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UNDERSTANDING FIRE

A Reviewer on Fire Technology


and Arson Investigation
By:
Dr. Rommel K. Manwong
Criminologist

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IMPORTANCE OF FIRE

source of warmth and light


protection against enemies
cause chemical changes to foodstuffs
to suit mans body structure
provides processes for modifying
chemicals into medicines
provides heat to convert wood, metals,
and bones into domestic tools or
instruments for aggression

While the application of fire has served mans needs its


careless and wanton use exact an enormous and
dreadful toll from society in life and property. Hence,
mans understanding of fire would enable him to
develop the technology of prevention and control to a
considerable advance state www.rkmfiles.net/ 2012 lecture series

QUESTION
1. The known earliest use of fire to
mankind was for
A.shaping of weapons and tools
B.changing clay to pottery
C.keeping them warm and furnish
light
D.cooking their food
Answer
C
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QUESTION
2. In the process of combustion, for instance,
burning a wood or paper, what is being
burned?
A. The wood or paper on flame
B. The pyrolitic product
C. The vapor emitted from the burning item
D. The fuel

Answer
C
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Nature of Fire
FIRE is the rapid oxidation of a substance often
with the evolution of heat and light in varying
degrees of intensities.
Often a misconception is fire burns the
actual chair or piece of wood. It is the
GASSES given off by an object that
burns. HEAT causes objects to give off
these flammable gasses. When the
gasses reach their IGNITION
TEMPERATURE you see the light given off
during the oxidation known as FIRE. Fire
itself generates more heat to the object
and thus an endless cycle begins until all
of the gasses have been exhausted from
an object. Then the remaining particles
or ash are what is left.

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QUESTION
3. Ignition temperature is also the same
as
A. Heat
B. Fire Point
C. Flash point
D. Heat stroke
Answer
B
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QUESTION
4. In general terms, what is the heat
and light that comes from the
combustion of substances?
A. Fire
B. Flame
C. Heat
D. Temperature
Answer
A
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QUESTION
5. The combustion process is also the
burning process know as
A. Controlled Fire
B. Free Radicals
C. Pyrolysis
D. Vaporization
Answer
C
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The Fire Triangle

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BOARD QUESTION
6. Among the elements of fire, the
most important is
A. Fuel
B. Heat
C. Temperature
D. Oxygen
Suggested
Answer
D

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Elements of Fire

Fuel -- For a fire to start there must be something to burn.


The physical state of the fuel may be gases (natural gas,
propane, butane, hydrogen, etc.); liquids (gasoline,
kerosene, turpentine, alcohol, paint, varnish, lacquer, etc.)
or solid (coal, wood, paper, cloth, grease, etc.)

Heat -- For a fire to start there must be a source of


ignition, usually heat or a spark. Heat sources include:
open flame, hot surfaces, sparks and arcs, frictionchemical action, electrical energy and compression of
gases

Oxygen -- A source of oxygen is needed. Approximately


16% is required. Normal air contains 21% oxygen. Some
fuels contain enough oxygen within their make-up to
support burning.
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The Fire Tetrahedron


The four sides represent HEAT, FUEL,
OXYGEN,
and
UNINHIBITED
CHAIN
REACTIONS.
OXYGEN
TEMPERATURE

FUEL
UNINHIBITED CHAIN
REACTION OF COMBUSTION
PROCESS

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QUESTION
7. The fire triangle represent the
glowing mode of fire while the fire
tetrahedron represent the ___ of fire.
A. Charring Mode
B. Flaming Mode
C. Pyrolysis
D. Thermal decomposition
Answer
B
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QUESTION
8. How much percent of oxygen is
needed to sustain combustion?
A. Approximately 16%
B. Must be more than 21%
C. At least 10%
D. Must not be less than 21%
Answer
A
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Fire Modes
Fire Triangle represent the
GLOWING MODE of fire.
Fire Tetrahedron represent the
FLAMING MODE of fire
If the process is confined with pressure it is called
EXPLOSION
If combustion propagates at supersonic speed, it
produced a DETONATION
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BOARD QUESTION
09. What is produced when fire is in its
supersonic speed mode?
A. Explosion
B. Detonation
C. Vaporization
D. High Voltage
Answer
B
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FIRE LIFE CYCLE


Input Heat
Fuel
Oxygen
Proportioning
Mixing
Ignition continuity

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BOARD QUESTION
10. What is also known as Pyrolysis?
A. Thermal decomposition of matter
B. The Burning Process
C. The Combustion Process
D. All of these
Answer
D
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The Pyrolysis Process

FUEL is heated until its


temperature reaches its FIRE
POINT
decomposition takes place
moisture in the fuel is converted
to vapor,
decomposition produces
combustible vapors that rise to
the surface of the fuel (free
radicals)
FREE RADICALS undergo
combustion.

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BOARD QUESTION
11. In the burning process, what are being
burned are gasses or vapors known as free
radicals. Among the following, which is not or
the least of free radicals?
A. Hydrogen gas
B. Carbon monoxide
C. Nitrogen
D. Inert gas

Answer
D
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BOARD QUESTION
12. The constant temperature at which
the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to
the atmospheric pressure is called
A.
B.
C.
D.

Kindling/Ignition Temperature
Boiling Point
Fire point
Vapor density

Answer
B
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
FIRE

Specific Gravity the ratio of the weight of a solid or liquid


substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.
Vapor density the weight of a volume of pure gas composed to the
volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure.
Vapor Pressure the force exerted by the molecules on the surface
of a liquid.
Temperature the measure of the degree of thermal agitation of
molecules.
Boiling Point the constant temperature at which the vapor pressure
of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
Ignition/Kindling temperature the minimum temperature at
which the substance must be heated in order to initiate combustion.
Fire point the lowest temperature of a liquid in an open container at
which vapors are evolved fast enough to support combustion.
Flash point the temperature at which a flammable liquid forms a
vapor-air mixture that ignites (mixture with in the explosive range).

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BOARD QUESTION
13. What do we call, in the study of fires,
changes whereby heat is absorbed
before a reaction takes place?
A. Endothermic
B. Exothermic
C. Oxidation
D. Flame

Answer
A
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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
FIRE

Endothermic Reactions changes whereby energy


(heat) is absorbed or is added before the reaction takes
place.
Exothermic Reactions those that release or give off
energy (heat) thus they produce substances with less
energy than the reactants.
Oxidation a chemical change that is exothermic, a
change in which combustible material (fuel) and an
oxidizing agent (air), react. Example of oxidation is
combustion which is the same as actual burning (rapid
oxidation)
Flames flames are incandescent (very bright/glowing
with intense heat) gases. It is a combustion product and
a manifestation of fire when it is in its gas-phased
combustion.
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QUESTION
14. ______ is energy in motion.
A. Thermal
B. Oxidation
C. Flame
D. Heat
Answer
D
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PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION

Fire gases - chemical composition of the fuel,


percent of oxygen present, and the temperature of
the fire.

Flame - The luminous body of a burning gas. It


is the manifestation of fire when the fire is in its
gas phased combustion.

Heat - a form of energy generated by the


transmission of some other form of energy.

Smoke - a visible product of incomplete


combustion, a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, CO,
CO2 and finely divided particles released from the
burning material.

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Fire Gases
As a result of combustion, the following are
produced:
CO
CO2
Hydrogen gas
Nitrogen
Other poisonous gases
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN),
Hydrogen Chloride (HCL)
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Flame

Luminous
Non-Luminous
Premixed
Diffused
Laminar
Turbulent

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As to color

As to Air Mixture

As to Smoothness

BOARD QUESTION
15. The kind of flame that is disturbed
and thus produce rugged edges rather
than being smooth is called __.
A. Luminous Flame
B. Premixed Flame
C. Turbulent Flame
D. Diffused Flame
Answer
C
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BOARD QUESTION
16. The best reason why a luminous flame
is colored orange-red is due to ______.
A. incomplete combustion of matter
B. the chemical component of the
burning material
C. carbon monoxide
D. slow input of oxygen

Answer
A
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STAGES OF BURNING

Incipient Phase - beginning stage of


fire.

Free Burning Phase - burning stage


whereby materials or structures are
burning in the presence of adequate
oxygen supply.

Smoldering Phase - burning stage


wherein flame ceases but dense smoke
and heat completely fill the confined
room.

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BOARD QUESTION
17. The fireman has noticed an accelerated
burning process and estimated a temperature of
about 800-1000 F at the base of fire in the
burning house. This observation leads to
conclusion that the fire is in its __ stage.
A. Incipient
B. Free Burning
C. Smoldering
D. Controlled

Answer
B

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Incipient
Stage

Free Burning
Stage

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Smoldering
Stage

THE FUELS
(COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS)

FUEL is matter and matter exist in three


physical states: solid, liquid and gas.
Solids melt to become liquids, and these
may vaporize and become gases.
The basic rule is that at high enough
temperature all fuels can be converted
to gases. And each of the physical
states exhibits different physical and
chemical properties that directly affect
a fuels combustibility
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BOARD QUESTION
18. Which of the following does not fall
under Class A fires?
A. None of these
B. Exploding gas depot
C. Burning nipa hut
D. Forest fire
Answer
B
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Each of the physical states exhibits different physical and


chemical properties that directly affect a fuels
combustibility

Solid - molecules are closely


packed together.
Liquid - molecules are loosely
packed.
Gas - molecules are free to
moved.

