such as methane gas or synthetic
diesel fuel, and the ash that is
generated as a sidestream can be
used as fertilizer.

http://climatelab.org/Biofuels diunduh 8/3/2012

ROUNDTABLE ON SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS


The Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) was initiated in
2007 to create a standard for biofuels production and
processing that would ensure environmental, social, and
economic sustainability, while reducing the impact of biofuels
on global climate change. RSB principles and criteria are
currently being developed through a consultative, multistakeholder process, with public comment periods following the
ISEAL best practices.
A key provision in the RSB 2008 draft is:
Principle 3: Biofuels shall contribute to climate change
mitigation by significantly reducing GHG emissions as
compared to fossil fuels. Standard methods for measuring the
life-cycle GHG impact of biofuels (Life Cycle Analysis, LCA) will
be developed under this principle to even the playing field and
remove any subjectivity from the process. (RSB 2009)

The RSB recognizes that GHG impacts of biofuels production


exist both on the farm, where producers control practices, and
off the farm, where market forces may compromise compliance
with Principle 3. The current version of the standard focuses on
practices that a producer can actually control. Producers are
advised on strategies to minimize the risk of iLUC by:
1. Maximizing use of waste and residues as feedstocks;
marginal, degraded or previously cleared land;
improvements to yields; and efficient crops;
2. International collaboration to prevent detrimental land use
changes; and
3. Avoiding the use of land or crops that are likely to induce
land conversions resulting in emissions of stored carbon.
The RSB also attempts to deal with biological diversity,
conservation and expects to include a deforestation cut-off date
http://climatelab.org/Biofuels
diunduh 8/3/2012
in the final standard.

Bioresour Technol. 2011 Aug;102(16):7443-50. Epub 2011 May


23.

Effects of biodrying process on municipal


solid waste properties.
Tambone F, Scaglia B, Scotti S, Adani F.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on
municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The
results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying
reduced the water content of waste, allowing the
production of biodried waste with a net heating value
(NHV) of 16,7792,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41%
higher than that of untreated waste.

The low moisture content of the biodried


material reduced, also, the potential impacts of
the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and
potential odors production. Low waste impacts
suggest to landfill the biodried material
obtaining energy via biogas production by waste
re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor.
Nevertheless, results of this work indicate
that biodrying process because of the
partial degradation of the organic fraction
contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total
producible biogas.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664812
diunduh

Chemosphere. 2011 Jun;84(3):289-95. Epub 2011 May 7.

PCDD/F enviromental impact from municipal


solid waste bio-drying plant.
Rada EC, Ragazzi M, Zardi D, Laiti L, Ferrari A.

The present work indentifies some environmental


and health impacts of a municipal solid waste biodrying plant taking into account the PCDD/F
release into the atmosphere, its concentration at
ground level and its deposition. Four scenarios are
presented for the process air treatment and
management: biofilter or regenerative thermal
oxidation treatment, at two different heights.
A Gaussian dispersion model, AERMOD, was used
in order to model the dispersion and deposition of
the PCDD/F emissions into the atmosphere.
Considerations on health risk, from different
exposure pathways are presented using an
original approach. The case of biofilter at ground
level resulted the most critical, depending on the
low dispersion of the pollutants. Suggestions on
technical solutions for the optimization of the
impact are presented.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21550632 diunduh
11/3/2012

Biostabilizationbiodrying of municipal solid


waste by inverting air-flow
Mara Sugni, Enrico Calcaterra, Fabrizio Adani.
Bioresource Technology
Volume 96, Issue 12, August 2005, Pages 13311337

ABSTRACT
The process of biodrying could be a good solution for municipal
solid waste management, allowing the production of fuel with
an interesting energy content. Previous work (Adani, F., Baido,
D., Calcaterra, E., Genevini, P.L., 2002. The influence of biomass
temperature on biostabilizationbiodrying of municipal solid
waste. Bioresource Technology 83 (3), 173179) has indicated
that appropriate management of the processing parameters
(air-flow rate and biomass temperatures) could achieve
biomass drying in very short times (89days). However, the
data of that work also evidenced that if the conditions do not
consider pile turning, and the air-flow is always from one
direction, temperature gradients arise within the biomass,
resulting in a lack of homogeneity in the moisture and energy
content of the final product. Therefore, a new laboratory study
was conducted on municipal solid waste biodrying
biostabilization in an effort to obtain homogeneous final
products. Our proposal to solve this lack of homogeneity is to
periodically invert the air-flow direction. Thus, in line with a
previous study, two trials, A and B, were carried out, dividing
the biomass into three layers to study temperature and
moisture gradients throughout the process, and a third trial (C)
simulating air-flow inversion at regular intervals was
introduced.
The results suggest that the daily inversion of air-flow
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852404004109
eliminates marked temperature
differences and leads to a
diunduh 11/3/2012

Drying Technology: An International Journal . Vol


28, Issue 10, 2010
BIODRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL
SOLID WASTES
Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek, Pawe Stolarek &
Stanislaw Ledakowicz. pages 1220-1226

ABSTRACT
The effect of air flow rate on the change of biomass (organic
waste material) temperature and moisture content during an
autothermal drying process is discussed. The laboratory-scale
experiments were performed using a 240-dm3 horizontal
composting reactor equipped with an air supply system,
biomass temperature measuring system, and air humidity
and temperature sensors. An organic fraction of municipal
solid waste with the addition of a structural material was
used as a substrate in this process.
As a result of the autothermal biodrying process, the initial
moisture content of organic waste ranging from 0.8 to
0.9kgH2O/kg of raw waste mass decreased by 50%. Water
balances were calculated before and after biodrying, and the
difference was less than 10%. The heat of combustion and
the calorific value of dried wastes ranged respectively from
6,750 to 12,280kJ/kg and from 8,050 to 10,980kJ/kg.
The biodrying efficiency varied from 0.73 to 0.97, depending
on process conditions. Energy balances showed that average
biological energy production rates varied between 1.66 and
6.90W/kg of raw waste mass.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07373937.2

Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on


bio-drying of dewatered sludge
Ling Zhao, Wei-Mei Gu, Pin-Jing He, , Li-Ming Shao
Water Research. Vol. 44, Issue 20, December 2010, Pages
61446152
Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy
utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat
generated by aerobic degradation of its organic
substances. The study aimed at investigating the
interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning
frequency on water removal and biomass energy
utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate
(0.0909m3h1kg1) led to lower temperature than did
the lower one (0.0455m3h1kg1) by 17.0% and 13.7%
under turning per two days and four days. With the
higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency,
temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with
the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The
doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal
ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg1 initial water) and 11.5%
(75.0gkg1 initial water) with turning per two days and
four days respectively, indicating that there was no
remarkable advantage for water removal with high airflow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The
heat used for evaporation was 60.672.6% of the total
heat consumption (34,40045,400kJ). The higher airflow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus
improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96%
(3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With
the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat
of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation
http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135410004707
was higher
than the lower one. With the higher turning
diunduh
frequency, sensible
heat11/3/2012
of materials and heat

Drying Technology: An International Journal . Vol. 24, Issue 7,


2006.

Emerging Biodrying Technology for the Drying of


Pulp and Paper Mixed Sludges.
Shahram Navaee-Ardeh, Franois Bertrand & Paul R. Stuart. pages 863878.

ABSTRACT
Effective sludge management is increasingly critical for pulp
and paper mills due to high landfill costs and complex
regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge
landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges
are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber
recovery coupled with increased production of secondary
sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of
biological matter that is difficult to dewater. Various drying
technologies have emerged to address this challenge of sludge
management, whose objective is to increase the dryness of
mixed sludge to above critical levels (42% dryness) for
efficient and economic combustion in the boiler for steam
generation. The advantages and disadvantages of these
technologies are reviewed in this article, and it is found that
many have significant technical uncertainties and/or
questionable economics. A biodrying process, enhanced by
biological heat generation under forced aeration, is introduced
that has significant promise. A techno-economic analysis of the
batch biodrying process at a case study mill showed an annual
operating cost savings of about $2 million, including the
elimination of landfilling practices and supplemental fuel
requirements in the boiler. It was shown that if a biodrying
residence time of less than 4 days can be achieved, payback
periods of 2 years or less can result in many mills.
The potential for the development of a continuous biodrying
reactor and the fundamentals of its mathematical modeling are
thus presented. Compared to the batch reactor configuration, it
is expected that the continuous process would result in
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07373930600734026
11/3/2012
improved processdiunduh
flexibility
and controllability, lower

Influence of turning and air-flow


temperature on aerobic bio-drying of
MSW .
Dandan Huang; Wenxiong Huang; Ran Yin; Zhiyun
Qu; Song Yuan
Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 Internat
ional Conference on
16-18 Sept. 2011 . page(s): 5978 - 5982

Taking high moisture-content MSW


collected in a mixing way as object,
influences of turning and air-flow
temperature on bio-drying process were
studied using a self-designed
experimental equipment.

The results showed that


turning could further improve
bio-drying effect better with
intermittent ventilation.
When the air-flow
temperature is 40C, the
moisture-content of materials
could be decreased from
61.6% to 23.7%, after 18d of
bio-drying process. And the
heat value advanced 198.2%.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=6058147

Journal of Environmental Sciences 2010, 22(5) 752759

Release of volatile organic compounds during biodrying of municipal solid waste


Pinjing He, Jiafu Tang, Dongqing Zhang, Yang Zeng, Liming Shao

ABSTRACT
Three treatments were tested to investigate the release
concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the
bio-drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) by the aerobic and
combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes.
Results showed that VOCs were largely released in the first 4
days of bio-drying and the dominant components were:
dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, benzene, 2-butanone,
limonene and methylene chloride. Thus, the combined
hydrolytic-aerobic process was suggested for MSW bio-drying
due to fewer aeration quantities in this phase when compared
with the aerobic process, and the treatment strategies should
base on the key properties of these prominent components.
Malodorous sulfur compounds and terpenes were mainly
released in the early phase of bio-drying, whereas, two peaks of
release concentrations appeared for aromatics and ketones
during bio-drying. Notably, for the combined hydrolytic-aerobic
processes there were also high concentrations of released
aromatics in the shift from hydrolytic to aerobic stages.
High concentrations of released chlorinateds were observed in
the later phase. For the VOCs produced during MSW bio-drying,
i.e., malodorous sulfur compounds, terpenes and chlorinateds,
their release concentrations were mainly determined by
production rates; for the VOCs presented initially in MSW, such
as aromatics, their transfer and transport in MSW mainly
determined the release concentrations.
www.jesc.ac.cn/jesc_cn/ch/reader/create_pdf.aspx?file_no...
diunduh 11/3/2012

AUTOTHERMAL BIODRYING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID W


ASTE WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT
Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek;Stanisaw
Ledakowicz.
2010. Chemical Papers. Vol. 64, No.2. p. 265-268

ABSTRACT

To carry out autothermal drying processes during the


composting of biomass, a horizontal tubular reactor was
designed and tested. A biodrying tunnel of the total capacity
of 240 dm3 was made of plastic material and insulated with
polyurethane foam to prevent heat losses. Municipal solid
waste and structural plant material were used as the input
substrate.
As a result of autothermal drying processes, moisture
content decreased by 50 % of the initial moisture content of
organic waste of about 800 g kg1. In the tested cycles,
high temperatures of biodried waste mass were achieved
(5456C). An appropriate quantity of air was supplied to
maintain a satisfactory level of temperature and moisture
removal in the biodried mass and high energy content in the
final product.
The heat of combustion of dried waste and its calorific value
were determined in a calorimeter. Examinations of pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material
and
gasification
of dried waste
their of
usefulness
at elevated
temperatures
withoutconfirmed
the participation
oxygen. It as
biofuel
of satisfactory
content.
involves the
simultaneous
change ofenergy
chemical
composition and
physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the
Greek-derived elements pyr "fire" and lysis "separating".
Pyrolysis is a case of thermolysis, and is most commonly used for
organic materials, being, therefore, one of the processes involved
in charring. The pyrolysis of wood, which starts at 200300 C
(390570F), occurs for example in fires where solid fuels are
burning or when vegetation comes into contact with lava in
volcanic eruptions. In general, pyrolysis of organic substances
produces gas and liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer
in carbon content, char. Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly
carbon as the residue, is called carbonization.
http://lw20.com/201109172717046.html diunduh 11/3/2012
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrolysis)

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ABSTRACT
Biodrying is the process by which biodegradable waste is
rapidly heated through initial stages of composting to remove
moisture from a waste stream and hence reduce its overall
weight. In biodrying processes, the drying rates are augmented
by biological heat in addition to forced aeration. The major
portion of biological heat, naturally available through the
aerobic degradation of organic matter, is utilized to evaporate
surface and bound water associated with the mixed sludge.
This heat generation assists in reducing the moisture content of
the biomass without the need for supplementary fossil fuels,
and with minimal electricity consumption. It can take as little as
8 days to dry waste in this manner. This enables reduced costs
of disposal if landfill is charged on a cost per tonne basis.

