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Collected By:

Seyed Ali Marjaie

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.



1. Explain the factors that determine an
individual’s personality.
2. Describe the MBTI personality framework.
3. Identify the key traits in the Big Five
personality model.
4. Explain the impact of job typology on the
personality/job performance relationship.
5. How to measure personality

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.


When psychologists talk of personality. 4–3 . a positive attitude toward life.What What is is Personality? Personality? When we talk of personality. personality looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. or is a finalist for “ Happiest and Friendliest” in this year’s Miss America contest. a smiling face. we don’t mean that a person has charm. All rights reserved. Rather than looking at parts of the person. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system.

What What is is Personality? Personality? © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–4 . All rights reserved.

temperament. the situation. An individual’s generally stable and consistent. friends and social groups etc. the norms among our family. 4–5 .Personality Personality Determinants Determinants • •Heredity Heredity • •Environment Environment • •Situation Situation Heredity: refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical structure. does change in different situations. facial attractiveness. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. energy level etc. influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality. Environment: Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised. Situation: A third. gender. our early conditioning. All rights reserved.

Personality Personality Traits Traits Sixteen Sixteen Primary Primary Traits Traits © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–6 . All rights reserved.

Personality PersonalityTypes Types • •Extroverted Extrovertedor orIntroverted Introverted(E (Eor orI)I) • •Sensing Sensingor orIntuitive Intuitive(S (Sor orN) N) • •Thinking Thinkingor orFeeling Feeling(T (Tor orF) F) • •Perceiving Perceivingor orJudging Judging(P (Por orJ)J) © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.The The Myers-Briggs Myers-Briggs Type Type Indicator Indicator MBTI is one of the most widely used personality frameworks which has no hard evidence as valid measure of personality. 4–7 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.The The Big Big Five Five Model Model © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–8 .

Major Major Personality PersonalityAttributes Attributes Influencing Influencing OB OB       Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Propensity for risk taking Type A personality © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–9 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. 4–10 .Locus Locus of of Control Control © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.

Machiavellianism Machiavellianism Conditions ConditionsFavoring FavoringHigh HighMachs Machs ••Direct Directinteraction interaction ••Minimal Minimalrules rulesand andregulations regulations ••Distracting Distractingemotions emotions © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4–11 .

4–12 . All rights reserved.Self-Esteem Self-Esteem and and Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.

– Use less information to make decisions.  Risk Propensity – Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. – Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. – Require more information before making decisions. All rights reserved. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. – Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. 4–13 .  Low Risk-taking Managers – Are slower to make decisions.Risk-Taking Risk-Taking  High Risk-taking Managers – Make quicker decisions.

Personality Personality Types Types © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–14 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. 4–15 .Personality Personality Types Types © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.

4–16 . All rights reserved.Personality Personality Assessment Assessment  How does one measure another’s personality? Methods include: – interviews and observation – projective personality tests – objective personality tests  We will now discuss each of these in some depth © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.

Interviews Interviews and and Observation Observation  Interviews consist of dialogue with the person in an effort to detect their ideas. and behavior patterns © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. beliefs. All rights reserved. beliefs. values. 4–17 . and values – when you first meet someone you have likely engaged in this method of personality assessment  Observation consists of watching the person in various situations over time in an effort to discern their ideas.

All rights reserved. 4–18 .and free-association tests © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.Projective Projective Personality Personality Tests Tests  These are based on the belief that the unconscious mind contains the roots of personality  They are based on a psychoanalytic view of personality  Types of projective tests include: – Rorshach Inkblot test – Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Word.

All rights reserved.Objective Objective Personality Personality Tests Tests  Objective tests attempt to overcome the subjectivity of interviews and projective tests by using paper-pencil multiple choice tests © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–19 .

Evaluation Evaluation of of Personality Personality Tests Tests  Results of research on personality tests suggest caution in relying exclusively on the interpretations of personality tests  Results suggest that personality tests are useful. but that results from these tests should be used to confirm other data gathered on a person and not used as the sole assessment tool © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 4–20 . All rights reserved.

4–21 . All rights reserved. if extreme. or commit adultery? © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.Application Application of of Psychology Psychology  Situational influences on personality in everyday life – situations in our lives have a powerful influence on our general behavior – situations can. radically change our general way of behaving • would you ever consider eating another human? • would you ever consider drinking urine? • would you ever kill. lie.