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Classification of Fuels

Class A Fuels they are ordinary combustible materials that are


usually made of organic substances such as wood and woodbased products. It includes some synthetic or inorganic materials
like rubber, leather, and plastic products.

Class B Fuels materials that are in the form of flammable


liquids such as alcohol, acidic solutions, oil, liquid petroleum
products, etc.

Class C Fuels they are normally fire resistant materials such as


materials used on electrical wiring and other electrical
appliances.

Class D Fuels they are combustible metallic substances such


as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium and potassium.
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BOARD QUESTION
19. What is the term used to refer to organic
matters like wood, garbage and animal
manure that can be use to produce energy?
A. Plastic
B. Biomass
C. Coal
D. Fossils

Answer
B
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BOARD QUESTION
20. What do we call plastic fuel that
contains nitro cellulose?
A. Pyroxylin
B. Pyrolytic
C. Pyrolyzed
D. None of the above
Answer
A
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Groups of Solid Fuels

Biomass organic matters like wood, garbage and animal


manure that can be use to produce energy.
Fabrics and Textiles A fiber is a very fine thin strand or
thread like object. Fabrics are twisted or woven fibers. And
textiles are machine woven or knitted fabric.
Plastics are included as ordinary fuels except those
materials of or containing cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin).
Coal a black, combustible, mineral solid resulting from the
partial decomposition of matter under varying degrees of
temperature. They are used as fuels in the production of coal
gas, water gas, and many coal compounds. They are also
used to heat buildings and to provide energy for industrial
machinery.
Peat It is partially decayed plant matter found in swamps
called bags and used as a fuel chiefly in areas where coal and
oil are scarce.

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Common Solid Fuels


A. Bulky
B. Finely
Divided
C. Dust
1. Coal
1. Plastic
1. Saw dust
2. Wood
2. Paper
2. Sugar
In terms of flammability, solid fuels are:
3. Wax
3. Cork
Pyrolyzable solid fuels include many of the ordinary accepted combustibles: wood,
3. Grain
paper and so on. The vapors released
by their chemical decomposition support flaming
combustion. This exemplifies a gas-to-gas reaction: the vapors released mixed with
4. Grease
4. Leather
oxygen in the air to produce a flame.
Non-pyrolyzable solid fuels4.
solidothers
fuels that are difficult to ignite. A common example

is charcoal. Chemical decomposition does not occur because there are no pyrolyzable
elements present. No vapors are released. The glowing combustion that results is an
example of a gas-to-solid
reaction.
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Characteristics of FUELS
Solids
Have definite volume and shape.
In order for combustion to occur, it must

reach ignition temperature for the solid


to liquefy and then vaporize into the
gaseous state.
During oxidation, it is the gaseous form

that is
oxygen.

capable

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of

combining

with

Liquids
Assumes the shape of its container and

may diffuse.
It has a definite volume and may be

compressed slightly.
Like a solid, in order for combustion to

occur, sufficient heat must be present to


vaporize it into the gaseous state.

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Groups of Flammable
Liquids

Class I-A Liquids include those liquids having flash


points below 22.8C, and having a boiling point below
37.8C

Class I-B Liquids include those liquids having flash


points below 22.8C, and having a boiling point at or
above 37.8C

Class I-C Liquids include those liquids having flash


points at or above 22.8C, and below thirty seven and
eight 37.8C

BOARD QUESTION
21. What is the flash point of a liquid?
A. 82 degrees celcius
B. 88 degrees celcius
C. 79 degrees celcius
D. 69 degrees celcius
Answer
C
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Flash Point of a Liquid


Flash Point of a Liquid.

Refers to the
lowest temperature a liquid at which sufficient
vapor is given off to form an ignitable mixture
with air, near the surface of the liquid or within
the vessel used, as determined by appropriate
laboratory test such as 79C in accordance
with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point
by the Tag Closed Tester, ASTM D 56-61.

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Common Liquid Fuels

Gasoline

Lacquer
Kerosene

Olive oil
Turpentine

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Alcohol
Cod liver
oil
Paint
Varnish

BOARD QUESTION
22. What kind of fuel has no definite
shape or volume?
A. Liquid
B. Gas
C. Solid
D. All of the above
Answer
B
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Gases
Have no definite shape or volume and

assumes the shape and volume of its


container.
A gas will spread and eventually equalize

its distribution throughout a fixed room or


container.
Combustion in this state needs no heating

and only requires the proper mixture of


oxygen and an ignition source.

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Common Gas Fuels

Natural gas
Propane
Butane
Hydrogen
Acetylene
Carbon
monoxide

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OXYGEN
(The Oxidizing Agent)

In order for a fire to occur, a rapid


oxidation reaction must take place.

A fuel must be present and mix with


the oxygen and produce heat energy.

fire

is

an

exothermic

because it produces heat.


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reaction

QUESTION
23. Air has approximately __ % of
oxygen, which is also the needed
amount to begin reacting with fuel.
A. 28
B. 16
C. 81
D. 21
Answer
D
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IN AIR
The air we breathe contains approximately 21% oxygen.

This is normally considered an ample amount of


oxygen to begin reacting with the fuel.
If the level of oxygen source drops below 16%, the

burning process slows and may self extinguish or


smolder.
This is called an oxygen controlled or ventilation
limited fire and is dependent upon finding another
source of oxygen.
If a fuel is present in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere,

the reaction will become more vigorous and the


combustion process will be accelerated.
This enriched environment may be as simple as a
person blowing on a fire to an area where medical
oxygen is present.
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Flammable Limits
Mixtures of flammable gases or vapors with

air will combust only when they are within


particular ranges of concentration.
The ratio of the gas or vapor to air is called

its flammable or explosive limit.


Flammable limits are divided into 3 areas;

lower flammable limit,


upper flammable limit and
ideal or stoichiometric.
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If there is more air than gas or vapor then it is

considered being in the lower flammable limit


or sometimes called fuel controlled.
When there is more gas or vapor than air, then

it is considered as being in the upper


flammable limit or sometimes called air
controlled.
The ideal area is where the fuel (vapor or gas)

is in balance with the air.


It is rare to see this occur in most fires except in
certain types of gas fires.

Increases in temperature and pressure will

reduce the lower limit and increase the upper


limit making the ideal area broader.
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Flammable (Explosive) Limits


0% by volume

Air Controlled

Limited combustion possible


around ignition sources

Increasingfuel content

Upper explosion limit (UEL)


Explosion occurs as
soon as ignition is
applied
Lower explosion limit (LEL)
No explosion
due to too litle gas
(Mixture too weak)

Fuel Controlled

0% by volume

!00% by volume
Gas content

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Air content

Increasingair content

100% by volume
No combustion possible
due to too litle oxygen
(Mixture too strong)

QUESTION
24. What is called the behavior of fire
where fire ball maybe produces?
A. Backdraft
B. Flashover
C. Biteback
D. Flashfire
Answer
B
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Dangerous Behavior of Fire

Backdraft it is the sudden and rapid (violent) burning of


heated gases in a confined area that occurs in the form of
explosion. This may occur because of improper ventilation. If a
room is not properly ventilated, highly flammable vapors maybe
accumulated such that when a door or window is suddenly
opened, the room violently sucks the oxygen from the outside
and simultaneously, a sudden combustion occur, which may
happen as an explosion (combustion explosion).

Flashover it is the sudden ignition of accumulated radical


gases produced when there is incomplete combustion of fuels. It
is the sudden burning of free radicals, which is initiated by a
spark or flash produced when temperature rises until flash point
is reached. When accumulated volume of radical gases suddenly
burns, there will be a very intense fire that is capable of causing
flames to jump at a certain distance in the form of fireball.
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Biteback - a fatal condition that takes


place
when
the
fire
resists
extinguishment operations and become
stronger and bigger instead.
Flash Fire better known as dust
explosion. This may happen when the
metal post that is completely covered
with dust is going to be hit by lightning.
The dust particles covering the metal
burn simultaneously thus creating a
violent chemical reaction that produces
a very bright flash followed by an
explosion.
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HEAT
(Energy in Motion)

Heat is the energy possessed by a fuel due to its


molecular activity.

This heat energy has to exceed the minimum level


of the fuel to release fuel vapors and cause ignition.

The measurement of intensity is called


temperature.

Its heating rate is measured as kilojoules (kj).

Its heating intensity is measured by F*,C*, K*, R*


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BOARD QUESTION
25. 100*C is equivalent to __ *F.
A. 212 degrees Fahrenheit
B. 312 degrees Fahrenheit
C. 412 degrees Fahrenheit
D. 122 degrees Fahrenheit
Answer
A
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Typical Temperatures
C

Description

100

212

Water boils

40

104

Hot Bath

37

98.6

Body temperature

30

86

Beach weather

21

70

Room temperature

10

50

Cool Day

32

Freezing point of water

-18

Very Cold Day

-40

-40

Extremely Cold Day (and the same number!)


