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At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:
Solve triangles using the concept of law of cosines
Apply the concept of law of cosines in real life situations
3. Develop the students’ critical thinking and analytic abilities in solving problems
4. Reflect the value of the law of cosines in
everyday life
The Law of Cosines
Questions to ponder:
If two sides and the included angle are given, can you give the remaining parts of the triangle?
How about if the three sides are given, can you give the remaining parts of the triangle?
Definition of terms that we will be needing in the study of the Law of Cosines:
Angle – is a figure formed by two rays with common endpoint
Opposite side – side opposite to a given angle
Included angle – angle between two adjacent sides
Discussion:Derivation of the Law of Cosines
Squaring both sides results in
a² = b² + c² - 2bc cos α
The other two equations are derived in the same way.
Thus, the statement of the law of cosines for side c can be illustrated.
c²=a²+b²- 2 ab cos γ
For sides a and b,
a²=b²+c²- 2bc cos α
b²=a²+c²- 2ac cos β
Manipulate each equation and solve for the cosine of the angle.
cos γ = a²+b²-c²
2ab
cos α = b²+c²-a²
2bc
cos β = a²+c² - b²
2ac
We must remember:
The square of any side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides minus twice the product of these sides and the cosine of the angle between them (included angle).
Examples
1. Solve the remaining parts of the triangle.
2. Solve for the remaining parts of the triangle
cos γ = a²+b²-c²
2ab
cos γ =3² + 9² - 7²
2(3)(9)
cos γ = 9 + 81 – 49
54
cos γ = 41/54
cos γ ≈ 0.7593
γ ≈ 40°36’
cos α = b²+c²-a²
2bc
cos α = 9² + 7² - 3²
2(9)(7)
cos α = 81 + 49 – 9
126
cos α = 121/126
cos α ≈ 0.9603
α ≈ 16°11’
cos β = a²+c² - b²
2ac
cos β = 3² + 7² - 9²
2(3)(7)
cos β = 9 + 49 – 81
42
cos β = -23/42
cos β ≈ -0.5476
β ≈ 123°12’
3. A plane flew due north at 500mph for three hours. A second plane starting at the same point and at the same time, flew southeast at an angle 150° clockwise from due north at 435mph for three hours. At the end of the three hours, how far apart were the two planes?
c = 500m/h x 3hrs = 1500 mi
a = 435 m/h x 3hrs = 1305mi
b is the distance from Plane 1 and Plane 2. Thus, we must find b.
b²=a²+c²- 2ac cos β
b²=1305²+1500²- 2(1305)(1500) cos 150°
b²≈ 1,703,025 + 2,250,000 - 3,915,000 (-0.8660)
b²≈ 3,953,025 + 3,390,487.992
b ≈
b ≈ 2709.89 miles
Practice!!!
Question A A baseball diamond is actually a square that is 90 feet on each side. The pitcher’s mound is located 60.5 feet from home plate. How far is it from the third base to the pitcher’s mound?
Question B. To approximate the length of a lake, a surveyor starts at one end of the lake and walks 245 yards. He then turns 110º and walks 270 yards until he arrives at the other end of the lake. Approximately how long is the lake?
Solution for Question A
Solution for Question B
x² = 270²+245²- 2(270)(245) cos 70°
x² ≈ 72,900 + 60,025 – 45,249.2650
x² ≈ 178,174.265
x ≈
x ≈ 422.11 yd
Get a sheet of pad paper and answer the following questions.
1. A boy walks due south at 5kph for three hours. A girl starting at the same point and at the same time, walks southeast at an angle 150° clockwise from due north at 4kph for three hours. At the end of the three hours, how far apart were the two from one another?
2. Solve for α
3. Solve for β
Assignment
Write your solution in ½ crosswise
4. Solve for c
5. To approximate the distance of two houses, a man starts at one boundary of the first house and walks 92 meters. He then turns 72º and walks 86 meters until he arrives at the other. Approximately how far is the shortest distance between two houses?