Biodrying may be used as part of the production


process for refuse-derived fuels.
Biodrying does not however greatly affect the
biodegradability of the waste and hence is not
stabilised. Biodried waste will still break down in a
landfill to produce landfill gas and hence potentially
contribute to climate change.
In the UK this waste will still imact upon councils
LATS allowances. Whilst biodrying is increasingly
applied within commercial mechanical biological
treatment (MBT) plants, it is also still subject to ongoing research and development.

Journal of Environmental Sciences 20(2008) 15341540


BIODRYING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE WITH
HIGH WATER CONTENT BY COMBINED HYDROLYTICAEROBIC TECHNOLOGY
ZHANG Dongqing, HE Pinjing, SHAO Liming, JIN Taifeng,
HAN Jingyao
The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW)
will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting,
consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In
this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying
technology was introduced to remove water from MSW.
The total water removals were proved to depend on the
ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the
hydrolytic stage.
The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in
the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be
prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the
final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial
water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water
removal efficiency up to 78.5%.
A positive correlation was observed
between the organics losses and the
water losses in both hydrolytic and
aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01).
The evolutions of extracellular enzyme
activities were shown to be consistent
with the organics losses.

Drying Technology: An International Journal


Volume 28, Issue 10, 2010

Biodrying of Organic Fraction of Municipal


Solid Wastes.
Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek, Pawe Stolarek &
Stanislaw Ledakowicz. p. 1220-1226

ABSTRACT
The effect of air flow rate on the change of biomass
(organic waste material) temperature and moisture
content during an autothermal drying process is
discussed. The laboratory-scale experiments were
performed using a 240-dm3 horizontal composting
reactor equipped with an air supply system, biomass
temperature measuring system, and air humidity and
temperature sensors. An organic fraction of municipal
solid waste with the addition of a structural material
was used as a substrate in this process.
As a result of the autothermal biodrying process, the
initial moisture content of organic waste ranging from
0.8 to 0.9kgH2O/kg of raw waste mass decreased by
50%. Water balances were calculated before and after
biodrying, and the difference was less than 10%. The
heat of combustion and the calorific value of dried
wastes ranged respectively from 6,750 to 12,280kJ/kg
and from 8,050 to 10,980kJ/kg.
The biodrying efficiency varied from 0.73 to 0.97,
depending on process conditions. Energy balances
showed that average biological energy production rates
varied between 1.66 and 6.90W/kg of raw waste mass.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07373937.2010.483
034 diunduh 11/3/2012

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )
One of the significant challenges to composting high moisture materials
like manure is supplying adequate bulking material to provide porosity for
oxygen transport through the pile. This added material, such as cornstalks,
sawdust, or straw, often cost significant money or time to acquire, and can
increase the volume requiring processing by several times, thus increasing
materials handling and application costs.
Recently several strategies have been developed which take advantage of
the biological drying that naturally occurs during thermophilic composting
to reduce bulking amendment requirements dramatically.

The composting process


The composting process involves four main components: organic matter,
moisture, oxygen, and bacteria.
Organic matter includes plant materials and some animal manures. Organic
materials used for compost should include a mixture of brown organic material
(dead leaves, twigs, manure) and green organic material (lawn clippings, fruit
rinds, etc.). Brown materials supply carbon, while green materials supply
nitrogen. The best ratio is 1 part green to 1 part brown material. Shredding,
chopping or mowing these materials into smaller pieces will help speed the
composting process by increasing the surface area.
For piles that have mostly brown material (dead leaves), try adding a handful of
commercial 10-10-10 fertilizer to supply nitrogen and speed the compost process.
Moisture is important to support the composting process. Compost should be
comparable to the wetness of a wrung-out sponge. If the pile is too dry, materials
will decompose very slowly. Add water during dry periods or when adding large
amounts of brown organic material. If the pile is too wet, turn the pile and mix
the materials. Another option is to add dry, brown organic materials.
Oxygen is needed to support the breakdown of plant material by bacteria. To
supply oxygen, you will need to turn the compost pile so that materials at the
edges are brought to the center of the pile. Turning the pile is important for
complete composting and for controlling odor.
Wait at least two weeks before turning the pile, to allow the center of the pile to
"heat up" and decompose. Once the pile has cooled in the center, decomposition
of the materials has taken place. Frequent turning will help speed the composting
process.
Bacteria and other microorganisms are the real workers in the compost process.
By supplying organic materials, water, and oxygen, the already present bacteria
will break down the plant material into useful compost for the garden. As the
bacteria decompose the materials, they release heat, which is concentrated in
the center of the pile.
In
addition to bacteria, larger organisms including insects and
earthworms
http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm

diunduhare

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )

Composting as traditionally practiced achieves a


moderate level of drying, with manure usually blended
with bulking materials to an initial moisture content of
65% (wet basis), and the subsequent heating,
evaporation, and air movement reducing the moisture
content to 45% or less over a period of weeks or months.
This process is quite simple in its essence: manure (and
amendments) contain energy, aerobic decomposing
microorganisms are only about 60% efficient at converting
that energy to cell synthesis or metabolic work, and the
remaining 40% is transformed to "waste" heat.
Air moving through the compost pile (either by forced
ventilation or passive convection and diffusion) gets hot
and evaporates water from the surfaces of particles.

How long does it take?

The amount of time needed to produce compost


depends on several factors, including the size of the
compost pile, the types of materials, the surface
area of the materials, and the number of times the
pile is turned.
For most efficient composting, use a pile that is
between 3 feet cubed and 5 feet cubed (27-125 cu.
ft.). This allows the center of the pile to heat up
sufficiently to break down materials.
(http://urbanext.illinois.edu/compost/process.cfm)

http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh 17/3/2012

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )

There are two aspects to reconfiguring the traditional


composting process for high-moisture manures. First,
the linkage between microbial heat generation and
evaporation must be explicitly recognized and
optimized.
A detailed discussion of this optimization problem has
been presented elsewhere (Richard and Choi, 1996), but
will be briefly reviewed here. Second, and perhaps more
revolutionary, is a change in the materials handling
system. Almost all composting is operated as a batch
process, where materials are mixed together initially
and then proceed through the process as a "batch". The
suggested alternative, which can be considered as a
sequencing batch or semi-continuous process, starts out
as a batch but then get repeated sequential additions of
more high-moisture manure.
Richard, T.L., and H.-L. Choi. 1996.
Optimizing the composting process for
moisture removal: theoretical analysis
and experimental results. ASAE Paper
No. 964014. Presented at the ASAE
1996 International Meeting in Phoenix,
AZ. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.

http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )
Theoretical Analysis and Optimization
Biodrying of a composting material results from the interaction
of physical and biological processes. The physical processes
include airflow rate, vapor transfer rates from the substrate to
the airstream, inlet and outlet conditions of temperature and
relative humidity, and the reactor configuration as it affects the
balance between conductive and convective energy losses.
The biological process of principal importance is the
degradation rate, which releases energy and is itself a function
of temperature as well as moisture and oxygen concentration.
For the purposes of this analysis we assume moisture and
oxygen concentration are not limiting, since by definition we
are starting with a high moisture mixture and utilizing high
airflow rates to remove heat.
Effective heat removal typically requires approximately an
order of magnitude more airflow than is needed to satisfy
aerobic reaction stoichiometry (Finstein et al., 1986).
Finstein, M.S., F.C. Miller and P.F. Strom. 1986.
Waste treatment composting as a controlled
system. pp. 363-398. In: Biotechnology: a
comprehensive treatis in 8 vol. , H.-J. Rehm
and G. Reed (eds.), Vol. 8. Microbial
degradations, W. Schnborn (vol. ed.). VCH
Verlagsgesellschaft (German Chemical
Society), Weinheim, FRG.
http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )

The removal of water from a composting reactor


can be accurately predicted through
psychrometric analysis if the inlet and outlet
temperatures and relative humidities as well as
the airflow rate are known.
The details of the psychrometric equations and
their use have been presented elsewhere
(Albright, 1990).
Albright, L.D. 1990. Environment Control
for Animals and Plants. ASAE Textbook
No. 4. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. 453 pp.

What is compost?
Compost is decomposed organic material. Compost is made
with material such as leaves, shredded twigs, and kitchen
scraps from plants.
To gardeners, compost is considered "black gold" because
of its many benefits in the garden. Compost is a great
material for garden soil. Adding compost to clay soils
makes them easier to work and plant. In sandy soils, the
addition of compost improves the water holding capacity of
the soil. By adding organic matter to the soil, compost can
help improve plant growth and health.
(http://urbanext.illinois.edu/compost/process.cfm)

http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )

Meskipun pemodelan aspek fisik penguapan air


relatif mudah, aspek biologinya jauh lebih
kompleks. Beberapa peneliti telah
mengembangkan model yang menggambarkan
efek suhu pada kinetika degradasi, dengan hasil
yang bervariasi (Richard and Choi, 1996).
Dalam contoh ini, secara teoritis laju biodrying
akan digambarkan dengan menggunakan model
Andrews dan Kambhu (1973), yang
menggunakan persamaan yang mirip dengan
bentuk klasik Arrhenius yang digunakan dalam
teknik kimia dan biokimia.
Using their parameters, the model has a
temperature optimum at 57C, decreasing to
near zero at 68C, which roughly corresponds to
the results of several experimental studies.

http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh

where

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )
Given the relationships between temperature, moisture
removal and decomposition rate, the optimization problem
requires us to look for the temperature at or above the peak in
the temperature kinetic function where the change in moisture
removal rate with temperature is zero.
This can be expressed:

Where

Untuk kondisi inflow udara yang


konstan, dan dengan asumsi tidak ada
perubahan suhu substrat di dalam
timbunan, hal ini dapat mengurangi
masalah steady state. Masalah ini
dapat dipecahkan dengan menetapkan
generasi panas (ditentukan dengan
hubungan kinetika dan stoikiometri)
sama dengan pembuangan panas
(ditentukan oleh hubungan
psychrometric) untuk menentukan suhu
optimum penguapan air.

http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh 17/3/2012

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )
The figure plots the calculated rate of moisture removal at five
different maximum decomposition rates (kmax), which span the
range of most manure composting mixtures. At the highest
decomposition rate, the model predicts moisture removal rates
of over 1 kg H2O per kg volatile solids (VS) per day.
For comparison with units more typically presented in
experimental results, if we assume VS = total solids (TS), a
moisture removal rate of 1 kg H2O per kg VS per day is
equivalent to a reduction from 70% moisture to 57% moisture
in 24 hours, while a moisture removal rate of 1.5 kg H2O per kg
VS per day is equivalent to a reduction from 70% moisture to
45% moisture in 24 hours.