(bold are exact)

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use this formula


F to C
Deduct 32, then multiply by 5,
then divide by 9
C to F
Multiply by 9, then divide by 5,
then add 32

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Heat Sources
Heat is needed to start the chemical

reaction.
Heat source can be provided by a wide

variety of means.
Some heat sources are designed and

intended to produce heat, such a stove


or a heater.
Some sources of heat for ignition may

result from a malfunction, such as an


overheated motor or electrical arcing.
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QUESTION
26. When the heat source which provided a
destructive fire is from cooking appliances that
involves combustible cooking media such as
vegetable or animal oil, the class of fire is
considered as _________.
A. Class K fire
B. Class D fire
C. Class B fire
D. No Class

Answer
A
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Heat Sources

Chemical Produced as the result of rapid oxidation.

Mechanical Produced by rubbing objects together,


friction.

Electrical Produced from over current, arcing,


shorting or other electrical malfunctions.

Compressed Gas The molecular activity of a gas is


greatly increased when it is heated.

Natural Lightning, solar

Nuclear Heat energy is produced when atomic


particles are split and fused.

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BOARD QUESTION
27. Which of these best describe
conduction?
A. Heat transfer through liquid
B. Heat transfer through heat wave
C. Heat transfer through solid material
D. Heat transfer through air motion

Answer
C
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The transfer
of heat from the initial source to other
fuel fuels in and beyond the area of fire
origin.
Transmission of Heat

1. Conduction

- the transmission

of heat through an object/conductor.

2.

Radiation

- the transmission

through the discharge and spread of


heat from a heated or burning source.
Convection
3
- the transmission
of heat by the moving currents of
Flame/Direct
Contact
liquid
or gas.

4.

- fire spreads

RADIATION

CONDUCTION

DIRECT FLAME
CONTACT

QUESTION
28. In the study of the fire tetrahedron,
which is called the 4th element of fire?
A. Pyrolysis
B. Combustion process
C. The Chain reaction
D. Thermal decomposition of matter
Answer
C
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Uninhibited Chemical
Chain Reactions
(the 4th Element of Fire)
As fuel is heated, pyrolysis, a chemical decomposition

of matter, occurs in the material.


This action may take place in the absence of oxygen

and vapors released may include both combustible and


non-combustible gases.
Once oxygen begins mixing with these gases they form

other chemical mixtures.


These gases will only burn when the fuel to air ratio is
within certain limits.
This is a critical time in the fire process in that the
resultant gases must be within these limits in order
to continue.
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As

the process continues, the heat


produced will continue to heat the fuel,
producing more vapors.

These vapors again chemically break down

into smaller particles to mix with the


oxygen, then burn, and produce heat that
continues to heat the fuel and so on.
This

cycle will continue until all the


available fuel and/or oxidant has been
consumed or until the flame has been
extinguished.
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Fire Life Cycle


FUEL

PYROLYSIS

Heat input
1

Oxidations
Stops

AIR

Critical
Time

LIFE CYCLE OF FIRE

Proper Proportioning

Ignition
Continuity

Mixing
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Factors Affecting
the Burning Process

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QUESTION
29. What is called the total quantity of
combustible contents of a building, space, or
fire area including interior finish which can
totally affect the combustion process?
A. Fuel load
B. Fire origin
C. Humidity
D. Physical characteristic

Answer
A
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Fuel load
The total quantity of combustible contents of

a building, space, or fire area, including


interior finish and trim expressed in heat units
or the equivalent weight in wood.
The total amount of combustible material in a

defined space. Fuel load is quantified in heat


units or in its equivalent weight in wood.
Excessive fuel load for what would normally
be expected in a space of that type can be an
indicator of incendiary fire

A perpetrator attempted to accelerate fire spread and


burning by moving combustible materials into the fire area

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The

fire

growth

rate

is

controlled by:
Physical and Chemical Properties of
the Fuel
Fuel condition
Fuel configuration
Compartmentation/ventilation

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QUESTION
30. Generally, when the moisture content of
fuel is above 15%, ignition is difficult and
requires heat in a prolonged period of time.
What is being described?
A. Fuel load
B. Oxygen content
C. Fuel condition
D. Class of the fuel

Answer
C
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Fuel Conditions
Moisture

content
equilibrium point

of

Fuel

and

its

A fuel when exposed to air will become in


equilibrium with the air and have the
same moisture content as the air.
The amount of exposure and age would
also effect its wetness or dryness.
This
will
effect
the
fuels
ignition
temperature and the rate that it burns.

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Generally when the moisture content


is above 15%, ignition is rather
difficult, even when it is exposed to
heat for a prolonged period of time.
(Equilibrium = fuel wetness vs.
humidity)
Dry fuels burn readily
Wet fuels must first have excess
moisture evaporated before it can be
raised to its ignition temperature

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Configuration of Fuel
The combustion of solid fuels is more
complex than the combustion of a liquid
or gas.
Fuels take on many shapes and can be
divided into many forms.
The severity and the duration of the fire
will be dependant upon;
Arrangement and/or Placement
How a fuel is normally configured in a structure
will determine how it will burn and how it will
affect other fuels present in the structure.
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Physical characteristics
A fuel must be present in a
suitable condition to be ignited.
An example would be a heavy
petroleum distillate spread on a
floor will not easily ignite,
however by placing a wick in it,
the wick will easily ignite and
draw the fuel to the flame.

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Physical characteristics
Level of ignition on the fuel
Size of ignition source relative to
mass/surface area of fuel
The location of ignition on the fuel will
determine the rate of fire development.
(An example would be a fire starting on
the arm rest of a chair verses starting at
the bottom of the chair) (As fire burns
upward it will progress faster if the fuel is
above it, especially in the earlier stages)
Amount - the total amount of fuel present
must be balanced with the amount of air
in the area in order to continue the
burning process.
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What observations can you


derive from the pictures?

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An example would
be a fire starting
on the arm rest of
a chair verses
starting at the
bottom of the
chair.

As fire burns upward


it will progress
faster if the fuel is
above it, especially
in the earlier stages.
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Physical properties

Density - the measure of a substances


mass per unit volume.
This effects the fuels ability to transfer and
spread heat energy.
Low density materials burn faster than high
density materials.

Heat capacity - the amount of heat


energy
required
to
change
a
materials temperature by one degree.
This effects the time required to
transfer heat.
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Thermal conductivity - conducts


heat readily
How a material will conduct heat
determines how rapid the flame
will spread across the surface of a
material.

Heat loss
If the thermal insulation between
two materials is increased, the
flame spread rate will increase
since less energy would be lost
from the burning area.
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Thermal properties of
Fuels

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BOARD QUESTION
31. The abnormal decomposition of
matter through fire is called __.
A. Thermodynamics
B. Thermal Balance
C. Thermal Imbalance
D. Pyrolitic Characteristic
Answer
C
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QUESTION
32. During the stages of fire, the rate of fire
spread is determined by the heat release
rate of a burning fuel. This statement is __.
A. Correct
B. Incorrect
C. Sometimes correct
D. Sometimes incorrect

Answer
A
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Heat release rate


During the early stages of a
fire, the rate of fire spread is
determined by the heat
release rate of a burning fuel.
(An example could best be
illustrated by burning wood
shavings and a block of wood of
the same weight)
The wood shavings would ignite and
burn much faster than the wooden
block.
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Power Usage of Electrical Devices compared


with Fire Heat Release Rates
Item

Approx. Power Usage/Peak Heat Release Rate

Burning cigarette
5W
Standard A Light Bulbs
15 to 200 W
Burning match
80 W
Coffee maker, hair dryer, toaster
500 to 1500 W or
0.5 to 1.5 kW
Burning Coffee Maker
40 kW
Small Trash Can, Trash Bag Fires
50 to 300 kW
Burning Upholstered Chair
80 kW to 2.5 MW
Burning Upholstered Sofa
3,000 kW or 3 MW
Burning Christmas Tree
1.6 MW to 5.2 MW

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What observations can you derive from these


pictures?
210s 0 kW

300s 5 kW

360s 10 kW

460s 25 kW

560s 40 kW

610s 40 kW

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Note from the picture


The higher the energy in the
combustion process, the faster is the
heat release rate

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Other THINGS Affecting Fire


Ventilation
The air/oxygen content and leakage in a

structure
burning

will
until

control
a

the

change

in

amount

of

ventilation

occurs.
This change can be from any opening that

will allow entry and/or exit of air.


It may be natural, mechanical, accidental

or intentional.
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The direction of the airflow

will cause the fire to spread


in that direction.
Most of the time this

direction is the same as the


outside airflow that is
caused by atmospheric
conditions (wind).
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There are three basic factors

that control ventilation:


General Conditions
Such as open/closed of doors, windows,
and vents.
In addition, the general condition of the
structure, type of materials and
construction techniques would
determine the amount of air leakage into
or out of a building.