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You are on page 1of 31

1. Solve triangles using the concept of law

of cosines

2. Apply the concept of law of cosines in

real life situations

3. Develop the students critical thinking

and analytic abilities in solving problems

4.Reflect the value of the law of cosines in

everyday life

Questions to ponder:

given, can you give the remaining parts of

the triangle?

a=29

49

b=39

can you give the remaining parts of the

triangle?

c=7

a=3

b=9

needing in the study of the Law of

Cosines:

Angle is a figure formed by two rays

with common endpoint

Opposite side side opposite to a given

angle

Included angle angle between two

adjacent sides

side of , b is the opposite side of and

c is the opposite side of . is the

included angle of sides a and c. is the

included angle of sides b and c. is the

included angle of sides a and b.

Discussion:

Derivation of the Law of Cosines

y

a coordinate plane such that

the vertex of angle is at the

origin and the side c lies

along the positive x axis.

v

u

c

lengths as indicated in the

figure given, the coordinates

of the vertex at are (u,v).

y

,

u=b cos

v/b, then v=b sin .

vertex at are (b cos , b sin ).

c

d=

a=

a=

a=

a=

a = b + c - 2bc cos

way.

can be illustrated.

c=a+b- 2 ab cos

b=a+c- 2ac cos

for the cosine of the angle.

cos = a+b-c

2ab

cos = b+c-a

2bc

cos = a+c - b

2ac

We must remember:

The square of any side of a

triangle is equal to the sum of the

squares of the other two sides minus

twice the product of these sides and

the cosine of the angle between

them (included angle).

Examples

a=29

49

b=39

Solve for c.

c=a+b- 2 ab cos

=29 + 39 - 2(29)(39) cos 49

841 + 1521 2262(0.6561)

2362 1484.0982

c

29.63

Solve for

cos = b+c-a

2bc

cos = 39 + 29.63 - 29

2(39)(29.63)

1521 + 877.94 841

2311.14

1557.94

2311.14

cos 0.6741

4737

Solve for

cos 180 - (49 + 7437)

cos 180 - 9637

8323

c=7

a=3

b=9

cos = a+b-c

2ab

cos =3 + 9 - 7

2(3)(9)

cos = 9 + 81 49

54

cos = 41/54

cos 0.7593

4036

cos = b+c-a

2bc

cos = 9 + 7 - 3

2(9)(7)

cos = 81 + 49 9

126

cos = 121/126

cos 0.9603

1611

cos = a+c - b

hours. A second plane starting at the same

point and at the same time, flew southeast at

an angle 150 clockwise from due north at

435mph for three hours. At the end of the three

hours, how far apart were the two planes?

Plane 1

b

B 15

0

a

Plane 2

C

a = 435 m/h x 3hrs = 1305mi

b is the distance from Plane 1 and Plane 2. Thus, we must find

b.

b=a+c- 2ac cos

b=1305+1500- 2(1305)(1500) cos 150

b 1,703,025 + 2,250,000 - 3,915,000 (-0.8660)

b 3,953,025 + 3,390,487.992

b

b 2709.89 miles

Practice!!!

Second

base

Third

base

square that is 90 feet on each side. The

pitchers mound is located 60.5 feet from

home plate. How far is it from the third base to

the pitchers mound?

First base

Home

plate

lake, a surveyor starts at one end of the lake

and walks 245 yards. He then turns 110 and

walks 270 yards until he arrives at the other

end of the lake. Approximately how long is

the lake?

We must find the side a.

90ft

45

A

=60.5 + 90 - 2(60.5)(90) cos 45

3,660.25 + 8,100 10,890

(0.7071)

11,760.25 7,700.39

a =

a 63.72 feet

x = 270+245- 2(270)(245) cos 70

x 72,900 + 60,025 45,249.2650

x 178,174.265

x

x 422.11 yd

Quiz

Get a sheet of pad paper and answer the

following questions.

hours. A girl starting at the same point and

at the same time, walks southeast at an

angle 150 clockwise from due north at

4kph for three hours. At the end of the

three hours, how far apart were the two

from one another?

2. Solve for

c=18

a=9

b=15

2

b=16.3

cm

c

A=15.7

m

c

c=18.9

m

3.Solve for

Assignment

Write your solution in crosswise

4.Solve for c

a=32

m

52.6

b=45

m

houses, a man starts at one boundary of

the first house and walks 92 meters. He

then turns 72 and walks 86 meters until

he arrives at the other. Approximately how

far is the shortest distance between two

houses?

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