Effect of maximum degradation rate on moisture


removal rate, using the model of Andrews and
Kambhu (1973).
http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh

Composting Strategies for High Moisture


Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University )

Biodrying of high moisture organic residuals is a


natural corollary to the composting process.
Systems designed for the sequential addition of
wet organic materials can significantly reduce
bulking amendment requirements while
simultaneously achieving high decomposition
rates.
This mode of operation can alternatively be
viewed as a sequential batch reactor, recycling
the bulking amendment for multiple batches of
compost, with a very high proportion of recycled
compost in each mix.
This high rate of recycle can reduce or eliminate
the lag time associated with composting system
startup, further increasing decomposition and
moisture removal rates.

http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20974.htm diunduh

Water Res. 2010 Dec;44(20):6144-52. Epub 2010 Jul 13.

Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on


bio-drying of dewatered sludge.
Zhao L, Gu WM, He PJ, Shao LM.

ABSTRACT
Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy
utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat
generated by aerobic degradation of its organic
substances. The study aimed at investigating the
interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency
on water removal and biomass energy utilization.
Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one
(0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under
turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow
rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation
was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and
higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate
improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86%
(19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial
water) with turning per two days and four days
respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable
advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate,
especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for
evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption
(34,400-45,400kJ).
The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS)
degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95%
(800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and
four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by
sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency
for
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673952
diunduh

Bioresour Technol. 2008 Dec;99(18):8796-802. Epub 2008


Jun 3.
Bio-drying of municipal solid waste with high water
content by aeration procedures regulation and
inoculation.
Zhang DQ, He PJ, Jin TF, Shao LM.

ABSTRACT

To improve the water content reduction of municipal


solid waste with high water content, the operations of
supplementing a hydrolytic stage prior to aerobic
degradation and inoculating the bio-drying products
were conducted. A 'bio-drying index' was used to
evaluate the bio-drying performance. For the aerobic
processes, the inoculation accelerated organics
degradation, enhanced the lignocelluloses degradation
rate by 10.4%, and lowered water content by 7.0%.
For the combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes, the
inoculum addition had almost no positive effect on the
bio-drying efficiency, but it enhanced the lignocelluloses
degradation rate by 9.6% and strengthened the
acidogenesis in the hydrolytic stage.
Compared with the aerobic processes, the combined
processes had a higher bio-drying index (4.20 for noninoculated and 3.67 for the inoculated trials). Moreover,
the lowest final water content occurred in the combined
process without inoculation (50.5% decreased from an
initial 72.0%).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18511273 diunduh

Bioresour Technol. 2009 Feb;100(3):1087-93. Epub 2008


Oct 1.
Effect of inoculation time on the bio-drying
performance of combined hydrolytic-aerobic
process.
Zhang DQ, He PJ, Yu LZ, Shao LM.

ABSTRACT
The study aimed at investigating the effects of
inoculation time on the bio-drying performance of
combined hydrolytic-aerobic process. Results showed
that the addition of inoculating material at different
time exhibited various effects not only on the
degradation rate of total organics, but also on the
performance of water removal and water content
reduction. The beginning of aerobic stage (day 5)
was suggested to be the optimal time for inoculation.
Under this operational condition, 815 g/kg-W(0)
(W(0)=initial water content) was removed and the
water content reduced from the initial 72.0% to
48.5%. Adding inoculating material at the start of
hydrolytic stage (day 0) reduced water removal and
water content reduction rates.
The addition of inoculating material at day 7 or 9
could not improve the bio-drying performance
significantly. Additionally, the inoculation at days 0,
5, 7 and 9 enhanced lignocelluloses degradation rate
by 3.8%, 11.6%, 7.9% and 7.7%, respectively.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835776 diunduh

Water Res. 2011 Mar;45(6):2322-30. Epub 2011 Jan 22.


Biodegradation potential of bulking agents used in
sludge bio-drying and their contribution to biogenerated heat.
Zhao L, Gu WM, He PJ, Shao LM.

ABSTRACT
Straw and sawdust are commonly used bulking agents in sludge
composting or bio-drying. It is important to determine if they
contribute to the biodegradable volatile solids pool. A sludge biodrying process was performed in this study using straw, sawdust
and their combination as the bulking agents.
The results revealed that straw has substantial biodegradation
potential in the aerobic process and sawdust has poor capacity to
be degraded. The temperature profile and bio-drying efficiency
were highest in the trial that straw was added, as indicated by a
moisture removal ratio and VS loss ratio of 62.3 and 31.0%,
respectively. In separate aerobic incubation tests, straw obtained
the highest oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of 2.14 and 4.75 mg O(2)
g(-1)VS h(-1) at 35 C and 50 C, respectively, while the highest
OUR values of sludge were 12.1 and 5.68 mg O(2) g(-1)VS h(-1) at
35 C and 50 C and those of sawdust were 0.286 and 0.332 mg
O(2) g(-1)VS h(-1), respectively.
The distribution of biochemical fractions revealed that soluble
fractions in hot water and hot neutral detergent were the main
substrates directly attacked by microorganisms, which accounted
for the initial OUR peak. The cellulose-like fraction in straw was
transformed to soluble fractions, resulting in an increased duration
of aerobic respiration. Based on the potential VS degradation rate,
no bio-generated heat was contributed by sawdust, while that
contribution by straw was about 41.7% and the ratio of
sludge/straw was 5:1 (w/w, wet basis).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21306753 diunduh 17/3/2012

Bioresour Technol. 2002 Jul;83(3):173-9.


The influence of biomass temperature on
biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste.
Adani F, Baido D, Calcaterra E, Genevini P.
Abstract
A laboratory study was carried out to obtain data on the
influence of biomass temperature on biostabilizationbiodrying of municipal solid waste (initial moisture content of
410 g kg wet weight (w.w.)(-1)). Three trials were carried out
at three different biomass temperatures, obtained by airflow
rate control (A = 70 degrees C, B = 60 degrees C and C = 45
degrees C).
Biodegradation and biodrying were inversely correlated: fast
biodrying produced low biological stability and vice versa.
The product obtained from process A was characterized by
the highest degradation coefficient (166 g kg TS0(-1); TS0(-1)
= initial total solid content) and lowest water loss (409 g kg
W0(-1); W0 = initial water content). Due to the high reduction
of easily degradable volatile solid content and preservation of
water, process A produced the highest biological stability
(dynamic respiration index, DRI = 141 mg O2 kg VS(-1); VS =
volatile solids) but the lowest energy content (EC = 10,351 kJ
kg w.w.(-1)). Conversely, process C which showed the highest
water elimination (667 g kg W0(-1)), and lowest degradation
rate (18 g kg TS0(-1)) was optimal for refuse-derived fuel
(RDF) production having the highest energy content (EC =
14,056 kJ kg w.w.(-1)). Nevertheless, the low biological
stability reached, due to preservation of degradable volatile
solids, at the end of the process (DRI = 1055 mg O2 kg VS(1)), indicated that the RDF should be used immediately,
without storage.
Trial B showed substantial agreement between low moisture
content (losses of 665 g kg W0(-1)), high energy
content
(EC
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12094790
diunduh

Bioresour Technol. 2005 Aug;96(12):1331-7. Epub 2005


Jan 20.
Biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste
by inverting air-flow.
Sugni M, Calcaterra E, Adani F.

ABSTRA
CT
The process of biodrying could be a good solution for
municipal solid waste management, allowing the production
of fuel with an interesting energy content. Previous work
(Adani, F., Baido, D., Calcaterra, E., Genevini, P.L., 2002. The
influence of biomass temperature on biostabilizationbiodrying of municipal solid waste. Bioresource Technology
83 (3), 173-179) has indicated that appropriate
management of the processing parameters (air-flow rate
and biomass temperatures) could achieve biomass drying in
very short times (8-9 days). However, the data of that work
also evidenced that if the conditions do not consider pile
turning, and the air-flow is always from one direction,
temperature gradients arise within the biomass, resulting in
a lack of homogeneity in the moisture and energy content
of the final product.
Therefore, a new laboratory study was conducted on
municipal solid waste biodrying-biostabilization in an effort
to obtain homogeneous final products. Our proposal to
solve this lack of homogeneity is to periodically invert the
air-flow direction. Thus, in line with a previous study, two
trials, A and B, were carried out, dividing the biomass into
three layers to study temperature and moisture gradients
throughout the process, and a third trial (C) simulating airflow inversion at regular intervals was introduced. The
results suggest that the daily inversion of air-flow
eliminates
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15792579

diunduh

Bioresour Technol. 2009 Jun;100(11):2747-61. Epub 2009 Feb 11.

Biodrying for mechanical-biological treatment of


wastes: a review of process science and
engineering.
Velis C.A, Longhurst P.J, Drew G.H, Smith R, Pollard S.J.

ABSTRACT

Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition, used


within mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants to dry
and partially stabilise residual municipal waste.
Biodrying MBT plants can produce a high quality solid
recovered fuel (SRF), high in biomass content. Here,
process objectives, operating principles, reactor designs,
parameters for process monitoring and control, and their
effect on biodried output quality are critically examined.
Within the biodrying reactors, waste is dried by air
convection, the necessary heat provided by exothermic
decomposition of the readily decomposable waste
fraction.
Biodrying is distinct from composting in attempting to dry
and preserve most of biomass content of the waste
matrix, rather than fully stabilise it. Commercial process
cycles are completed within 7-15 days, with mostly
H(2)O((g)) and CO(2) loses of ca. 25-30% w/w, leading to
moisture contents of <20% w/w. High airflow rate and
dehumidifying of re-circulated process air provides for
effective drying. We anticipate this review will be of value
to MBT process operators, regulators and end-users of
SRF.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216072 diunduh

Bioresour Technol. 2011 Aug;102(16):7443-50. Epub 2011


May 23.
Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid
waste properties.
Tambone F, Scaglia B, Scotti S, Adani F.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal
solid waste (MSW) properties was studied.
The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying
reduced the water content of waste, allowing the
production of biodried waste with a net heating value
(NHV) of 16,7792,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41%
higher than that of untreated waste.
The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced,
also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential selfignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts
suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy
via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e.
bioreactor.
Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying
process because of the partial degradation of the organic
fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS),
reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664812 diunduh

Water Res. 2002 Apr;36(8):2124-32.


Kinetics of the aerobic biological degradation of
shredded municipal solid waste in liquid phase.
Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Bizukojc M, Ledakowicz S.
Abstract
The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)
should be utilised by means of biological methods. The
biodegradation of solid wastes can be intensified owing to
application of the bioreactors. Estimation of the optimum
values of the organic load is one of the most important
tasks for the aerobic biodegradation processes.
The kinetic model of biological oxidation of the organic
wastes has been presented in this paper. The experiments
were carried out in batch 6-l working volume stirred tank
bioreactors at constant temperature of 25 degrees C.
Initial total solids have been at the levels of 15, 19, 34, 55
and 66 g l(-1). The kinetics of microbial decomposition of
organic substances was described by means of an
unstructured model.
The satisfactory time courses for substrate chemical
oxygen demand in the solid (CODs) and liquid phase
(CODL) and biomass concentration (RNA) have been
achieved. Also, the influence of the initial TS on the
kinetics of the biodegradation process was investigated
and the optimum value of initial TS for this type of
processes was estimated at 34-55 g l(-1).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12092587 diunduh

J Biotechnol. 2003 Mar 6;101(2):165-72.


Estimation of viable biomass in aerobic
biodegradation processes of organic fraction of
municipal solid waste (MSW).
Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Ledakowicz S.

ABSTRACT

2-(p-Iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium
chloride (INT) dehydrogenase test and RNA assay were
introduced to evaluate biomass in the processes of
aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of
municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactors.
It was found that RNA quantification by KOH/UV method
delivered reliable and repeatable results. Relative
standard deviation (RSD) for INT test was significantly
higher than for RNA assay and achieved values of 3-15%.
Moreover, it occurred that the optimum temperature for
the growth of autochthonic biomass, which takes part in
the biodegradation process, was in the range from 25 to
37 degrees C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12568745 diunduh

Water Res. 2002 Apr;36(8):2124-32.