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Conditions that the fire creates


as it intensifies and moves
through the structure.
Many times these openings allow a
fresh source of air to the fire and will
intensify the fire in that area

Fire fighters can create ventilation


changes to the fire by creating
additional openings and
sometimes by pushing the fire
with hose streams.
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BOARD QUESTION
33. What common condition maybe produced
when air suddenly enters a non-ventilated
area where carbon and other products of fire
are confined?
A. Backdraft
B. Fireball
C. Flashover
D. Intensity

Answer
A
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Weather
Temperature, humidity and air/oxygen

content & movement (wind) varies


every day and the norms are different in
every part of the world.
Even the temperatures that people
maintain
in
their
structures
are
different.
Temperature or heat energy initially
starts the fire. It can Intensifies the fire,
spreads the fire and,
Produces
greatest
extinguishment.
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barrier

to

Temperatures effect ignition temperature

and vapor to air ratios.


Humidity norms are different in every part
of the world, and will effect the ignition
temperature and the rate that the fuel
burns.
Air movement outside verses inside

determines fire flow through a structure


unless tampered with.
In normal ambient conditions the oxygen

content is approximately 21%.


The fire scene must be evaluated to see if

anything could affect this percentage


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To sustain the fire, it must have at least

15%. Qualify ..
Is or was anything present to make this
percentage vary?
Is or was there anything that increases or
decreases air velocity?
At what point during the progress of the
fire did either or both of the above occur?
Is there any substance present in the fuel
that through decomposition or burning
produces additional oxygen?

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QUESTION
34. Which of the following is not a
means of measuring temperature?
A. Rankin
B. Kelvin
C. Compass
D. Celcius
Answer
C
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QUESTION
35. There are three primary effects that
structure geometry will have on fire,
except?
A. Ventilation
B. Fuel Load
C. Ability to retain heat
D. Humidity
Answer
D
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Structure geometry
Once the fire has started in a

compartment, such as a room or


building, the fires development will be
determined by compartments
configuration and construction.

There are three primary effects that

this will have on the fire;


ventilation,
ability to retain heat,
and the additional fuel load of the
compartment.
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Human factors
Every person has unique daily living

habits that are a product of their


environment, heritage and personal
preferences.
Examples are housekeeping, choice and
arrangement of furnishings, and the
interior environmental conditions.
Even if there were two identical structures,
the building habitants would have different
furnishings in different places, and
different configurations of doors and
windows, and many other differences that
effect the progress of a fire.
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In addition, humans will react

differently to a fire.

Once the fire becomes observable,


people will do things that impact
the fire development.

Changing ventilation
Leaving a door open when leaving
Breaking a window
Spreading the Fire
Moving the fire source
Attempts to control the fire

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PART TWO
BASIC FIRE INVESTIGATION

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Preliminary Notes
In the Philippines, the Bureau of fire Protection
is the main government agency responsible for
the prevention and suppression of all
destructive fires on buildings, houses and
other structures, forest, land transportation
vehicles and equipments, ships or vessels
docked at piers or major seaports, petroleum
industry installation, plane crashes and other
similar incidents, as well as the enforcement of
the Fire Code and other related laws. It has the
major power to investigate all causes of fires
and necessary, file the proper complaints with
the proper authority that has jurisdiction over
the case (R.A. no. 6975, sec. 54).
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LEGAL MANDATE

Bureau of Fire Protection was created by virtue of


RA 6975 primarily to perform the following functions:

1. Be responsible for the prevention and suppression of all


destructive fires on:
Buildings, houses and other structures;

Forest;

Land transportation vehicles and equipment;

Ships or vessels docked at piers or wharves


anchored in major sea ports;
Petroleum industry installations;

Land transportation vehicles and equipment;

Plane crashes; and


Other similar incidents.

LEGAL MANDATE

Bureau of Fire Protection was created by virtue of


RA 6975 primarily to perform the following functions:

2. Be responsible for the enforcement of the Fire Code of


the Philippines (P.D. 1185 / RA 9514) and other related laws

3. Shall have the power to investigate all causes of fires


and if necessary, file the proper complaint with the city
or provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case
4.

In time of national emergency, all elements of the BFP


shall upon direction of the President, assist the AFP
in meeting the national emergency; and

5. Shall establish at least one (1) fire station with adequate


personnel, fire fighting facilities and equipment in every
provincial capital, city and municipality subject to
standard rules and regulations as may be promulgated
by the DILG.

VISION

A world-class fire protection agency workin


towards a public safety conscious society.

MISSION

vent and suppress destructive


enforce fire-related laws; and provide emer
al and rescue services.

BFP PROGRAMS AND


SERVICES
1. Fire Prevention
a. Fire Safety Information Campaign
b. Fire Safety Inspection

2. Fire Suppression
a. Fire Fighting and Control
b. Fire Investigation

BFP PROGRAMS AND


SERVICES
3. Emergency Medical and Rescue
Services
a. Medical and Dental Services
b. Search and Rescue Services
4. Special Programs / Projects
a. Fire Safety Education Drive
b. Kiddie / Junior Fire Marshal
c. Other Operations

P - NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUC


Fire
Chief
Internal
Audit
Svcs

Senior
Executive
Assistant

Personal
Aide
Office

Deputy Chief
for Admin

Public
Info
Service
s

Internal
Affairs
Svcs

Legal
Service
s

Chaplain
s Ofc

Deputy Chief
for Opn

Chief
Directorial
Staff

DIRECTORIAL STAFFS
Directorate
for
Administrati
on
Human
Resource
Management
Div
Human
Resource
Developmen
t
Div

Directorate
for
Comptrollers
hip
Financial
Manageme
nt
Div
Cash
Manageme
nt
Div

Directorate
for Plans and
Standards
Devt
Plans &
Programs
Div
Fire Science
& Standards
Devt Div

Directorate
for Fire
Safety and
Prevention
Fire
Intelligence
&
Investigatio
n
Div
Fire Safety
Enforcemen
t
Div

Directorate
for
Logistics
Logistic
s
Division
Supply
Manageme
nt
Div

Directorate
for
Operations
Fire
Suppression &
Operations Div
Health &
Emergency
Manageme
nt
Div
Special
Operation
Div

FIRE SAFETY PLAN

The fire safety plan is a


very important part of the
overall fire and life safety
program within the building.
Its purpose is to prevent
potential injuries and deaths
and
to
protect
your
residential and/or company

Why fires should be


investigated?

Fires should be investigated to determine


the cause of the fire in order to prevent
similar occurrences. The determination of
the origin and cause of fire is arrived at
only after a thorough investigation. Since
basic investigation is prelude to the
discovery of the true cause of the fire, an
understanding of the chemistry of fire
and its attendant behavior should be a
concern for successful investigation.
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Is Fire Investigation
complex and unique?

Fire destroys evidence


If it is Arson, it is planned, motivated
and committed discreetly.
Rarely can there be an eyewitness in
Arson cases.

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BOARD QUESTION
36. What are called the eyes and ears
of fire investigators in the case of arson?
A. Witness
B. Complainant
C. Firemen
D. Fire setter

Answer
C
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FIRE INVESTIGATION
The totality of the process involving the
determination of whether or not a fire
occurrence is accidental, incendiary or
caused by natural causes.
ARSON INVESTIGATION
The art of probing and analyzing an
incendiary/intentional fires which is
intended to identify, locate, and
ultimately prosecute the perpetrator.
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QUESTION
37. Which of the following law punishes
the crime of arson?
A. PD 1613
B. PD 1744
C. Revised Penal Code
D. All of the Above
Answer
D
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Overview of the
Law on Arson

Previously, arson was defined and penalized under nine


different articles of the Revised Penal Code:
Article 320 (destructive arson)
Article 321 (other forms of arson)
Article 322 (cases of arson not included in the preceding
articles)
Article 323 (arson of property of small value)
Article 324 (crimes involving destruction)
Article 325 (burning ones own property to commit arson)
Article 326 (setting fire to property exclusively owned by
the offender
Article 326-a (in cases where death resulted as a
consequence of arson)
Article 326-b (prima facieevidence of arson).
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OnMarch 7, 1979, citing certain


inadequacies
that
impede
the
successful
enforcement
and
prosecution of arsonists, then President
Ferdinand E. Marcos issued Presidential
Decree (P.D) No. 1613.
(P.D. 1613 supplanted the penal code
provisions on arson)

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OnNovember 11, 1980, the law on arson was


again revisited via P.D. No. 1744.The new law
expanded the definition of destructive arson by
way of reinstating Article 320 of the Revised Penal
Code.The amendatory legislation also paved the
way for the reimposition of the capital punishment
on destructive arsonists.

When Republic Act (R.A.) No. 7659 (An Act to


Impose the Death Penalty on Certain Heinous
Crimes) was passed onDecember 13, 1993, Article
320 again underwent a revision.

