You are on page 1of 25

Metamorphism means "changed

form (berubah bentuk)

How do rocks change?


Metamorphism causes changes in:
1
Texture (definition: shape, size
and orientation of mineral grains in
the rocks)
2
Mineralogy (chemical composition)

METAMORPHIC ROCKS
METAMORPHISM : process by which
conditions within the Earth alter the mineral
content and structure of any rock, igneous,
sedimentary or metamorphic, without melting
it.
Metamorphism occurs when heat and pressure
exceed certain levels, destabilizing the minerals
in rocks...but not enough to cause melting
Ion-rich fluids circulating in and around rocks
also influences metamorphism

CONTACT
METAMORFISME

JENIS
REGIONAL/
DYNAMIC

PREEXISTING
ROCKS

T, P, CHEMICAL
FLUIDS

HOW
WHERE

BATUAN
METAMORFIK

HOW
WHERE

JENIS BATUAN
& CIRI KEJURUTERAAN

LINEATION
TEXTURE
FOLIATION

CHANGES
MINERALOGY

NONFOLIATED

Metamorphic Rock Pictures

Granite, Gneiss, Shale, Slate, Sandstone, and Quartzite are good


examples of metamorphic rocks.

Metamorphic rocks

When rocks are baked by heat of molten magma or


squeezed by the movements of huge tectonic plates or by
the pressure of overlying thick succession of rocks

They

are altered or changed beyond their recognition


i.e. change in Chemical composition, texture and
structure

Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphism
Is the process that occur
in rocks due to the
effects of
High

temperature
High pressure
Chemically active fluids

Temperature

The source of temperature is either from magma


or due to the depth factor

Metamorphism usually result into change in min.


comp. and texture of rocks (Ig. and Sed.) which
are subjected to temp. > 1000 C and pressure >
1000s Mpa.

Low-grade metamorphism:
Occurs at about 1000 C to 5000 C.

High-grade metamorphism:
Occurs at > 5000 C

Pressure
UNIFORM PRESSURE

- increases with depth due to


increase in overburden.
- acts vertically downwards and
affects the volume of both
liquid & solids.
-

high temperature
associated with (due
factor)

is also
to depth

- Lithostatic pressure- due to


overburden

DIRECT or Differential
PRESSURE
- increases with depth upto some
extent, effective in the upper part
of the crust.
- acts in all direction and affects only
on
solids
resulting
into
deformation of shape and change
in mineral composition
- high temperature is not always
associated. to depth factor)
- Stress- due to
forces

tectonic

STRESS

min

max
inter
Differential Stress
Uniform Stress

Granite

Granite-Gneiss

METAMORPHISM

HEAT: Temperatures
needed to metamorphose
rock (2000 C or 10000 C)
reached near 10 km (6
miles) beneath the
surface.
PRESSURE: Requires
pressure > 1 bar or 1000
mb, which is generally
found ~ 3 km (2 miles)
beneath the Earths
surface
FLUIDS: Water is the
usual fluid and comes from
various sources

CHANGES IN METAMORPHIC
ROCKS
Metamorphic

processes cause many


changes in rocks

increased density
growth of larger crystals
reorientation of the mineral grains into
layers or banded texture
FOLIATION

transformation of low-temperature
minerals into high-temperature minerals

Rumus
Changes that occur in the transformation
to become metamorphic rocks

Type of Metamorphism
Contact, Regional and Cataclastic
Metamorphism

CYCLE

Contact

Metamorphism-

This type of metamorphism occurs locally adjacent to the igneous intrusion;


with high temp. and low stress
There is little change in bulk composition of the rock
Area surrounding the intrusion (Batholith) is heated by the magma;
metamorphism is restricted to a zone surrounding the intrusion, this zone is
know as METAMORPHIC AUREOLE.
The rocks formed are non-foliated fine-grained rocks called as
HORNFELS.

CONTACT

Regional

Metamorphism-

metamorphism occurs covering larger area, which is subjected to intense


deformation under direct or differential stress.
Rocks formed under such environment are usually strongly foliated, such
as slates, schists, and gniesses.
The differential stresses result from tectonic forces,
eg. when two continental masses collide with one another resulting into
mountain building activity. Compressive stresses result in folding of the
rock

Cataclastic

Metamorphism

This type of metamorphism occurs mainly due to direct


pressure
eg. when two bodies of rock slide past one another
along a fault zone. Heat is generated by the friction of
sliding along the zone, and the rocks tend to crushed
and pulverized due to the sliding.
Cataclastic
metamorphism
is mere
mechanical
breakdown of rocks without any new mineral
formation, however, sometime due to intense shearing
few new minerals are formed.