Kinetics of the aerobic biological degradation of
shredded municipal solid waste in liquid phase.
Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Bizukojc M, Ledakowicz S.
Abstract
The organic fraction of municipal solid waste
(OFMSW) should be utilised by means of biological
methods. The biodegradation of solid wastes can
be intensified owing to application of the
bioreactors. Estimation of the optimum values of
the organic load is one of the most important
tasks for the aerobic biodegradation processes.
The kinetic model of biological oxidation of the
organic wastes has been presented in this paper.
The experiments were carried out in batch 6-l
working volume stirred tank bioreactors at
constant temperature of 25 degrees C. Initial total
solids have been at the levels of 15, 19, 34, 55
and 66 g l(-1). The kinetics of microbial
decomposition of organic substances was
described by means of an unstructured model.
The satisfactory time courses for substrate
chemical oxygen demand in the solid (CODs) and
liquid phase (CODL) and biomass concentration
(RNA) have been achieved. Also, the influence of
the initial TS on the kinetics of the biodegradation
process was investigated and the optimum value
of initial TS for this type of processes was
estimated at 34-55 g l(-1). diunduh
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12092587

Waste Manag. 2008;28(7):1188-200. Epub 2007 Jul 3.


Modelling of moisture-dependent aerobic
degradation of solid waste.
Pommier S, Chenu D, Quintard M, Lefebvre X.

Abstract
In landfill, high temperature levels come from aerobic
reactions inside the waste surface layer. They are known to
make anaerobic processes more reliable, by partial removal
of easily biodegradable substrates. Aerobic biodegradation
of the main components of biodegradable matter (paper
and cardboard waste, food and yard waste) is considered. In
this paper, two models which take into account the effect of
moisture on aerobic biodegradation kinetics are discussed.
The first one (Model A) is a simple, first order, substraterelated model, which assumes that substrate hydrolysis is
the limiting step of the process. The second one (Model B) is
a biomass-dependant model, considering biological growth
processes. Respirometric experiments were performed in
order to evaluate the efficiency of each model. The
biological oxygen demands of shredded paper and
cardboard samples and of food and yard waste samples
prepared at various initial water contents were measured.
These experimental data were used to identify model
parameters.
Model A, which includes moisture dependency on the
maximum amount of biodegraded matter, is relevant for
paper and cardboard biodegradation.
On the other hand, Model B, including moisture effect on
the growth rate of biomass is suitable to describe food and
yard waste biodegradation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611099 diunduh

Waste Manag Res. 2001 Feb;19(1):58-69.


The role of aerobic activity on refuse temperature rise: II.
Experimental and numerical modelling.
Lanini S, Houi D, Aguilar O, Lefebvre X.

ABSTRACT

The biodegradation of a model waste is studied in a


300-litre pilot. The aim is to better understand the role
of biochemical processes on the temperature rise, in
relation to landfill management protocols.
The variations of temperature and gas composition
distributions in the waste are accurately measured and
analysed. The observations confirm that biological
consumption of the oxygen diffusing through the waste
is the main source of heat.
A theoretical modelling of coupled heat and oxygen
transfers in fresh refuse is then proposed. Numerical
results are in good agreement with experimental data,
but it appears that biochemical kinetics should account
for the carbon availability limitation.
Finally, a prediction of the temperature field in a landfill
is presented.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11525476 diunduh

BIODRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID


WASTE
Stanisaw Ledakowicz, Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana
Krzystek
Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Process and
Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska Str.
213, 90-924 Lodz, Poland

ABSTRACT
The effect of air flow rate on the change of biomass
(organic waste material) temperature and moisture content
during an autothermal drying process was discussed in this
paper. The laboratory-scale experiments were performed
using a 240 dm3 capacity, horizontal composting reactor
(insulated with polyurethane foam), equipped with an airsupply system, compost temperature measuring system,
and air humidity and temperature sensors.
An organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the
addition of structural material was used as a substrate in
this process.
As a result of the autothermal biodrying process, moisture
content decreased by 50% at the initial moisture content of
organic waste ranging from 800 to 900 gH2O/kg wet
weight. Water balances were calculated before and after
the composting and drying process. Very good agreement
of the calculated water balances was obtained. The heat of
combustion of dried waste and its calorific value were
12.28 kJ/g and 10.98 kJ/g, respectively.
http://158.170.80.141/wcce8/offline/techsched/manuscripts
%5C0gqfjc.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Potential for Biodrying Manure


Peter Wright
Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell
University

Abstract
Studies have shown that spreading liquid manure when soils are
near saturation or when they are likely to become saturated before
crop uptake of nutrients can occur, can result in significant nutrient
and bacterial discharges to the water through tile lines and runoff.
Often nutrient management plans designed to protect water
quality prescribe manure storage. Stored liquid manure can
produce significant objectionable odors both during storage and
when spread. Catastrophic failure of liquid systems is a risk that
many farms want to avoid.
Biodrying as described in this paper is a system that has the
potential to improve water quality by increasing the likelihood of
nutrient export. It can provide a stabilized solid for spreading on
hay ground during the growing season. Biodrying will meet the
farm's need for odor control. Smaller farms' desire for a solid based
treatment system would be addressed as well.
The design of a Biodrying process on an 85 cow dairy farm in the
NYC Watershed will be described. This work has been funded by a
grant from NYSERDA and is being constructed in the spring of
2001. This will include designing and building a composting shed,
installing a forced air system that will be controlled to optimize the
composting and drying of the manure. If managed carefully, the
heat generated by aerobic composting can provide the energy to
reduce 12% dry matter (DM) manure to a 60% DM residual. The
compost would be reduced one half in volume and to one fifth the
weight of the original manure due to water loss and solid
conversion to gasses.
Preliminary analysis shows that the cost of operating the system
minus the cost of additional benefits including off site sales is less
than the cost of conventional liquid storage and land spreading
http://www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu/Pages/General_Docs/Papers/P
that would meet the environmental goals for the
farm. 17/3/2012
If
otential_for_Biodrying_Manure_Wright_2002.pdf
diunduh

Potential for Biodrying Manure


Peter Wright
Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell
University

Description of
Biodrying
If managed carefully, the heat generated by aerobic
composting can provide the energy to reduce 12% DM
manure to a 60% DM residual. Forced air composting, under
a roof, with the air flow controlled carefully would optimize
this process. Composting works best with an initial moisture
content below 70%. Recent applications of composting
operations have shown the feasibility of this process by
using forced air to compost six foot high layers of manure in
21 days. Recycled compost or a mix of compost and
sawdust, or other amendment, at 40% dry matter could be
spread in the cow alleys about 3 inches thick to absorb one
days production of 12% DM manure.
The mixture could be scraped into a shed, piled 6 feet deep
and aerated to produce 40% DM compost in 3 weeks.
The figure shows a side view, plan view and cross section of
the biodrying shed. The building was designed with a high
overshot roof, open walls, and four foot eaves to provide
good ventilation while keeping the process protected from
precipitation. Manure and recycled compost can be loaded
from either side, although preliminary trials have shown
that a side delivery manure spreader can build a six foot
pile 40 feet long.
http://www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu/Pages/General_Docs/Papers/P
otential_for_Biodrying_Manure_Wright_2002.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Potential for Biodrying Manure


Peter Wright
Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell
University

Proposed Biodrying Building.

http://www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu/Pages/General_Docs/Papers/P
otential_for_Biodrying_Manure_Wright_2002.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Potential for Biodrying Manure


Peter Wright
Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell
University
The air flow calculated for this system compares with various
air flows form the literature. Table 1 shows different air flows
that were successful in composting the listed ingredients. A
control system can be developed to run the fans that will
optimize the composting operation (Hall).
Comparison of air flows and ingredients for various
composting operations.

http://www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu/Pages/General_Docs/Papers/P
otential_for_Biodrying_Manure_Wright_2002.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Effect of temperature and air flow rate on carbon and


nitrogen compounds changes during the biodrying of
swine manure in order to produce combustible biomasses
Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Stphane Godbout, Franois Lveille, Dan
Zegan, Jean-Pierre Larouche.
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology

Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI:


10.1002/jctb.3744

ABSTRACT
Manure is the main waste of raising livestock, when spreading in
soils can cause surface and ground water pollution. The
management of manure is associated with emissions of
greenhouse gases and odours. Dry manure contains at least 45%
of carbon. This is an attractive characteristic for energetic
valorisation. To use manure in the production of energy, it must
be previously dried.

Wet solids from swine manure containing 30% of dry


matter were dried in laboratory scale biodryers. Four
levels of aeration rate from 0.4 to 4 L min1 kg and five
levels of temperature from 25 to 65 C were tested. The
highest emissions of CO2, NH3 and N2O occurred at the
highest air flow rate of 4 L min1 kg. For all operating
conditions, the high calorific power had a mean value of
15 0.4 MJ kg.
The dried biomass obtained had an energetic potential to
valorise by combustion.
The bed temperature and aeration rate have an effect on
carbon and nitrogen bio-cycles. These operating
parameters can also control the release quantity and
gaseous form of nitrogen. Several problems related to
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jctb.3744/abstract;jsessionid=BE1F12F253E
swine manure management can be solved by using
CD925D4F2DB9E4EC6DF64.d03t01?
biodrying, an
economic and environmental friendly
systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+17+March+from+10technology.
14+GMT+%2806-10+EDT
%29+for+essential+maintenance&userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomis

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

ABSTRACT
In order to take advantage of heat released during
composting, the autothermal drying process requires
the maintenance of adequate air flow combined with
temperature. The aim of this paper was to construct a
drying tunnel enabling the automatic control and
regulation of the basic process parameters for biomass
drying (organic fraction of municipal solid waste
together with plant structural material) to obtain
biofuel. In the course of investigations, various
constructions of a drying tunnel were tested.
The best results were accomplished for a horizontal
reactor with the automatic regulation of air flow. About
50% reduction of moisture content and dry mass on the
level of 0.53 kgdry mass/kgwet weight were obtained.
The heat of combustion of dried waste and its calorific
value were 12.28 kJ/g waste and 10.98 kJ/g waste,
respectively.

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Schematic diagram of autothermal drying tunnel No 1: 1
Drying tunnel, 2 Polyurethane foam, 3 Cover with holes, 4
Inlet air, 5 Outlet air, 6 Biofilter, 7 Stand

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

Schematic diagram of drying tunnel No. 2: 1


Polyurethane foam, 2 Cover with holes, 3 Metal bar,
4 Outlet air, 5 Inlet air, 6 Biofilter, 7 Engine, 8
Stand

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Schematic diagram of the autothermal drying tunnel No. 3:
1 Composted biomass, 2 Drying tunnel, 3 Polyurethane
foam, 4 Duct heater, 5 In-line duct fan, 6 Inlet air, 7, 8
Temperature sensors of composted biomass, 9 Temperature
sensor of biomass over compost, 10 Biofilter, 11 Outlet air,
12 Exhaust fan, 13 Temperature and moisture sensors of
outlet air

autothermal drying
tunnel

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Duration of the composting and drying cycle in reactor No. 1 was 11
days. The
initial moisture of waste attained the value of 0.86 kgH2O/kgwet weight.
The final moisture value was equal to 0.53 kgH2O/kgwet weight, (Table
1). In this test cycle one could observe a decrease of moisture by about
30%. Figure 4 shows the temperature mean values of composting
biomass in reactor 1.
Within the first three days of the drying process an increase of
temperature can be
noticed. The highest temperature recorded during the process was 33
C. It must be added that it was attained on the 2nd and 3rd day of the
process. After four days the
temperature decreased to 28 C. Afterwards, the repeated increase by 2
C was observed.
On the 8th and 9th day the temperature started to decrease to the
value of 26 C.
On the 11th day of the process the repeated increase in temperature
was observed and
its value was 32 C. Low temperatures obtained in this test series and
high final
moisture of biomass as well as the observed increase in the
temperature were probably
caused by a lack of the appropriate mixing and air flow.