With the repeal of the Death Penalty Law onJune


24, 2006through R.A. No. 9346, arson is no longer
a capital offense.
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BOARD QUESTION
38. Which of the following illustrates
the crime of arson?
A. Simultaneous fire
B. Faulty electric wiring
C. Unexplained explosion
D. Thick reddish smoke
Answer
A
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Factors involved to be established to


complete a Fire Investigation:
1. The WHAT of investigation Cause
that which fire start.
2. The WHY of investigation
Reason which led to the cause of a
fire (a motive leading to the action).
Both are required to classify the fire
and to provide guidance in
establishing corrective action to
preclude a recurrence of the incident.
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QUESTION
39. In studying the motives of arsonist,
expert suggested that the most common
motive why people put things on fire is _.
A. Reward
B. Monetary gain
C. Revenge
D. Covering up another crime

Answer
B
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QUESTION
40. A type of pyromaniac who set a
building on fire then pretend he
discovers it?
A. Abnormal youth
B. Drug addict
C. Hero type
D. Sexual pervert
Answer
C
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QUESTION
41. Which of the following is
synonymous with intentional fire or
arson?
A. Simultaneous fire
B. Pyromanianism
C. Dragon fire
D. Incendiary fire
Answer
D
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Classes of Fire
(According to Cause)

Natural (Innocent fire) fire cause


naturally without human intervention;

Accidental fire causes where human


action is involved directly or indirectly;

Arson (intentional fire) fire cause as a


result of the willful and criminal action
of person/s;

Unknown fire fires which are not


classified as to cause.
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ARSON

Is a crime against property.


The willful and malicious burning of anothers property or the burning of one own
property with intent to injure or defraud the insurer of that property.
The burning of all kinds of buildings, structures, aircraft, watercraft, crops, forest
land and personal property.
1. That the fire was ignited willfully and maliciously to destroy buildings or property
(of human origin, by incendiary means, not natural or accidental).
2. The burning actually occurred (property need not be destroyed, scorching is
sufficient).
3. That the property is of another, or in the case of ones own property the intent
was to injure or defraud the insurer.
4. That any person who caused the fire to be set, is aided, counseled or procured
the burning is equally responsible as the actual fire setter.
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What Constitute Arson?

Burning - there must be burning or


scorching/charring, i.e., the fiber of the wood must
be destroyed or decomposed, its identity or
physical state changed.
Willfulness - the act was done purposely and with
intention.
Motive - the moving cause that induces the
commission of the crime.
Malice - it denotes hatred or a desire for revenge.
Intent - the purpose or design with which the act
is done and involves the will to do the act

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QUESTION
42. Motive is an element in the crime
of arson.
A. True
B. False
C. Partially true
D. Partially false
Answer
B
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MOTIVES FOR ARSON


Although the motive for arson is not one of the
elements of the crime (corpus delicti) it is important to
determine the motive, if at all possible. Development of
motive will often determine the direction the
investigation will take, and it can assist the prosecutor
presenting the case in court by showing why the
defendant was involved in the arson.
The common motives in arson

are:
- Concealment of Other Crimes
- Defrauding the Insurance Company
Types of Insurance fraud arsons:
1. Quick profit
2. Revenge, Spite or
Anger
3. Mental Illness
4. Vandalism

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What is Republic Act


9514?
It is known as the

Revised Fire Code of the


Philippines of 2008
Repealing PD 1185
Approved Dec. 19, 2008
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RA 9514 is more or less copied from the


original law except in some terms and others
provision particularly the following:

1. The share of the bureau in the Fire


Code Fee Collections and the creation
of Fire Protection Trust Fund to support
the modernization of the BFP;

2. There is a provision giving police


power to the BFP in issuing closure
order for building or structure
declared as fire hazards;

3. Another significant provision of the law is


the increase in administrative fines from the
old rate of P12,000 to P50,000 for violating
the provisions of RA 9514 and increase of
penalty from P20,000 to P100,000 fines for
failure to correct the deficiency or abate the
hazard with punishment of imprisonment of
1 year to 6 years aside from paying
damages to victims if the violation leads to
loss of life and damage to property;

4. The law also imposes accountability on


public official or employees for
negligence, malfeasance or misfeasance
in the performance of their sworn duties;

5. Also the law provides that in times


of fire operations, fire volunteers
shall be under the direct operational
control of BFP fire ground
commanders.

Investigative Guidelines
Type:
1. Residence
2. Business establishment/Nonresident
3. Open field
4. Occupants or anyone present at the time of or prior to the
fire.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Location
Date and Time (day of week) reported:
Point of Origin
Conditions that indicate an arson may be involved:
Isolation:
Searching a fire scene:
Interview:
Photography of a fire scene:
Motive:
Other follow-up investigation techniques:
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Persons responsible to Conduct Fire and Arson


Investigation Philippine Setting (SOP No. 2001 01)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Regional Fire Marshal


Provincial Fire Marshal
District Fire Marshal
City Fire Marshal
Municipal Marshal
Fire/Arson Investigator

Initial Actions During Fire Alarms:


A.
B.

C.

D.

E.
F.

Immediate response of the nearest Fire Station/Sub-Station crew upon receiving


the alarm together with the designated investigator is required and mandatory.
Coordination with local police authorities and Barangay officials concerned must
be done to ensure smooth flow of traffic, crowd control and security of the area
from looters and the transfer of fire victims to a safer place.
Fire investigator/s on case shall cordon the place and secure the area by posting
guards to prevent unauthorized person/s until all essential evidences have been
collected for examination by the assigned/duly authorized evidence collector.
Point of origin must be established, cordoned and properly secured until the
investigation has been completed. Clearance from the City/Municipal Fire
Marshal/concerned officers must be obtained prior to the clearing of the area.
BFP Intelligence Branch/Unit must extend assistance if necessary for collation of
information relative to fire incident.
Information gathered must be evaluated to determine the reliability and value in
relation to the incident.
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TASK OF THE FIRE INVESTIGATOR AT THE FIRE SCENE

Must record, observe and


determine the following:
A.
B.

C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Determine the focal point of origin;


Location of fire debris and other physical evidence where they were taken
must be photographed, properly placed in sealed container with
corresponding tag/label duly initiated by the attending investigators and
must be brought to the BFP Arson Laboratory and or PNP/NBI Crime
Laboratory for examination.
Observation of exterior/interior of building and its surroundings.
Observation of spectators particularly those who are leaving the vicinity.
Method of entry found, doors, windows whether locked or unlocked.
Occupants manner of dress, attitudes and actuations.
After Fire Operation, the Fire/Arson Investigator must undertake the
following necessary Steps:

carefully collect debris from various portions wherein the fire originated,
segregate and place in a sealed container with corresponding labels and
initials, and take pictures of the same;
gather possible physical evidence which could have been used if there is
an indication of arson and have it properly documented;
interview person/s who could give vital information relative to the fire and
invite possible witnesses including the owner/occupants of the
burned/affected
structure
or building.
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2010 rommel
k manwong

QUESTION
43. Which of the following tale tell signs
indicates the material used by the
arsonist?
A. Type of building under fire
B. Color of smoke
C. Wind direction
D. Smoke marks
Answer
B
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QUESTION
44. By observation, the fireman noticed black
smokes and reddish flame coming out of the
windows of the burning building. This indicates
that the burning material would be A. Petroleum or rubber products
B. Magnesium products
C. Nitrogen products
D. Potassium products

Answer
A
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Conduct formal investigation to


determine the following factors:
Legal owner of the burned property and
estimated damages
Nature of business if commercial and its
present financial ventures to include
insurance coverage
Legitimacy of Operation
Motives
Identity of the perpetrator/s

A.
B.

C.
D.
E.

Consult respective RFM/DFM/PFM/C/MFM for proper


guidance
Inform owners/occupants to secure necessary
clearance before clearing the fire scene.
Submit necessary reports within the prescriptive
period.
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QUESTION
45. Under set rules and guidelines, how many
copies of the Fire Investigation Report (FIR)
should be prepared by the fire investigator?
A. Duplicated copy
B. Five (5) copies
C. Three (3) copies
D. As many copies as he can

Answer
B
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THE FIRE INVESTIGATION REPORT (FIR)


A.

B.

C.

Fire investigators assigned must sign the FIR in five (5)


copies to be submitted to the Fire Chief, Regional,
Provincial, District, City/Municipal Fire Marshals.
The findings in the FIR that will be submitted to the Fire
Chief, RFM, PFMs/DFMs and City/Municipal Fire
Marshals as the case maybe shall either be ACCIDENTAL
or INTENTIONAL. In both cases, persons responsible for
the fire incident either by neglect or intentional shall be
pinpointed by pieces of evidence and proceeded by
court action. UNDETERMINED causes of fire shall be
considered as pending investigation matters and should
not be reflected in FIRs.
Fire investigating units are prohibited from furnishing
copies of their FIR to any party unless ordered by
competent courts. All requests for Fire Certificates by
the fire victims or other interested parties concerning a
fire case shall be directly addressed to the concerned
Fire Marshals who may issue a certificate as authorized.
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Authority on the Issuance of the Fire


Certificates

A. For NCR
Authority

Aggregate Damage

1.
2.
3.
4.

B. For Other Regions (other than NCR)

5. Fire Chief

- - - - - - - - - - Not exceeding P 10 M
- - - - - - - - - - Not exceeding P 20 M
- - - - - - - - - - Not exceeding P 30 m
- - - - - - - - - - Above P 30 M but not exceeding
P 50 M
- - - - - - - - - - Above P 50 M

Authority

Municipal Fire Marshal


City Fire Marshal
District Fire Marshal
Regional Fire Marshal

1.
2.
3.
4.

