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# IENG 471 - Lecture 15

Layout Planning
Systematic Layout Planning & Intro to
Mathematical Layout Improvement

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## Warehousing Terms - Review

SKU Stock Keeping Unit
Product in (packaged) form for warehouse operations.

A modification to the product to obtain business

## (a product enhancement from the customers perspective or an

enhancement to the customers experience in getting the item).

Cross-Docking
Transforming incoming product to outgoing product without

## moving the product to production or storage.

Slotting
Selecting the location of SKUs in the storage zones. Goal is to

## Forward Pick Area

An area housing fast-moving/frequently-picked items between

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## Layout Alternatives - Strategies

Fixed Position Layout
(Difficult-to-move Products)

Process Layout
(Job Shop)

Product Layout
(Mass Production Line)

(Product Family)

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## How to get from data to design?

Product, Process &

Schedule Data:

BOM
Routing/Assembly Chrt
Operations Process

Chart
Precedence Diagram
Scrap/Reject Rates
Equipment Fractions

Material Handling
Storage Systems

Space Data:
Group Technology
From To Chart
Relationship Chart
Dept Footprint & Aisle

Space
Personnel Space

Parking Lot
Restroom/Locker room
Food Prep/Cafeteria

## Order Data Profile

Efficiencies

Transportation Systems
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## Muther: Systematic Layout Plan

SLP
Benefit is methodical

consideration of issues
Can work the process
manually or with computer
aides
good for communication
Analysis
Search
Evaluation

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## From To Chart to Flow

Review: flow volume in chart
Above diagonal is forward flow
Below diagonal is back-track flow

## volume of interactions, then Pareto!

Qualitative Flow
Quantitative Flow
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## Review: Conversion Steps

Convert Flows to Affinities
Qualitative converts directly to A E I O U X
Quantitative converts to A E I O U X via Pareto analysis of flow

volume

## Combine Flow Affinities Numerically

A = 4, E = 3, I = 2, O = 1, U = 0, X = negative value
Quantitative flow may be multiplied by a weighting factor
Sum Quantitative & Qualitative

## Convert to Final Affinities

Pareto analysis of numeric affinities to get A E I O U X

## Add: Check Final Affinities for Political Correctness

Communication feedback to involved parties

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## Converting Flow to Affinity

Strength of

relationship is
shown graphically
Number of lines

similar to rubber
bands holding depts
together
Spring symbol to
push X relations
apart
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Lay the
Affinity
Diagram
over a site
plan to get
better idea
of layout

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## Improvement: Size of Departments

Some experts suggest modification:
Use circles instead of flow symbols
Scale circles to equate with the estimated

## size of the departments

Use rectangular, sized blocks instead of
circles improves input to computer layout
methods
Computer packages are still being
developed
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## IENG 471 Facilities Planning

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Layout Models
Mathematical Objective Functions
Mathematical models can be constructed to measure a design,

## and help to quantify when it has been improved

Like many mathematical

## models of physical systems, part of the art is

knowing what assumptions are made in a model, and when these
assumptions are reasonably met

The best models are not always the most complex in fact many

## comprehensive mathematical models become intractable or take too

long for computation when scaled up to a realisticallysized problem
Frequently, meeting the data collection (and verification) requirements

## for many mathematical problems is very difficult

However, as the cost of automated data collection and storage drops,

## and has computational power increases (hardware speeds and parallel

programming techniques improve), both mathematical models and
simulations become more attractive more tools for the toolbox!

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## IENG 471 Facilities Planning

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Layout Models
Mathematical Objective Functions
Assume we have these variables defined for n departments:
i is an index to the FROM department in a pair of departments
j is an index to the TO department in a related pair
Thus i and j could be the row/column indices for a From/To Chart
fij is the unit load FLOW from the i

th

to the j th department

## cij is the COST to transport a unit load from the i

dij is the travel DISTANCE from the i
aij is the ADJACENCY of the i

th

th

th

to the j th dept

to the j th department

## and j th department pair, which is

defined to be:
1 if the i th and j th departments share a common edge (border) or
0 if the departments have no common edge or only touch at a point
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## IENG 471 Facilities Planning

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Layout Models
Mathematical Objective Functions
Minimize the transportation cost:
n

i1 j1

n

y fijaij

max

i1 j1

n

f a
i1 j1
n n

f
i1 j1

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ij ij

ij

## IENG 471 Facilities Planning

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Example
Mathematical Objective Function
Assume the From/To matrix (below)

## then the Flow-Weighted Adjacency score(s) would be:

max

y fijaij
i1 j1

200(1)+250(1)+300(1)+500(1)20(1)+350(0)+10(1)+175(1)+100(0) = 1415
200(1)+250(1)+300(1)+500(1)20(0)+350(0)+10(1)+175(1)+100(0) = 1435
200(1)+250(0)+300(1)+500(1)20(0)+350(1)+10(0)+175(1)+100(1) = 1625
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## Criticisms and Resources

Frequently, improvements in the simpler mathematical objective

## functions result in long, snake-y department shapes

Not always physically possible
Adjusting the objective function to penalize snake-y results in
more complex objective functions
Data representations become more complex, too and can
increase computation time disproportionately
The simple, transportation cost function assumes we move
from/to the center point of the departments
Isnt really accurate for real departments (especially large sized)
Becomes even less true when the departments get more snake-y
Text Chapter 10 presents more mathematical modelstry some!
MIL Lab computers have some software available
The software tends to be research prototypes, but can be fun to try!
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## Questions & Issues

Class time is for project (after Exam II)
Review & HW solutions TODAY.
Exam II scheduled for 07 NOV.

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