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Lesson for Diffusion

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ES 67 : ELEMENTS OF MATERIAL SCIENCE

1 ST sem 2013-2014

Microstructure

TOPIC OUTLINE

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

Photograph of a steel gear that has

been ‘‘case hardened.’’ The outer

surface layer was selectively

hardened by a high-temperature heat

treatment during which carbon from

the surrounding atmosphere diffused

into the surface. The ‘‘case’’ appears

as the dark outer rim of that segment

of the gear that has been sectioned.

(Photograph courtesy of Surface

Division Midland-Ross.)

DIFFUSION

DIFFUSION

INTERDIFFUSION AND SELF-DIFFUSION

Materials flow (the atom) is opposite the vacancy flow direction.

DIFFUSION MECHANISMS

DIFFUSION MECHANISMS

DIFFUSION MECHANISMS

STEADY-STATE DIFFUSION

STEADY-STATE DIFFUSION :

FICK’S FIRST LAW OF DIFFUSION

STEADY-STATE DIFFUSION :

FICK’S FIRST LAW OF DIFFUSION

Solution of this equation is

concentration profile as

function of time, C(x,t):

NONSTEADY-STATE DIFFUSION :

FICK’S SECOND LAW OF DIFFUSION

DIFFUSION : THERMALLY ACTIVATED PROCESS

DIFFUSION : THERMALLY ACTIVATED PROCESS

plots are Arrhenius plots.

DIFFUSION : TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT

DIFFUSION : TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT

DIFFUSION OF DIFFERENT SPECIES

Self-diffusion coefficients for

Ag depend on the diffusion

path.

In general the diffusivity is

greater through less

restrictive structural regions –

grain boundaries, dislocation

cores, external surfaces.

DIFFUSION : ROLE OF MICROSTRUCTURE

The plots Are from the computer

simulation by T. Kwok, P. S. Ho, and S.

Yip.

Initial atomic positions are shown by

the circles, trajectories of atoms are

shown by lines.

The difference between atomic

mobility in the bulk crystal and in the

grain boundary region can be seen.

DIFFUSION : ROLE OF MICROSTRUCTURE

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DIFFUSION :

SUMMARY

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DIFFUSION :

SUMMARY

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