Municipal Fire Marshal


City Fire Marshal
Provincial Fire Marshal
Regional Fire Marshal

5. Fire Chief

Aggregate Damage
- - - - - - - - - - - Not exceeding P 10 M
- - - - - - - - - - - Not exceeding P 20 M
- - - - - - - - - - - Not exceeding P 30 M
- - - - - - - - - - - Above P30 M but not
exceeding P 50 M
- - - - - - - - - - - P 50 M and above

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QUESTION
46. What is referred to as the total
damage of the whole area burned?
A. Aggregate damage
B. Property damage
C. Actual damage
D. Moral damage
Answer
A
www.rkmfiles.net/ 2012 lecture series

The Fire Chief through the


recommendation of the CIID shall
issue Fire Certificate to an aggregate
damage of P 50M and above or under
any circumstances that there are
casualties (killed) in a particular fire
incident.

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BASIC FIRE FIGHTING


AND FIRE
EXTINGUISMENT

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BOARD QUESTION
47. Why is water prohibited to quench
Class D fires?
A. Burning metals are too hot
B. Water is not capable of extinguishing
fires
C. There is danger of electrocution
D. Class D fires react violently with water

Answer
D
www.rkmfiles.net/ 2012 lecture series

QUESTION
48. Heat can be extinguished by means
of __ method.
A. Cooling
B. Smothering
C. Fuel removal
D. Chemical inhibition
Answer
A
www.rkmfiles.net/ 2012 lecture series

Fire Extinguishment Methods

1.

(Removing heat) a
process using an extinguishing agent
whose
primary characteristics is heat
Smothering
absorption.
2.
(Removing oxygen) a
process
Separationof excluding the oxygen from the
fuel
so Interruption/Inhibition
that gases or vapors cannot ignite
Chemical
and continue the combustion. (blanketing
effect)
3.
the removal of the
fuel.
4.
the
Cooling

COOLING

SMOTHERING

FUEL
REMOVAL/SEPARATION

CHEMICAL
INTERRUPTION/INHIBITION

Extinguishing Agents:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Foam)
6.

Water
Carbon Dioxide
Dry Chemical
Dry Powder
AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming
Halons

QUESTION
49. The use of a fire track is considered
a fire extinguisher.
A. True
B. False
C. Partially true
D. Partially false
Answer
B
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QUESTION
50. Which of the following is not one
among the types of chemicals used in a
portable fire extinguisher.
A. Compressed gas
B. Halon
C. Dry Chemical
D. Dry Powder
Answer
A
www.rkmfiles.net/ 2012 lecture series

Fire Extinguisher

a mechanical device made

of metal that contains chemicals, fluids, or gases for


the purpose of stopping fires of limited size.

Classes of Fire Extinguisher

1. Portable
2.Semi-Portable/Wheeled Type

Types of Portable Extinguisher:

1. H2O (water)
2. Dry Chemicals
3. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
4. AFFF (foam)
5. Halons
6. Dry Powder (metal/sand fire extinguishers)
7. Halotron I
8. FE-36 (Hydrofluorocarbon-236fa) HFC-236fa
9. Water Mist

Parts of Pressurized Fire Extinguishers

Components of Fire Extinguishers

Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers

Semi-Portable/Wheeled Type
Fire Extinguishers

Types of Metal/Sand Extinguishing Agents:

1.

Sodium Chloride

used for metal

fires involving magnesium, sodium,


potassium/potassium
alloys, uranium and
Powdered Copper Metal
powdered aluminum.
2.
(Cu metal) used
Graphite Based-Powders
for fires involving lithium and lithium alloys.
3.
designed for use
Sodium Bicarbonate-Based Dry Agents
on lithium fires. Very effective on fires
involving high melting metals such as
Sodium bicarbonate-Based Dry Powders
zirconium and titanium.
4.

suppress fires with most metals alkyls,


pyrophoric liquids such as triethylaluminum.
5.
-

Types of
Extinguisher Testing:

1. Service Test
- the operational
testing of an extinguisher conducted
yearly to determine its functions to
operate
properly.
Hydrostatic Test

2.
- an internal
pressure check of an extinguisher or shell
to detect possible failure under pressure

Hydro Static Test

Fire Fighting
tools

JAWS OF LIFE

Hurzt Cutter

Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

Rollover

Flashover

Firestorm

Aerial Ladder Apparatus

Firefighting Vehicle

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION

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1st phase

Fire Scene Investigation

Recording/
Documentation

Protect/Preserve Fire
Scene

Information Gathering

Photography
Barricade Tape
Sketching
Audio/Video Utilization
Note Taking

Elicitation

Cordon Rope
Posting of Uniform
Personnel
Recognize Threats to
Evidence
Fire Suppression
Overhaul
Salvage
Use of Tools
Constant Walking through the
Scene

Interview
Interrogation

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION


I.
I. RECORDING
RECORDING

a. Photograph
Photograph
a.
1. Crowd
Crowd
1.
2. Vehicles
Vehicles
2.
make and
and color
color
-- make
speedometer reading
reading
-- speedometer
key position
position
-- key
plate number
number
-- plate
3. Color
Color of
of Flames
Flames and
and Smoke
Smoke
3.

b. Audio,
Audio, Video
Video Utilization
Utilization
b.
c. Sketch
Sketch Preparation
Preparation
c.
1. Rough
Rough Sketch
Sketch
1.
2. Progression
Progression Sketch
Sketch
2.

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION


II. INFORMATION GATHERING
a.
a. Noting
Noting Characteristics
Characteristics of
of the
the Fire:
Fire:
1.
1. Rapidity
Rapidity of
of the
the spread
spread of
of flame.
flame.
2.
2. Color
Color of
of the
the Smoke
Smoke and
and Flames.
Flames.
3.
3. Identifiable
Identifiable Odors
Odors
4.
4. Area
Area of
of origin
origin

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION


II. INFORMATION GATHERING
b.
b. Taking
Taking Notes
Notes on
on the
the Following:
Following:
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.

Unnatural
Unnatural state
state of
of the
the premises.
premises.
Obstacle
Obstacle on
on entry
entry point.
point.
Door
Door and
and window
window locked.
locked.
Fire
Fire alarm
alarm or
or other
other fire
fire protection
protection

equipments
equipments disconnected/sabotage.
disconnected/sabotage.
5.
5. Artificial
Artificial drafts
drafts by
by making
making opening.
opening.
6.
6. Block
Block entrance.
entrance.

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION


II. INFORMATION GATHERING
c. Interview and Elicitation
1. Witnesses - Discoverer of fire
2. Fire Victims
3. Responding Firefighter as to
area of origin.
4. Neighbors
- Outside the Involved Building
- Inside the Involved Building

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION


III. Secure and Protect the
Scene
a. Determine the extent to
which the scene has been
protected.
b. Check the adequate scene
security.
c. Take extensive notes, do
not rely on memory.

FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION


III. Secure and Protect the
Scene
d. Keep a record of persons/
individual who enters &
leave.
e. Established frame of minutes
to take control of scene
regardless of circumstances
observed on arrival
f. Post Uniform Personnel,
provide cordon rope and or
barricade tape

Fire Origin Determination

Methods
And
Assessment

Detail Analysis of
Information

Observation Analysis

Location of Area
of Origin
How Fire Detected
Unusual Event Prior
to Fire
Fire Cause
Last Person seen prior
to the fire

Non-Communicating
Fires

Fire Pattern
Analysis

Technology
Utilization

Lines or areas of
Demarcation

Present Condition&
Location of Victim
Incendiary Devices
Missing Items
Unusual Appearance&
Location
Trace Evidence
Discover

Surface Effects
Penetration of
Horizontal Surface
Consumption of
Material in Melting

Carbon Tracing
Detector

Detail Analysis of Information from


Witnesses

Location of Area of Origin


How Fire Detected
Unusual Event Prior to Fire
Fire Cause
Last Person seen prior to the fire

Observation Analysis

Non-Communicating Fires
Present Condition & Location of Victim
Incendiary Devices
Missing Items
Unusual Appearance & Location
Trace Evidence Discover

Fire Pattern Analysis

Lines or areas of Demarcation


Surface Effects
Penetration of Horizontal Surface
Consumption of Material in Melting

Lines or areas of
Demarcation

The borders defining the differences in


certain heat and smoke effects of the
fire upon various materials. They
appear between the affected and
adjacent unaffected or less affected
areas.