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Temperature in composting biomass in reactors No. 1 and 2
On the 1st day of the process the
temperature in the reactor No. 2 was 25 C. On the 3rd day one could
observe an increase
in temperature up to 39 C. On the 4th day of the process a decrease in
temperature
to 35 C was noticed. The highest temperature in this test cycle (40 C)
was
obtained on the 5th day. On subsequent days a decrease in temperature
can be noticed.
On the last day of the investigations the temperature of biomass
reached the value of 28 C. It is highly probable that the observed
increase in temperature, similarly to
reactor 1, is caused by a lack of the appropriate mixing and air flow.
In reactor 2, analogously to reactor 1, a similar level of decrease in
moisture content
of waste mass (about 20%) was obtained. Nonetheless, higher
temperatures were
recorded (40 C), which was due to the better process conditions for
composting than
in reactor 1. Notwithstanding, those results are not satisfactory due to
the fact that the
final waste moisture content was very high.

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Temperature in the top and bottom of waste mass layer in reactor No.
3
On the first days of the composting process, the temperature in the
bottom layer was higher and amounted to about 23 C, while
temperature of the top layer was about 21 C. On the 6th day of the
process, a temperature growth was observed in both layers. The
highest temperatures, reaching 53 C, were obtained in the bottom
waste layer. The temperature in the top layer was lower by about 2 C
in this period. At the end of the process, a decrease of temperatures
in both layers to the level close to inlet air temperatures, i.e. 21 C to
23 C, was observed. The temperature of the top layer was 23 C,
while that of the bottom layer about 25 C. On the 10th day of the
cycle, temperature of the bottom layer was on a higher level. The
difference of temperature of the bottom and top layer was not too
high and attained the values ranging from 2 C to 5 C, which
indicates a satisfactory level of homogeneity in the moisture and
energy content of the final product.

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Temperature and humidity of outlet air in reactor No. 3
Air humidity at the beginning of the composting process was
kept on the level of about 52%. The highest value of this
parameter reaching 7579% was obtained after 3 days of the
process. At the end of the process, air humidity dropped to the
value ranging from 37% to 39%. Initially, the outlet air
temperature was 21 C to 23 C. The highest value of this
parameter about 33 C, was obtained on the last days of the
process. During the tested processes no high temperatures of
the outlet air were found which could be due to temperature of
the composting waste.

http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Environment Protection Engineering . Vol. 35 2009 No. 3


AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISAW LEDAKOWICZ.

AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF


MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

The elementary analysis of composting


waste was performed and the heat of
combustion and calorific value were
determined.

The heat of combustion (Hc0) is the energy released as heat


when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen
under standard conditions.
The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with
oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. It may be
expressed with the quantities:
1. energy/mole of fuel (kJ/mol)
2. energy/mass of fuel
3. energy/volume of fuel
The heat of combustion is conventionally measured with a bomb
calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between
the heat of formation (fH0) of the products and reactants.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion)
http://epe.pwr.wroc.pl/2009/Zawadzka_3-2009.pdf diunduh 17/3/2012

Waste Manag. 2010 Jul;30(7):1165-70. Epub 2010 Jan 27.


Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste with
high water content for improving energy recovery.
Shao LM, Ma ZH, Zhang H, Zhang DQ, He PJ.
Abstract
Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of
municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving energy
recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was adopted for
MSW with high water content to improve its combustibility and
reduce potential environmental pollution during the follow-up
incineration. The effects of bio-drying and waste particle size on
heating values, acid gas and heavy metal emission potential
were investigated.

The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased


from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower
heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal
concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of
dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food
residues.
The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size higher than
45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and papers, and
were preferable for the production of refuse derived fuel
(RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower heavy metal
concentration and emission. However, due to the higher
chlorine content and HCl emission potential, attention
should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution control.
Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size <45 mm
increased by around 2x after bio-drying, they were still
below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy
metal pollution potential was observed.
Different incineration strategies could be adopted for
different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their
combustibility and pollution property. diunduh
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20106649

Waste Manag. 2011 Aug;31(8):1790-6. Epub 2011 May 4.


Evolution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste
during bio-drying and implications of their
subsequent transfer during combustion.
Zhang DQ, Zhang H, Wu CL, Shao LM, He PJ.
Abstract
Bio-drying has been applied to improve the heating value of
municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to combustion. In the present
study, evolution of heavy metals in MSW during bio-drying and
subsequent combustion was studied using one aerobic and two
combined hydrolytic-aerobic scenarios.
Heavy metals were concentrated during bio-drying and
transformed between different metal fractions, namely the
exchangeable, carbonate-bound, iron- and manganese-oxidesbound, organic-matter-bound and residual fractions.
The amounts of heavy metals per kg of bio-dried MSW
transferred into combustion flue gas increased with bio-drying
time, primarily due to metals enrichment from organics
degradation. Because of their volatility, the partitioning ratios
of As and Hg in flue gas remained stable so that bio-drying and
heavy metal speciation had little effect on their transfer and
partitioning during combustion.

Sebaliknya, rasio partisi Pb, Zn


dan Cu cenderung meningkat
setelah bio-drying, yang
kemungkinan meningkatkan
potensi emisinya selama
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21543217
diunduh
pembakaran.

Waste Manag. 2010 Jul;30(7):1165-70. Epub 2010 Jan 27.


Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste
with high water content for improving energy
recovery.
Shao LM, Ma ZH, Zhang H, Zhang DQ, He PJ.
Abstract
Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of
municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving
energy recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was
adopted for MSW with high water content to improve its
combustibility and reduce potential environmental pollution
during the follow-up incineration. The effects of bio-drying
and waste particle size on heating values, acid gas and
heavy metal emission potential were investigated.
The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased
from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower
heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal
concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of
dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food
residues. The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size
higher than 45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and
papers, and were preferable for the production of refuse
derived fuel (RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower
heavy metal concentration and emission. However, due to
the higher chlorine content and HCl emission potential,
attention should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution
control. Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size <45
mm increased by around 2x after bio-drying, they were still
below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy
metal pollution potential was observed.
Different incineration strategies could be adopted for
different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20106649 diunduh

Waste Manag. 2009 Nov;29(11):2816-23. Epub 2009 Jul


15.
Sorting efficiency and combustion properties of
municipal solid waste during bio-drying.
Zhang DQ, He PJ, Shao LM.
Abstract
One aerobic and two combined bio-drying processes were set
up to investigate the quantitative relationships of sorting
efficiency and combustion properties with organics degradation
and water removal during bio-drying.
Results showed that the bio-drying could enhance the sorting
efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW) up to 71% from the
initial of 34%. The sorting efficiency was correlated with water
content negatively (correlation coefficient, r=-0.89) and
organics degradation rate positively (r=0.92). The higher
heating values (HHVs) were correlated with organics
degradation negatively for FP (i.e. the sum of only food and
paper) (r=-0.93) but positively for the mixing waste (MW)
(r=0.90), whereas the lower heating values (LHVs) were
negatively correlated with water content for both FP (r=-0.71)
and MW (r=-0.96). Other combustion properties depended on
organics degradation performance, except for ignition
performance and combustion rate.
The LHVs could be greatly enhanced by the
combined process with insufficient aeration
during the hydrolytic stage.
Compared with FP, MW had higher LHVs and
ratios of volatile matter to fixed carbon.
Nevertheless, FP had higher final burnout values
than MW.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19608397 diunduh

. Lower Heating Value Dynamics during Municipal Solid


Waste Bio-Drying
E. C. Rada, A. Franzinelli, M. Taiss, M. Ragazzi, V. Panaitescu & T.
Apostol
Environmental Technology
Volume 28, Issue 4, 2007
pages 463-469
Abstract
In agreement with the new European Union directives
concerning the valorization of materials and energy recovery,
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is, in general based
on an integrated approach characterized by a combination of
different treatment processes.
The bio-mechanical treatment (BMT) of MSW is an increasing
option in Europe either as a pre-treatment before landfilling or
as a pre-treatment before combustion. In this context the
research on the bio-drying process is not fully developed. In the
present paper the Lower Heating Value (LHV) dynamics during
MSW bio-drying has been assessed. Measurements were made
using a pilot scale bio-dryer that allows the recording of data as
air flow, temperature (at the entrance, at the exit and inside
the waste), and weight loss. An initial characterization of the
MSW completes the input data.

Results give information on the


dynamics of the main process
parameters (humidity, volatile
solids, ammonia, Lower Heating
Value) and also of additional
parameters.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09593332808618807
diunduh 17/3/2012

The influence of biomass temperature on


biostabilizationbiodrying of municipal solid waste
Adani, Fabrizio; Baido, Diego; Calcaterra, Enrico; Genevini,
Pierluigi
Bioresource Technology. Vol. 83. Issue 3. July, 2002. Pages 173179
Abstract
A laboratory study was carried out to obtain data on the influence of biomass
temperature on biostabilizationbiodrying of municipal solid waste (initial
moisture content of 410 g kg wet weight (w.w.) 1). Three trials were carried
out at three different biomass temperatures, obtained by airflow rate control
( A=70 C, B=60 C and C=45 C). Biodegradation and biodrying were
inversely correlated: fast biodrying produced low biological stability and vice
versa.
The product obtained from process A was characterized by the highest
degradation coefficient (166 g kg TS 01; TS 01=initial total solid content)
and lowest water loss (409 g kg W 01; W 0=initial water content). Due to the
high reduction of easily degradable volatile solid content and preservation of
water, process A produced the highest biological stability (dynamic respiration
index, DRI=141 mg O 2 kg VS 1; VS=volatile solids) but the lowest energy
content (EC=10,351 kJ kg w.w. 1).
Conversely, process C which showed the highest water elimination (667 g kg
W 01), and lowest degradation rate (18 g kgTS 01) was optimal for refusederived fuel (RDF) production having the highest energy content (EC=14,056
kJ kg w.w. 1). Nevertheless, the low biological stability reached, due to
preservation of degradable volatile solids, at the end of the process (DRI=1055
mg O 2kgVS 1), indicated that the RDF should be used immediately, without
storage.

Trial B showed substantial agreement


between low moisture content (losses
of 665 g kg W 01), high energy
content (EC=13,558 kJ kg w.w. 1)
and good biological stability (DRI=166
mg O 2kgVS 1), so that, in this case,
the product could be used
immediately for RDF or stored with
minimum pollutant impact (odors,
leaches and biogas production).
http://discover-decouvrir.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/article/?id=1572893 diunduh
17/3/2012

J Environ Sci (China). 2010;22(5):752-9.


Release of volatile organic compounds during biodrying of municipal solid waste.
He P, Tang J, Zhang D, Zeng Y, Shao L.
Abstract
Three treatments were tested to investigate the release
concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during
the bio-drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) by the
aerobic and combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes.
Results showed that VOCs were largely released in the first
4 days of bio-drying and the dominant components were:
dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, benzene, 2-butanone,
limonene and methylene chloride. Thus, the combined
hydrolytic-aerobic process was suggested for MSW biodrying due to fewer aeration quantities in this phase when
compared with the aerobic process, and the treatment
strategies should base on the key properties of these
prominent components. Malodorous sulfur compounds and
terpenes were mainly released in the early phase of biodrying, whereas, two peaks of release concentrations
appeared for aromatics and ketones during bio-drying.
Notably, for the combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes
there were also high concentrations of released aromatics
in the shift from hydrolytic to aerobic stages.
High concentrations of released chlorinateds were observed
in the later phase. For the VOCs produced during MSW biodrying, i.e., malodorous sulfur compounds, terpenes and
chlorinateds, their release concentrations were mainly
determined by production rates; for the VOCs presented
initially in MSW, such as aromatics, their transfer and
transport in MSW mainly determined
the
release17/3/2012
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20608513

diunduh

Experimental Study on the Bio-Drying Characteristics and


its Influencing Factors of Paper Mill Sludge
Xun An Ning, Qing Lin Chen, Jian Bo Zhou, Zuo Yi Yang,
Jing Yong Liu
Advanced Materials Research, 204-210, 88. 2011.
ABSTRACT
The bio-drying characteristics and its influencing factors of
paper mill sludge (PMS) were investigated detailedly, by means
of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of the organic
substances in the PMS. In the orthogonal experiments, the good
results were achieved with the followed optimization technics:
starch (25.0g/500.0g), sawdust (40.0g/500.0g), inoculation
(15.0mL/500.0g) and KH2PO4 (5.0g/500.0g).

