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# At the end of the lesson, the

## students should be able to:

1. Solve triangles using the concept of law
of cosines
2. Apply the concept of law of cosines in
real life situations
3. Develop the students critical thinking
and analytic abilities in solving problems
4.Reflect the value of the law of cosines in
everyday life

## The Law of Cosines

Questions to ponder:

## If two sides and the included angle are

given, can you give the remaining parts of
the triangle?

a=29

49
b=39

## How about if the three sides are given,

can you give the remaining parts of the
triangle?

c=7
a=3

b=9

## Definition of terms that we will be

needing in the study of the Law of
Cosines:
Angle is a figure formed by two rays
with common endpoint
Opposite side side opposite to a given
angle
Included angle angle between two

## In the illustration, a is the opposite

side of , b is the opposite side of and
c is the opposite side of . is the
included angle of sides a and c. is the
included angle of sides b and c. is the
included angle of sides a and b.

Discussion:
Derivation of the Law of Cosines
y

## Consider the triangle on

a coordinate plane such that
the vertex of angle is at the
origin and the side c lies
along the positive x axis.

v
u
c

## If u and v denote the

lengths as indicated in the
figure given, the coordinates
of the vertex at are (u,v).

y
,

u=b cos

## Similarly, if sin = opp/ hyp =

v/b, then v=b sin .

## Thus, the coordinates of the

vertex at are (b cos , b sin ).

c
d=
a=
a=
a=

a=

## Squaring both sides results in

a = b + c - 2bc cos

way.

## Thus, the statement of the law of cosines for side c

can be illustrated.

c=a+b- 2 ab cos

b=a+c- 2ac cos

## Manipulate each equation and solve

for the cosine of the angle.

cos = a+b-c
2ab
cos = b+c-a
2bc
cos = a+c - b
2ac

We must remember:
The square of any side of a
triangle is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides minus
twice the product of these sides and
the cosine of the angle between
them (included angle).

Examples

## 1. Solve the remaining parts of the triangle.

a=29

49

b=39

Solve for c.
c=a+b- 2 ab cos
=29 + 39 - 2(29)(39) cos 49
841 + 1521 2262(0.6561)
2362 1484.0982
c
29.63
Solve for
cos = b+c-a
2bc
cos = 39 + 29.63 - 29
2(39)(29.63)
1521 + 877.94 841
2311.14
1557.94
2311.14
cos 0.6741
4737
Solve for
cos 180 - (49 + 7437)
cos 180 - 9637
8323

c=7

a=3

b=9

cos = a+b-c
2ab
cos =3 + 9 - 7
2(3)(9)
cos = 9 + 81 49
54
cos = 41/54
cos 0.7593
4036
cos = b+c-a
2bc
cos = 9 + 7 - 3
2(9)(7)
cos = 81 + 49 9
126
cos = 121/126
cos 0.9603
1611

cos = a+c - b

## 3. A plane flew due north at 500mph for three

hours. A second plane starting at the same
point and at the same time, flew southeast at
an angle 150 clockwise from due north at
435mph for three hours. At the end of the three
hours, how far apart were the two planes?

Plane 1

b
B 15
0
a

Plane 2
C

## c = 500m/h x 3hrs = 1500 mi

a = 435 m/h x 3hrs = 1305mi
b is the distance from Plane 1 and Plane 2. Thus, we must find
b.
b=a+c- 2ac cos
b=1305+1500- 2(1305)(1500) cos 150
b 1,703,025 + 2,250,000 - 3,915,000 (-0.8660)
b 3,953,025 + 3,390,487.992
b
b 2709.89 miles

Practice!!!

Second
base

Third
base

## Question AA baseball diamond is actually a

square that is 90 feet on each side. The
pitchers mound is located 60.5 feet from
home plate. How far is it from the third base to
the pitchers mound?

First base

Home
plate

## Question B. To approximate the length of a

lake, a surveyor starts at one end of the lake
and walks 245 yards. He then turns 110 and
walks 270 yards until he arrives at the other
end of the lake. Approximately how long is
the lake?

## Solution for Question A

We must find the side a.

90ft

45
A

## a=b+c - abc cos A

=60.5 + 90 - 2(60.5)(90) cos 45
3,660.25 + 8,100 10,890
(0.7071)
11,760.25 7,700.39
a =
a 63.72 feet

## Solution for Question B

x = 270+245- 2(270)(245) cos 70
x 72,900 + 60,025 45,249.2650
x 178,174.265
x
x 422.11 yd

Quiz
following questions.

## 1. A boy walks due south at 5kph for three

hours. A girl starting at the same point and
at the same time, walks southeast at an
angle 150 clockwise from due north at
4kph for three hours. At the end of the
three hours, how far apart were the two
from one another?

2. Solve for

c=18

a=9

b=15

2
b=16.3
cm

c
A=15.7
m

c
c=18.9
m

3.Solve for

Assignment

4.Solve for c

a=32
m

52.6
b=45
m

## 5. To approximate the distance of two

houses, a man starts at one boundary of
the first house and walks 92 meters. He
then turns 72 and walks 86 meters until
he arrives at the other. Approximately how
far is the shortest distance between two
houses?