Surface Effects
The nature and material of the surface
that contains the fire pattern will have a
bearing on the shape and nature of the
pattern itself.
Sample:

Alligatory pattern
Deep of Charring
Spalling
Clean Burn
Rate of Charring
Smoke and Soot

Penetration of Horizontal Surface


From above or below, can be caused by
radiant heat, direct flame impingement,
or localized smoldering with or without
the effects of ventilation.
Sample:
U&V Pattern
Inverted U&V Pattern
Arrow Pattern
Pointer

Consumption of Material in Melting

Typically when wood or other


combustible surfaces burn they lose
material and mass. The shapes and
quantities of remaining combustibles
can themselves produce lines of
demarcation
and
ultimately,
fire
patterns to be analyzed by the
investigator.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


NOTES
During this process, the investigator should be
making detailed, written or tape-recorded notes.
These notes should list all the pertinent
observations, including the type, location,
description, and measurements of the patterns;
the material on which the patterns are displayed;
and the investigators analysis of the direction
and intensity of the patterns.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


PHOTOGRAPHY
The patterns should be photographed several
different ways to effectively show their shape,
size, relationship to other patterns, and the
location within the fire scene.
These variations should include changes in
the viewing angle of the camera when
documenting the pattern and different lighting
techniques to highlight the texture of the pattern.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


VECTOR DIAGRAMS
The use of heat and flame vector diagrams
can be a very useful tool for analysis by the
investigator.
Vectoring is applied by constructing a diagram
of the scene.
The diagram should include walls, doorways
and doors, windows, and any pertinent
furnishings or contents.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


VECTOR DIAGRAMS
Then, through the use of arrows, the
investigator notes his or her interpretations of the
direction of heat or flame spread.
The arrows can point in the direction of fire
travel from the heat source, or point back toward
the heat source, as long as the direction of the
vectors is consistent throughout the diagram.
The arrows can be labeled to show any one of
several variable factors, such as temperature,
duration of heating, heat flux, or intensity.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


VECTOR DIAGRAMS
Complimentary vectors can be added together
to show actual heat movement directions.
In that case, the investigator should clearly
identify which vectors represent actual fire
patterns and which vectors represent heat flow
derived from the investigators interpretations of
these patterns.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


VECTOR DIAGRAMS
A vector diagram can give the investigator an
overall viewpoint to analyze.
The diagram can also be used to identify any
conflicting patterns that need to be explained.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


VECTOR DIAGRAMS
An important point to be made regarding this
discussion is the terminology HEAT SOURCE
and SOURCE OF HEAT.
These terms are not synonymous with the
origin of the fire.
Instead, these terms relate to any heat source.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


VECTOR DIAGRAMS
The heat source may or may not be generated
by the initial fuel.
An example of this would be a fire that
spreads into a garage and ignites the flammable
liquids stored there.
These flammable liquids then produce a new
heat source that produces fire patterns on the
garages surfaces.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


DEPTH-OF-CHAR SURVEY GRID DIAGRAMS
The investigator should record in his or her
notes the results of any depth-of-char surveys
that are conducted.
This notation should be documented in the
notes as well as on a drawn diagram. For
analysis purposes, the investigator can construct
a depth-of-char grid diagram.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


DEPTH-OF-CHAR SURVEY GRID DIAGRAMS
On this diagram the char measurements are
recorded on graph paper to a convenient scale.
Once the depth-of-char measurements have
been recorded on the diagram, lines are drawn
connecting points of equal, or nearly equal, char
depths.
The resulting isochars may display
identifiable lines of demarcation and intensity
patterns.

We will be discussing a recommended


procedure for the examination of the fire scene.
Basically, this procedure consists of a
preliminary scene examination, development of a
preliminary fire-spread scenario, an in-depth
examination of the fire scene, a fire scene
reconstruction, development of a final fire-spread
scenario, and identification of the fires origin.
The discussion will address the recommended
techniques to follow when examining a fire
scene.

This technique serves to inform the


investigator but is not meant to limit the origin
determination to only this procedure.
All aspects of the fire event should be
considered by the investigator during the
investigation.
Such aspects as witness statements, the
investigators past experiences, and fire-fighting
procedures play important roles in the
determination of the fire origin.

FIRE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT


Investigators will be making assessments of
fire spread throughout the examination of the
scene.
These assessments include recognizing and
documenting heat movement and intensity
patterns and analyzing the importance and
direction of each pattern found.

Technology Utilization

Carbon Tracing Detector

Burn pattern with fire from above and below.

Burn pattern with fire from


above and below.

Saddle burn in a floor joist.

Concrete Spalling

Development of U-shaped pattern.

Truncated cone pattern.

Wood wall studs showing decreasing damage as distance from fire increases.

Typical V pattern showing wall and wood stud damage.

An LP-Gas cylinder that suffered a


BLEVE as a result of exposure to
an external fire.

Charring of wooden structural elements by heat


conduction through wall surface material.

A typical pulled bulb showing that the


heating was from the right side.

Detail Analysis of
Information From
Witnesses
Observation
Analysis
Fire Pattern
Analysis
Technology
Utilization

ORIGIN
DETERMINATION

3rd Phase

Search Method
Strip Method
Double Strip
Zone
Wheel
Spiral

Search, Recognize, Collect/Preserve Evidence

Record/Document
Evidence Prior to
Collection
Photograph Evidence
Prior to Collection
Sketch & measure
Evidence Location
Audio & video
utilization
Note Taking

Recognize/Identify
Evidence

Evidence Collection,
Packaging Transport

Flagging
Marking

Recognition
Marking

Observe Standard Collection


Requirements
(Wearing of Gloves)

Place Evidence to
Suitable Container
Tag, Seal & Mark

Evidence
Marking

Prepare Evidence Chain of


Custody Form

Packaging
Transmittal Letter

2 witness requirements

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH OPERATIONS

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
I. OPERATIONS
Preparation
IN SEARCH
A. Team Briefing
1. Materials requirement
of involved members
2. Discussed search
pattern use:

strip
double strip
wheel
spiral
zone

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
I. OPERATIONS
Preparation
IN SEARCH
A. Team Briefing
3. Assignment / role of
individual team
members.
4. Set up command post
5. Organize communication
with services auxiliary.
6. Coordination with other
agencies.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHII.OPERATIONS
Initiates Preliminary
Survey
a.

Accomplished
a
cautious walk through
the scene.

b.

Acquire preliminary
photograph.

c. Delineate extent of the


search area.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHII.OPERATIONS
Initiates Preliminary
Survey
d.

Determine personnel
and equipment needs.

e. Identify
and
protect
transient
physical
evidence.
f.

Develop general theory


of the crime.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHII.OPERATIONS
Initiates Preliminary
Survey
g.

Record vehicles
identification number,
key
position
and
odometer reading.

h.

Concentrate on most
transient evidence and
work to the least
transient
form
of
physical evidence.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHII.OPERATIONS
Initiates Preliminary
Survey
i. Focus first on the easily
accessible
areas in open view and
progress eventually to
possible
outer
view
locations, look for a
purposively hidden items.
j.

Consider whether the


evidence appears to have
been moved inadvertently.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHII.OPERATIONS
Initiates Preliminary
Survey
k. Evaluate whether or not
the scene and evidence
appears unintentionally
contrived.
l. Two basic search
approaches:
1. "Cautious" search of visible
areas, taking steps to avoid
evidence loss or contamination.
2. After the "cautious search,
a vigorous search for hidden
concealed areas.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH
III. OPERATIONS
Depict Scene
Photographically
a. Begin photography as
soon as possible.
b. Document the
photographic effort with a
photographic logbook.
c. Insure that a progression
of overall, medium and
close-up view of the
scene is establish.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH
III. OPERATIONS
Depict Scene
Photographically
d. Use recognize scale device
for size determination when
applicable.
e. When scale device is used
first take photograph with
out
the inclusion of the
device.
f. Photograph evidence in
place before its collection
and packaging.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH
III. OPERATIONS
Depict Scene
Photographically
g. Be observant on
photographs areas
adjacent to the crime
scene points of entry,
exits, windows.
h. Photograph items,
places, etc to collaborate
the statement of
witnesses, victims, and
suspects.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH
III. OPERATIONS
Depict Scene
Photographically
i. Prepare photographic
sketch and photo
logbook.
j. Do not hesitate to
photograph something
which has no apparent
significance at that time,
it may later prove to be a
key element in the
investigation.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH
OPERATIONS
IV. Prepare Sketch of the
Scene
The diagram establishes
permanent record of items
condition and distance/ size
relationship - diagram
photographs.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH OPERATIONS

IV. Prepare Sketch of the


Scene

a. Typical Materials on rough


sketch (not drawn to
scale)

Case Identifier
Location
Date/Time
Scale or Scale Disclaims
Compass Orientation
Measurements
Key of Legends
Sketch Preparer

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH OPERATIONS

IV. Prepare Sketch of the Scene


b. General Progression of
Sketches

Layout basic perimeter


Set forth fixed objects,
furniture, etc.
Insert evidence as it is
recovered
Record appropriate
measurements
Set forth key/ Legends
compass orientation
Others

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCH OPERATIONS

IV. Prepare Sketch of the Scene


c. Number designation on
sketch should be
coordinated with same
number designation on
evidence log.
d. Insure that enough room
is allowed to include all
pertinent information and
measurement.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHV.OPERATIONS
Collect and Preserve
Evidence
a. Collect evidence in
accordance with standard
practice.
b. Use specialized search
patterns (strip, double
strip, zone, wheel)

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHV.OPERATIONS
Collect and Preserve
Evidence
c. Photograph all items
before collection and
enter notation in
photographic logbook.
d. Mark evidence location in
diagram sketch.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHV.OPERATIONS
Collect and Preserve
Evidence
e. Have at least 2 persons:
See evidence in place
before collection;
Observe it being collected;
Tag zeal evidence;
Place identifying marks on
evidence container and
document the proceeding
by photograph.

f. Do not handle evidence


excessively after recovery.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHVI.OPERATIONS
Collect and Preserve
Evidence
g. If feasible, have one
person as an evidence
custodian to prepare
evidence chain of custody,
and evidence log.
h. Seal all evidence
containers at the crime
scene.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHVI.OPERATIONS
Collect and Preserve
Evidence
i. The best container for
physical evidence such
as debris with possible
flammable accelerants is
clean can, or jar and
thus, evidence plastic
container can do.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHV.OPERATIONS
Collect and Preserve
Evidence
j. Do not forget entrance/
exit areas at the scene to
obtain appropriate and
substantial known
standards.
k. Do not over document
the physical evidence.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHVI.
OPERATIONS
Conduct Final Survey
a. This survey is a critical
review of all aspects of
the search.
b. Double check
documentation to detect
inadvertent errors.
c. Insure that photographs
are taken of scene
showing final condition
after completion of
search.