During bio-drying, the matrix temperature


increased to 47.2 within 12-24h rapidly under
the given operation parameters, and the maximum
was about 48.0. In the whole process the pH
changed in the range of 6.11-7.87. The quantity of
amylolytic bacteria reduced to the minimum in the
first day, and the amylolytic bacteria grew well
until the process of bio-drying finished. The ATP
content was increased drastically in the first day
and peaked in the fifth day, with the maximum ATP
content was about 6.410-6mol/g. When biodrying of PMS was finished, the VS content and
moisture content (MC) reduced from 58.4% to
49.5% and 62.2% to 50.3% respectively.
http://www.scientific.net/AMR.204-210.88 diunduh 17/3/2012

Estimation of the energy content of the residual


fraction refused by MBT plants: A case study in
Zaragozas MBT plant
Alfonso Aranda Usn, , Germn Ferreira, David Zambrana
Vsquez, Ignacio Zabalza Bribin, Eva Llera Sastresa.
Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 20, Issue 1, January
2012, Pages 3846.
Abstract
The proper estimation of the energy content of the residual
fraction from mechanicalbiological treatment (MBT) plants is
essential for planning and promoting different methods to
decrease its environmental impact, to lower the consumption of
energy resources, and to reduce economic costs. Currently, in
many countries, the residual fraction from these plants is
disposed of in a landfill with few recovery actions. This paper
proposes a methodology for estimating the energy content of
the aforementioned fraction. To validate it, the methodology is
applied to a MBT plant in Zaragoza that collects residual
household waste from municipal solid waste (MSW) from 62
municipalities in four regions of Aragon Zaragoza, Ribera Baja
del Ebro, Campo de Cariena, and Campo de Belchite.

An energy potential of
17929.24kJ/kg of the residual
fraction from this MBT plant is
estimated, which is equivalent
to 100.18ktoe per year.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611002782
diunduh 17/3/2012

. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian


MBT plants
J. Tintner, E. Smidt, , K. Bhm, E. Binner.
Waste Management. Vol. 30, Issue 10, October 2010, Pages 19031907

Abstract
Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste
(MSW) has become an important technology in waste
management during the last decade. The paper compiles
investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian
MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different
stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of
the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their
behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration
activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The
evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds
was compared and related to process operation.

The respiration activity decreases in most of


the plants by about 90% of the initial values
whereas the ammonium release is still
ongoing at the end of the biological
treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is
not separated, it favors humification in MBT
materials that is not observed to such extent
in MSW.
The amount of organic carbon is about 15%
dry matter at the end of the biological
treatment.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X10003181
diunduh 17/3/2012

Aerobic and Anaerobic Digestion and Types of


Decomposition
Aerobic Digestion
Aerobic digestion of waste is the natural biological degradation
and purification process in which bacteria that thrive in oxygenrich environments break down and digest the waste.
During oxidation process, pollutants are broken down into
carbon dioxide (CO2 ), water (H 2 O), nitrates, sulphates and
biomass (microorganisms). By operating the oxygen supply
with aerators, the process can be significantly accelerated. Of
all the biological treatment methods, aerobic digestion is the
most widespread process that is used throughout the world.
Advantages of Aerobic Digestion
Aerobic bacteria are very efficient in breaking down waste
products. The result of this is; aerobic treatment usually yields
better effluent quality that that obtained in anaerobic
processes. The aerobic pathway also releases a substantial
amount of energy. A portion is used by the microorganisms for
synthesis and growth of new microorganisms.

http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/ENV149/lesson4b.htm diunduh

DEKOMPOSISI BAHAN ORGANIK SECARA


AEROBIK
A biological process, in which, organisms use available organic
matter to support biological activity. The process uses organic
matter, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen, and produces stable
solids, carbon dioxide, and more organisms.
The microorganisms which can only survive in aerobic
conditions are known as aerobic organisms. In sewer lines the
sewage becomes anoxic if left for a few hours and becomes
anaerobic if left for more than 1 1/2 days. Anoxic organisms
work well with aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Facultative
and anoxic are basically the same concept.

http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/ENV149/lesson4b.htm diunduh

DEKOMPOSISI BAHAN ORGANIK


Decomposition occurs most rapidly in well aerated soils.When
organic plant residues are incorporated into such a soil, three
general reactions occur:
Carbon compounds are enzymatically oxidized to produce
carbon dioxide, water, energy, and decomposed biomass.

Elements essential to plant nutrition, such as N, P, and S, are


released and/or immobilized by a series of specific reactions
that are relatively unique for each element.

Compounds very resistant to microbial action are formed.

Factors Influencing rate of Organic Matter


Decomposition
In addition to the composition of organic matter,
nature and abundance of microorganisms in soil,
the extent of C, N, P and K., moisture content of the
soil and its temperature, PH, aeration, C: N ratio of
plant residues and presence/absence of inhibitory
substances (e.g. tannins) etc. are some of the
major factors which influence the rate of organic
matter decomposition.
(
http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=5&topicid=
170
http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/soil200/interaction/orgmatter_air.htm
)

PROSES PENGERINGAN (DRYING)

Secara umum drying dapat diartikan sebagai proses


untuk mengurangi sebagian kadarair dalam material
menggunakan aerasi. Dalam beberapa kasus misalnya
kadar air dapat dikurangi secara mekanis dengan
menggunakan pressing, sentrifugasi, dan metode
lainnya
(Geankoplis,1993: hal 559).
Teknologi pengeringan umumnya mengurangi
kandungan uap (MC ) dari matriks kandungan sampah
tersebut dengan menggunakan udara panas panas, oleh
karena itu airmenguap ke fase udara (uap), dan
menghasilkan keluaran samapah kering dari
karakteristik yang diinginkan
(Dufour, 2006).

Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of


water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid
or liquid. This process is often used as a final production step
before selling or packaging products. To be considered "dried",
the final product must be solid, in the form of a continuous sheet
(e.g. paper), long pieces (e.g. wood), particles (e.g. cereal grains
or corn flakes) or powder (e.g. sand, salt, washing powder, milk
powder). A source of heat, and an agent to remove the vapor
produced by the process are necessary. In bioproducts like food,
grains, and pharmaceuticals like vaccines, the solvent to be
removed is almost invariably water.
In the most common case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the
heat by convection and carries away the vapor as humidity.
Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where heat is supplied by
conduction or radiation (or microwaves) while the vapor thus
produced is removed by the vacuum system.
Another indirect technique is drum drying (used, for instance, for
manufacturing potato flakes), where a heated surface is used to
provide the energy and aspirators draw the vapor outside the
http://www.scribd.com/doc/79843316/Proposal-La
solvent,
diunduhe.g.,
17/3/2012
room. In turn, the mechanical extraction of the

BIODRYING
BIODRYING
Biodrying adalah proses dimana matriks sampah
biodegradable dengan cepatdipanaskan memalui tahap-tahap
awal pembuatan kompos untuk menghasilkan uap airdari
aliran dan limbah dan dengan demikian mengurangi berat
keseluruhan
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodrying 18 Maret 2012)
Reaktor Biodrying menggunakan proses teknik fisik dan
biokimia. Desainreaktor meliputi wadah digabungkan dengan
sistem aerasi, wadah atau tangki dapatberupa tertutup atau
terbuka, atau tabung seperti drum. Di sisi biokimia,
aerobikbiodegradasi bahan organik mudah terjadi perurain.
Di sisi fisik, penghilangankelembaban konvektif dicapai melalui
pengendalian aerasi yang berlebih.
(
http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-0
Biodrying (biological drying) is an option for the bioconversion
0.htm
reactor in mechanicalbiological
(MBT) plants, an
16 Marettreatment
2012)
alternative for treating residual municipal solid waste (MSW).
Waste treatment plants defined as MBT integrate mechanical
processing, such as size reduction and air classification, with
bioconversion reactors, such as composting or anaerobic digestion.
The term "biodrying" was coined by Jewell et al. (1984) whilst
reporting on the operational parameters relevant for drying dairy
manure.
IN MSW management, the term "biodrying" denotes:
(1) the bioconversion reactor within which waste is processed;
(2) the physiobiochemical process, which takes place within
the reactor; and
(3) the MBT plants that include a biodrying reactor: "biodrying
MBT".
Typically, the biodrying reactor within MBT plants receives shredded
unsorted residual MSW and produces a biodried output which
undergoes extensive mechanical post-treatment. Within the
biodrying bioreactor the thermal energy released during aerobic

PROSES BIODRYING
Biodrying berbeda dari pengomposan dalam hal tujuan
dari setiap proses. Komposting menghasilkan kompos''
seperti humus yang bermanfaat dan aman digunakan
pada lahan. Pengkomposan juga digunakan untuk
menstabilkan bahan organik biodegradable dari sampah
domestik sebelum ditimbun di TPA, hal ini dapat
meminimalkan lindi dan pembentukan gas sampah di
TPA.
Schematic of biodrying box with process
air circulation and dehumidification.

(1) enclosed box; (2) air forced through the waste matrix, heated by the
exothermic aerobic biodegradation of readily decomposable waste fragments;
(3) leachate collection and circulation system; (4) forced aeration system with
partial air recirculation, mixing ambient air and conditioned process air; (5) heat
exchanger; (6) cooling tower; (7) water (vapour condensate); (8) exhaust air
treatment through biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO).
Appropriate conditions for microbial activity allow for the biodegradation of the
waste placed within the bioreactor, providing the necessary heat to evaporate
moisture from the waste fragments. Evaporated moisture is removed by the air
convection, achieved by forced aeration. The exhaust air is going through
various treatment stages that improve its drying capacity (ability to carry
moisture) before it is partly re-circulated into the reactor, after being mixed with
ambient air.
(technology by Herhof Environmental, schematic as reported by C.A. Velis, P.J.
Longhurst, G.H. Drew, R. Smith, S.J.T. Pollard, Biodrying for mechanicalbiological
treatment of wastes: A review of process science and engineering, Bioresource
Technology, 2009)

http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm diunduh

OPTIMAL BIODRYING
In biodrying, the main drying mechanicsm is convective evaporation, using
heat from the aerobic biodegradation of waste components and facilitated by
the mechanically supported airflow.
The Moisture Content (MC) of the waste matrix is reduced through two main
steps:
(1)water molecules evaporate (i.e., change phase from liquid to gaseous)
from the surface of waste fragments into the surrounding air; and
(2)the evaporated water is transported through the matrix by the airflow
and removed with the exhaust gasses.
Limited amount of free water may seep through the waste matrix and be
collected at the bottom of the biodrying reactor as leachate.
Thus in biodrying, air convection and molecular diffusion are the main
transport mechanisms responsible for moisture flow through the matrix. Air
convection, induced by engineered airflow through the matrix, is almost
exclusively responsible for the water losses. Here, air carries the water
evaporated from the surface of matrix particles (free moisture) with which is
in contact.
Removal of water content from the waste matrix (desorption) by convective
evaporation is governed by the thermodynamic equilibrium between the wet
waste matrix (solid state) and the air flowing through the matrix (gaseous
phase).
Optimal biodrying can be achieved through effective reactor design and
conditioning of the input material, combined with suitable process monitoring
and control. Control can be exercised by adjusting the level of operational
variables (suitable to directly manipulate), informed by process state
variables (suitable to monitor and evaluate). Typical design and operational
choices involve:
1.

matrix conditioning through mechanical pre-processing, e.g.,


comminution and/or mixing, affecting the physical properties of the
matrix, such as the resistance to airflow;
2. type of containment of waste matrix, e.g., in enclosed boxes (or biocells) (Fig. 1) or piling in tunnel windrow systems, affecting drying
mechanisms including insulating effect and degree of compaction;
3. use of mixing/agitation/rotation of the waste matrix in dynamic reactors
to homogenise it, i.e., achieve uniform conditions: e.g., by rotating drum
reactors (Fig. 2B) however, most of the existing commercial designs are
static;
4. aeration system design: inverted aeration systems have been tested (Fig.
2A), intending to reduce gradients experienced in prevalent
unidirectional desings
5. management of the aeration rate of the waste matrix, by control of the
inlet airflow rate (Qair), to remove water vapour and offgasses and
control state process parameters, such as substrate temperature and
oxygen availability;
http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm
diunduh
6. external systems for controlling
the psychrometric properties of the inlet
17/3/2012

In biodrying, the MC can be reduced from ca. 3555% w/w to 20


10% w/w ar. During aerobic biodegradation around 0.50.6 g of
metabolic water is produced per g of VS decomposed. However,
water losses during biodrying are much greater than the gains of
metabolic water, resulting in a dried matrix. Mass balance of MC
should include both metabolic water gains and evaporation
convection losses. Overall weight losses of 25% w/w are
considered as typical.
Simplified schematics of bench/pilot-scale biodrying reactor designs, among else
aiming to mitigate the uneven drying of matrix. Reactor A: static enclosed hall. The
central perforated pipe (C2) alternates between blowing and pulling air through the
matrix, whilst the peripheral pipes (C2, C3) operate conversely. Reactor B: cylindrical
rotating drum with one perforated pipe. Certain monitoring points are shown: T:
temperature: 17 internal, out: exhaust air; P: pressure; rH: relative humidity; Q: air
flowrate. BL: blower. (Schematics as reported by C.A. Velis, P.J. Longhurst, G.H. Drew,
R. Smith, S.J.T. Pollard, Biodrying for mechanicalbiological treatment of wastes: A
review of process science and engineering, Bioresource Technology, 2009)

http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm diunduh
17/3/2012

Process Mass Flow Diagram


This is a general mass flow diagram often adopted in MBT
plants that incorporate a biodrying reactor. Under the
MBT description three variations will be presented.
MC of the waste matrix is the single most important variable
for evaluating the performance of biodrying processes. In
waste management the MC is typically measured by
gravimetric water content methods and expressed as a
percentage of water for the wet weight of the material (wet
basis: ar).
In biodrying, the MC can be reduced from ca. 3555% w/w to
2010% w/w ar. During aerobic biodegradation around 0.5
0.6 g of metabolic water is produced per g of VS
decomposed. However, water losses during biodrying are
much greater than the gains of metabolic water, resulting in
a dried matrix.
Mass balance of MC should include both metabolic water
gains and evaporationconvection losses. Overall weight
losses of 25% w/w are considered as typical.

http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm diunduh
17/3/2012

STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS


Cellulose
Selulosa merupakan polimer dari -D-Glukosa, yang berbeda
dengan pati, berorientasi dengan gugusan -CH2OH bergantian
di atas dan di bawah bidang molekul selulosa, sehingga
menghasilkan rantai panjang tidak bercabang. Tidak adanya
rantai samping memungkinkan molekul selulosa untuk
berdekatan dan membentuk struktur yang kaku. Selulosa
adalah bahan struktural utama dari tumbuhan.
Wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is almost pure cellulose.
Cellulose can be hydrolyzed to its constituent glucose units by
microorganisms that inhabit the digestive tract of termites and
ruminants. Cellulose may be modified in the laboratory by
treating it with nitric acid (HNO3) to replace all the hydroxyl
groups with nitrate groups (-ONO2) to produce cellulose nitrate
(nitrocellulose or guncotton) which is an explosive component
of smokeless powder.
Partially nitrated cellulose, known as pyroxylin, is used in the
manufacture of collodion, plastics, lacquers, and nail polish.

Cellulose Gum or Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is a


chemical derivative of cellulose where some of the hydroxyl
groups (-OH) are substituted with carboxymethyl groups (CH2COOH). The properties of cellulose gum depend on the degree
of substitution and the length of the cellulose chains.
The degree of substitution (DS) is the number of carboxymethyl
groups per glucose unit and may vary in commercial products
from 0.4 to 1.5. Cellulose gum is non-toxic and becomes very
viscous when combined with water. It is used as a thickener for
foods and as an emulsion stabilizer in products like ice cream.
Cellulose gum is also used in personal lubricants, diet pills, waterbased paints, detergents and paper coatings.
http://www.scientificpsychic.com/fitness/carbohydrates2.html
diunduh 17/3/2012

STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS


Hemicellulose
The term "hemicellulose" is applied to the polysaccharide
components of plant cell walls other than cellulose, or to
polysaccharides in plant cell walls which are extractable by dilute
alkaline solutions. Hemicelluloses comprise almost one-third of the
carbohydrates in woody plant tissue. The chemical structure of
hemicelluloses consists of long chains of a variety of pentoses,
hexoses, and their corresponding uronic acids. Hemicelluloses may
be found in fruit, plant stems, and grain hulls. Although
hemicelluloses are not digestible, they can be fermented by yeasts
and bacteria. The polysaccharides yielding pentoses on hydrolysis
are called pentosans. Xylan is an example of a pentosan
consisting of D-xylose units with 14 linkages.

Arabinoxylan
Arabinoxylans are polysaccharides found in the bran of grasses and grains such as
wheat, rye, and barley. Arabinoxylans consist of a xylan backbone with Larabinofuranose (L-arabinose in its 5-atom ring form) attached randomly by 12
and/or 13 linkages to the xylose units throughout the chain. Since xylose and
arabinose are both pentoses, arabinoxylans are usually classified as pentosans.
Arabinoxylans are important in the baking industry. The arabinose units bind water
and produce viscous compounds that affect the consistency of dough, the
retention of gas bubbles from fermentation in gluten-starch films, and the final
texture of baked products.

http://www.scientificpsychic.com/fitness/carbohydrates2.html diunduh 17/3/2012

STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS


Chitin
Chitin is an unbranched polymer of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is
found in fungi and is the principal component of arthropod and
lower animal exoskeletons, e.g., insect, crab, and shrimp shells. It
may be regarded as a derivative of cellulose, in which the hydroxyl
groups of the second carbon of each glucose unit have been
replaced with acetamido (-NH(C=O)CH3) groups.

Pectin
Pectin is a polysaccharide that acts as a cementing material in the
cell walls of all plant tissues. The white portion of the rind of
lemons and oranges contains approximately 30% pectin. Pectin is
the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid, which consists of
chains of 300 to 1000 galacturonic acid units joined with 14
linkages. The Degree of Esterification (DE) affects the gelling
properties of pectin. The structure shown here has three methyl
ester forms (-COOCH3) for every two carboxyl groups (-COOH),
hence it is has a 60% degree of esterification, normally called a
DE-60 pectin. Pectin is an important ingredient of fruit preserves,
jellies, and jams.

Pectin is a polymer of -Galacturonic acid with a


variable number of methyl ester groups.
http://www.scientificpsychic.com/fitness/carbohydrates2.html diunduh 17/3/2012

STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS


Starch
Starch is the major form of stored carbohydrate in plants. Starch is
composed of a mixture of two substances: amylose, an essentially
linear polysaccharide, and amylopectin, a highly branched
polysaccharide. Both forms of starch are polymers of -D-Glucose.
Natural starches contain 10-20% amylose and 80-90%
amylopectin. Amylose forms a colloidal dispersion in hot water
(which helps to thicken gravies) whereas amylopectin is completely
insoluble.
Amylose molecules consist typically of 200 to 20,000 glucose units which
form a helix as a result of the bond

Amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched.


Short side chains of about 30 glucose units are attached with
16 linkages approximately every twenty to thirty glucose units
along the chain. Amylopectin molecules may contain up to two
million glucose units.

http://www.scientificpsychic.com/fitness/carbohydrates2.html diunduh 17/3/2012

REAKTOR BIODRYING
Biodrying reactors use a combination of engineered physical and
biochemical processes. Reactor design includes a container coupled with
an aeration system; containers can be either enclosed , or open tunnelhalls, or rotating drums . On the biochemical side, aerobic biodegradation
of readily decomposable organic matter occurs. On the physical side,
convective moisture removal is achieved through controlled, excessive
aeration. Whilst the general reactor configuration and physiobiochemical
phenomenon is similar to composting, the exact way in which it is
operated is significantly different.

DEKOMPOSISI AEROBIK DALAM


BIODRYING
Dalam proses biodrying, prinsip proses drying yang didukung
dengan panasbiologis akibat aktivitas mikroba dengan
bantuan aerasi. Bagian utama dari panasbiologis secara
alami tersedia melelui degradasi aerobic bahan organic,
digunakan untuk menguapkan air yang terkandung dalam
matrik sampah tersebut. Ada empat tahap biologi dan kimia
sebagai kunci proses dekomposisi aerob dalam biodrying :
1.Hidrolisis. Proses hidrolisis adalah proses pemecahan
polimer organik kompleks denganberat molekul yang besar
menjadi monomer penyusunnya dan melarutkannya ke
dalam larutan, misalnya air.
2.Acidogenesis. Proses acetogenesis adalah proses konversi
senyawa monomer senyawa organik seperti glukosa, asam
amino dan asam lemak, menjadi etanol dan asam asetat.
Pada proses ini juga dihasilkan senyawa amonia, CO2, dan
uap air.
3.Asetogenesis. Proses asetogenesis adalah proses konversi
etanol dari proses acidogenesis menjadi asam asetat oleh
mikroba asetogen.
4.Methanogenesis. Proses methanogenesis adalah proses
konversi asam asetat yang dihasilkandari proses
sebelumnya, menjadi gas methane dan karbon dioksida.

http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm diunduh

DEKOMPOSISI

AEROBIK

HIDROLISIS ENSIMATIK
Dalam dekomposisi aerobik, bakteri dapat mengubah polimer
rantai panjang seperti karbohidrat, rantai ini dipecah menjadi
bagian yang lebih kecil, yaitu molekul monomernya, seperti
glukosa.
Proses memecah rantai karbon menjadi molekul-molekul yang
lebih kecil dan larut dalam larutan, disebut hidrolisis. Oleh
karena itu, hidrolisis senyawa yang berat molekulnya tinggi ini
merupakan proses awal yang diperlukan dalam dekomposisi
aerobik.
Melalui hidrolisis molekul organic kompleks seperti pati, lemak,
dan protein dipecah menjadi gula sederhana, asam amino, dan
asam lemak.
Asam asetat dan hydrogen yang dihasilkan pada proses
hidrolisis dapat digunakan langsung oleh bakteri methanogen.
Molekul lainnya seperti asam lemak volatile (VFA)dengan
memiliki rantai panjang dari asam karboksilat harus dipecah
menjadi senyawayang lebih kecil, yang dapat langsung
dimanfaatkan oleh bakteri methanogen. Produkdari
The
hydrolysis
of adalah
polysaccharides
to solubledisulfide,
sugars isketon,
called
fermentasi
VFA
amonia, methane
"saccharification".
Malt
made from
barley
is produk
used aslain.
a source of benzene,
hydrogen
sulfide
serta
amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which
can be used by yeast to produce beer. Other amylase enzymes
may convert starch to glucose or to oligosaccharides. Cellulose is
converted to glucose or the disaccharide cellobiose by cellulases.
Animals such as cows (ruminants) are able to digest cellulose
because of symbiotic bacteria that produce cellulases.
Sucrose.
The glycoside bond is
represented by the central
oxygen atom, which holds
the two monosaccharide
units together.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sucrose-inkscape.svg diunduh

ASETO-GENESIS
Asetogenesis Methanogenesis

Tahap ke tiga dalam proses dekomposisi aerobik adalah


asetogenesis.
Setelah molekul sederhana hasil fermentasi secara
asetogenesis lebih lanjut dicerna oleh bakteri acetogen untuk
menghasilkan asam asetat serta karbon dioksid dan hydrogen.
Tahap terakhir dekomposisi aerobic adalah proses biologis
methanogenesis. Bakteri methanogen memanfaatkan produk
dari tahapan sebelumnya dan mengubah menjadi gas methane,
karbon dioksida dan air.
Metana yang dihasilkan dari proses metanogenesis merupakan
komponen-komponen yang membentuk sebagianbesar gas
yang dihasilkan oleh system.
Methanogenesis
proses
yang sensitive
terhadap
pH
Simplified
schematicmerupakan
illustrating the
methanogenic
degradation
of organic
matter. Circled numbers
indicate
the metabolic
of microbes
dan terjadi
antara
pH 6,5 group
8.
involved in the particular stage of degradation. 1: initial hydrolysis of
polymeric carbon; 2: fermentation of monomers to low molecular weight
compounds; 3: aceticlastic methanogenesis and 4: CO2-reducing
methanogenesis from fermentation intermediates.
(http://ese.mines.edu/research_projects/biogenic_methane.html)

diunduh 17/3/2012

PARAMETER OPERASIONAL
BIODRYING
ALIRAN UDARA MELALUI
MATRIKS
Udara pengeringan (atau pengeringan penyimpanan massal)
menggunakan aliran udara melalui butir sampah atau residu di
bagian dalam bed untuk pengeringan dan mengawetkan
sampah (Nellist, 1998).
Suhu matrix sampah mencapai 5C di atas suhu lingkungan.
Operasional kritis dan parameter terkait matrix sampah MC
(moisture content), MC equilibrium, waktu penyimpanan, dan
tahan tekanan terhadap aliran udara) dan udara (tingkat dan
sifat aliran udara psychrometric, yaitu sifat yang mengacu pada
hubungan termodinamika dan fisik antara udara dan air uap,
seperti relatif humudity, temperatur, dll).
The process of evaporation is used in the arts for increasing the
density of liquids by boiling down, for drying wet materials, and for
cooling purposes. The vaporization of the liquid may be
accomplished by adding more heat to it, or by lessening or
removing the atmospheric pressure upon it. Air may be partially
dried by cooling it to a low temperature. The vapor accompanying
it will be condensed and thrown down as water, and when the air is
afterwards warmed it will be correspondingly dry.
The efficiency of a drying apparatus which uses hot air as the
drying medium will depend upon several factors, as follows:
1. The dryness of the air before it is heated.
2. The degree of heat that is given to the air.
3. The amount of surface of wet material from which
evaporation can readily take place.
4. The volume of the air-current.
5. The thorough distribution of the fresh dry air over the
evaporating surfaces.
6. The promptness with which the moistened air is removed.
Read more:
http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/Building-Construction-V4/Eva
poration-And-Drying.html#ixzz1pSJSjFSq
http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/Building-Construction-V4/Evaporation-AndDrying.html diunduh 17/3/2012

Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of


dewatered sludge.
Ling Zhao, Wei-Mei Gu, Pin-Jing He, Li-Ming Shao
Water Research (2010)
Volume: 44, Issue: 20, Publisher: Elsevier Ltd, Pages: 6144-6152

ABSTRACT

Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization,


in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by
aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed
at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and
turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy
utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate
(0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the
lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under
turning per two days and four days.
With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency,
temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the
lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled
air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86%
(19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water)
with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating
that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with
high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The
heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat
consumption (34,400-45,400kJ).
The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS)
degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ)
and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days.
With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of
inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was
higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency,
sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was
higher than lower one.
http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-airflow-rate-turning-frequency-biodryingdewatered-sludge/ diunduh 17/3/2012

REAKTOR BIODRYING

Reaktor biodrying bertujuan untuk pre-treatment limbah pada


waktu tinggal terendah dalam hal untuk menghasilkan SRF
kualitas tinggi.
Hal dapat ini dicapai dengan:
1. Peningkatan kandungan energi (EC) (Adani et al., 2002)
dengan memaksimalkanpenghilangan kelembaban dalam
matriks sampah dan melestarikan sebagian dari nilai kalor
kotor dari senyawa kimia organik melalui biodegradasi
yang minimal,
2. Memfasilitasi penggabungan dari sebagian kandungan
biogenik diawetkan ke SRF;
3. Membuat output lebih sesuai untuk pengolahan mekanik
dengan mengurangi kelengketan.
Biodrying membuat materi yang lebih cocokuntuk
penyimpanan jangka pendek dan transportasi yang baik oleh
sebagianbiostabilising dan mengurangi MC di bawah ambang
batas yang diperlukan untukberlangsungnya biodegradasi
Drying biomass material Reduction in the moisture content
of biomass material may be required to achieve a number of
purposes in energy applications.
Biomass may be dried before and/or after harvesting and
harvested for reduced moisture content.
Any moisture content must be driven off before combustion
can take place, either in advance before storage or as part
of the combustion process (which then uses part of the
energy of the fuel); in either case this reduces the overall
energetic efficiency.
Equally, gasification also requires relatively low moisture
content (<10-15%).
(http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?
_pageid=75,17305&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL)

diunduh 17/3/2012

PENGUAPAN KONVEKTIF

Dalam biodrying, yang mekanismepengeringan utama


adalah konvektif penguapan, menggunakan panas dari
aerobikbiodegradasi komponen limbah dan didukung
aliran udara.
Kandungan kelembaban (MC) dari matriks limbah
dikurangi melalui dua langkah utama:
(1) molekul-molekul air menguap (yaitu, perubahan fasa
dari cair ke gas) daripermukaan fragmen limbah ke
udara sekitarnya, dan
(2) air menguap diangkut melalui matriks dengan aliran
udara dan dihilangkan dengan saluran gas buang.
Jumlah terbatas air bebas yang dapat merembes
melewati matriks limbah dan dikumpulkan di bagian
bawah reaktor biodrying sebagai lindi.
Effect of Flow rate of air
This is in part related to the concentration points above. If
fresh air is moving over the substance all the time, then
the concentration of the substance in the air is less likely
to go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation.
This is the result of the boundary layer at the evaporation
surface decreasing with flow velocity, decreasing the
diffusion distance in the stagnant layer.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation)

diunduh 17/3/2012

FENOMENA BIO-DRYING
Dalam proses biodrying, konveksi udara dan difusi molekular
adalah transportasiutama untuk mekanisme pengaliran uap air
melalui matriks (Frei dkk., 2004b). Konveksi air, disebabkan oleh
aliran udara yang direkayasa melalui matriks. Udara membawa
air yang menguap dari permukaan partikel matriks (kelembaban
bebas) dengan adanya kontak. Penghilangan kandungan air dari
matriks sampah (desorpsi)dengan penguapan konvektif diatur
oleh keseimbangan termodinamika antara matriks sampah basah
(solid state) dan udara mengalir melalui matriks (fasa gas).
Kapasitas vapour-carrying dari udara terbatas pada masingmasing T (udara) dan dicapai pada titik jenuh, setelah kondensasi
yang terjadi. Pada tingkat tertentu kelembaban relatif (RH) udara
(rH udara) massa uap air udara dapat terus meningkat dengan
suhu.
rH udara telah telah digunakan di dekat keadaan lingkungan
pemodelanpengeringan untuk memperkirakan jarak dari saturasi
titik inlet udara, yaitu dengan sederhana dapat dianggap sebagai
pengukuran pengganti dari potensial pengeringan.
In a typical phase diagram,
the boundary between gas
and liquid runs from the
triple point to the critical
point.
Regular drying is the green
arrow, while supercritical
drying is the red arrow and
freeze drying is the blue.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryi
ng)

diunduh 17/3/2012

Udara dan suhu matriks yang optimal untuk biodrying

ALIRAN UDARA DAN SUHU


SUBSTRAT
Dalam proses biodrying, tingkat pengeringan yang lebih
tinggi (volume kelembaban yang dihilangkan per waktu)
dicapai dengan tingkat aliran udara yang lebih tinggi.
Titik penyetelan suhu substrat lebih rendah (45 C,
dibandingkan dengan 55 C dan 65 C) mengakibatkan
pengeringan yang lebih efektif .
Proses biodrying paling komersial beroperasi di rentang
suhu 40-70 C untuk lubang udara Tout, untuk sebagian
besar waktu tinggal berlaku Tout kontrol bertahap, yang
terdiri dari empat fase lebih dari satu minggu:
1.Start up dan aklimatisasi biomassa: 40 C;
2.Degradasi: 40-50 C;
3.Sanitisation dan pengeringan: 50-60 C;
4.Pendingin menuju suhu ruang 60 C menuju T
lingkungan (Nicosia et al., 2007).

diunduh 17/3/2012

Aktivitas mikroba
Proses mikroba selama biodrying harus sesuai
untuk memanfaatkan dari panasyang
diperlukan untuk pengeringan yang efektif,
bersama dengan biodegradasisubstrat limbah
yang terbatas.
Suhu substrat adalah faktor yang
palingpenting yang mempengaruhi mikroba
pertumbuhan (Miller, 1996), karena antara
lain, menyediakan kondisi ideal untuk
proliferasi jenis tertentu mikro organisme,
misalnya, mesofilik atau termofilik

diunduh 17/3/2012

AKTIVITAS MIKROBA DALAM


BIODRYING

MIKROBA - BIODRYING
Selama biodrying dari matriks kandungan kelembaban
tinggi lumpur pulp dankertas, Roy dkk. (2006)
mengidentifikasi tiga tahap pengeringan yang
terpisah, yangberkorelasi dengan periode
pertumbuhan mikroba:
1.Aklimatisasi mikroba mengakibatkan peningkatan
eksponensial tingkatpengeringan;
2.Penurunan eksponensial dari tingkat pengeringan
karena ketersediaan nutrisitidak cukup untuk
konsumsi mikroba, dan
3. Pengeringan konstan, sesuai dengan fluktuasi Q
Udara tersebut.
Jika dinamis serupaberlaku untuk substrat kering yang
banyak sisa MSW itu akan menunjukkanbahwa
setelah beberapa titik biodrying kurang tergantung
pada aktivitasmikroba, semakin terhambat oleh stres
air, menjadi bukan hanya proses fisik(udara konveksi).
Hal ini jelas tidak akan mempengaruhi keseimbangan
energidari proses.

diunduh 17/3/2012

Nanda Gayuk Candy. 2012.


Pengelolaan Sampah Kota dalam Rangka
PencapaianPembangunan Millenium (MDGs) . .(online)
http://lifestyle.kompasiana.com/urban/2012 01/11/pengelola
an-sampah-kota-dalam-rangka-pencapaian-pembangunan-milleni
um-mdgs/
, diakses 16 januari 2012Suwarno, 2011.
Sampah di kota Malang 400 tonperhari
http://mediacenter.malangkota.go.id/2011/02/10/sampah-di-kot
a-malang-400-ton-perhari/
(diakses, 20 janiari 2012)
Velis C.A., Longhurst P.J.t, Drew G.H. and Smith R, Pollard S.J.T.
2009. Biodryingfor mechanical-biological treatment of wastes:
a review of process science andengineering Volume 100.
Bioresource Technology,
Cranfield University.
Mihaela Negoi Ramona, Ragazzi Marco, Apostol Tiberiu, Cristina
Rada Elena,Marculescu Cosmin. 2009. Bio-Drying Of Romanian
Municipal Solid Waste: AnAnalysis Of Its Viability. Vol. 71.-Haug,
R.T., 1993. The practical handbook of compost engineering,
Boca Raton USA:CRC Press, Lewis Publishers.
Frei, K.M., Stuart, P.R., Cameron, D., 2004. Novel drying process
using forcedaeration through a porous biomass matrix. Finland :
Dry. Technol.

diunduh 17/3/2012