ORGANIZATION
AND BASIC STAGES
IN SEARCHVI.
OPERATIONS
Conduct Final Survey
d. Check to insure all
evidence is accounted
far before departing
scene.
e. Release of the fire scene
is accomplished only
after completion of the
final survey.
f. Secure affidavit that no
looting/ lost cause by
responding firefighters.

4th Phase
Fire Cause
Determination
The systematic approach recommended is
that of the scientific method, which is used in
the physical sciences.
This method provides for the organizational
and analytical process so desirable and
necessary in a successful fire investigation.

RELATING FIRE INVESTIGATION TO THE


SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The scientific method is a principal of
inquiry that forms a basis for legitimate
scientific and engineering processes,
including fire incident investigation.
The scientific method is
using the following six steps.

applied

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Recognize the need


(identify the problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive reasoning)
Develop a hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

a. Recognize the Need


First, one should determine
that a problem exists. In this
case a fire or explosion has
occurred and the cause
should be determined and
listed so that future, similar
incidents can be prevented.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
b. Define the Problem
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Having determined that a


problem
exists,
the
investigator or analyst should
define in what manner the
problem can be solved.
In this case, a proper
origin
and
cause
investigation
should
be
conducted.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
b. Define the Problem
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

This is done by an
examination of the scene and
by a combination of other
data
collection
methods,
such as the review of
previously
conducted
investigations of the incident,
the interviewing of witnesses
or
other
knowledgeable
persons, and the results of
scientific testing.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

c. Collect Data
Facts
about
the
fire
incident are now collected.
This is done by observation,
experiment, or other direct
data gathering means. This is
called
empirical
data
because it is based on
observation or experience
and is capable of being
verified.

SCIENTIFIC METHODd. Analyze the Data


(Inductive Reasoning)
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

All of the collected and


observed
information
is
analyzed
by
inductive
reasoning.
This is the process in
which the total body of
empirical data collected is
carefully examined in the
light of the investigators
knowledge,
training,
and

SCIENTIFIC METHODd. Analyze the Data


(Inductive Reasoning)
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Subjective or speculative
information
cannot
be
included in the analysis, only
facts that can be clearly
proven by observation or
experiment.

SCIENTIFIC METHODe. Develop a Hypothesis


Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Based
on
the
data
analysis, the investigator
should
now
produce
a
hypothesis
or
group
of
hypotheses to explain the
origin and cause of the fire or
explosion incident.
This hypothesis should be
based solely on the empirical
data that the investigator has
collected.

SCIENTIFIC METHODf.
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Test the Hypothesis


(Deductive Reasoning)

All
other
reasonable
origins and causes should be
eliminated.
The investigator does not
have
a
truly
provable
hypothesis unless it can
stand the test of careful and
serious challenge.

SCIENTIFIC METHODf.
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Test the Hypothesis


(Deductive Reasoning)

This is done by the


principle
of
deductive
reasoning, in which the
investigator compares his or
her hypothesis to all known
facts.
If the hypothesis cannot
withstand an examination by
deductive
reasoning,
it
should be discarded as not
provable
and
a
new

SCIENTIFIC METHODf.
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Test the Hypothesis


(Deductive Reasoning)

This may include the


collection of new data or the
reanalysis of existing data.
This process needs to be
continued until all feasible
hypotheses
have
been
tested.
Otherwise the fire cause
should
be
listed
as
undetermined.

SCIENTIFIC METHODf.
Recognize the need
(identify the
problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive
reasoning)
Develop a
hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive
reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis
(determine cause)

Test the Hypothesis


(Deductive Reasoning)
Presumption of Cause

Until data have been


collected,
no
specific
hypothesis can be reasonably
formed or treated. All fires,
however,
should
be
approached
by
the
investigator
w/o
presumption.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Recognize the need


(identify the problem)
Define the problem
Collect data
Analyze the data
(inductive reasoning)
Develop a hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
(deductive reasoning)
Select final
hypothesis

IMPORTANT NOTES
in the Investigation
Process

COLOR OF SMOKE
COLOR OF FLAME
SMELL OF ODOR
OTHER TALE TELL SIGNS

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COLOR OF SMOKE - The firefighters first


clue to the combustibles of the fire:

Combustibles

Hay/vegetable compounds, phosporous


Benzine
Nitro-cellulose, sulphur
brownish-yellow
Nitric and Hydrochloric acid
Gunpowder
brownish-yellow
Chlorine gas
yellow
Wood, paper, wood
Iodine
Cooking oil
Naptha, Lacquer thinner
black
Turpentine
brown
Acetone, Kerosene, Gasoline, Tar,
Lubricating oil, Rubber, Coal, Plastics

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Color of Smoke
White
White to Gray
Yellow to
Yellow to
GreenishGray to brown
Violet
Brown
Brownish
Black to
Black
Black

Color of Flame Flame colors is another clue for the


firefighters to determine the intensity of fire:
Flame Color

Temperature

Faint Red

975 degrees F - 525 degrees C

Red visible in daylight

1050 degrees F- 565 degrees C

Blood red

1175 degrees F- 635 degrees C

Dark Cherry red

1250 degrees F- 675 degrees C

Medium cherry red

1365 degrees F- 740 degrees C

Bright red

1555 degrees F- 845 degrees C

Salmon red

1650 degrees F- 900 degrees C

Orange

1725 degrees F- 940 degrees C

Lemon

1825 degrees F- 995 degrees C

Light yellow

1975 degrees F- 1080 degrees C

White

Blue White

2200 degrees F- 1205 degrees C


2550 degrees F- 1400 degrees C

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Fire Fighting Operation: Be aware on the following:


1. Separate and seemingly unconnected fires.
2. Unusual odors

Item/Substance

Odor

Nitro-cellulose
Pungent, similar to
camphor
Phosphorous
Wet match heads
Carbo0n disulfide
Rotten Cabbage
Gunpowder
Burned firecrackers
Sulphur candles
Chocking odor
Ammonia
Pungent
Insect sprays
Sweet or perfumed
Cyanide or hydrochloric acid gas
Peach pit
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3.
4.
5.
6.

Reaction of fire to water


Streamers of trailers to cause fire spread
Artificial conditions created to assist fire spread
Absence of clothing, furniture, appliances, personal effects in
dwelling fires.
7. Absence of stock, fixtures, machinery, display cases, records
or raw materials in industrial or commercial properties.
8. Obstacles to hinder fire fighting operations.
9. Uneven burning or localized heavy charring.
10. Intensity of heat generated by fire.
11. Speed of fire spread.
12. Tampering or damage to fire prevention facilities.
13. Tampering or damaged to burglar alarm.

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When Fire is Extinguished

1. Undergo salvage and overhaul operations;

2. Note attitude and dress of owner/occupants;

3. Note individuals who attended several fire incidents;

4. Note any persons at the scene acting abnormally .

How To Determine The Point of Origin:


1. Locate the point of origin
2. Begin in the area of heaviest damage.
3. Determine whether the fire is originated at the
buildings exterior.
4. Examine the interior completely to locate the
area/room of most severe damage.
5. Check the ceiling to find the worst area of damage.
6. Find the lowest point of burning within the area of
origin.
7. Look for
the direction
of the heat flow.
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2010 rommel k manwong

Heat Colors
Temperature

Yellow
450 degrees F - 230 degrees C
Brown to Purple
550

F - 290
C
Blue
600

F - 320
C
Faint Red
900

F - 480
C
Dark Cherry
1100
F - 590
C
Full Cherry
1400
F - 760
C
Salmon www.rkmfiles.net/ 2010 rommel k manwong

8. Check further for any signs indicating distance from the


point of origin.
9. Look for evidence of multiple fires.
10. Keep in mind that flammable liquids and combustible
materials leave heavy charring and thus might not necessarily
indicate the point of origin.
11. Look for a definite fire pattern.

Fires:

Indicators of Slow or Fast Burning


1. Overhead Damage
2. Fire Pattern
3. Crazing of Glass
4. Alligatoring
5. Line of Demarcation
6. Spalling

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Substances Active in Spontaneous Combustion:

Substance

Aluminum
Animal Matter
Manure
Bronze
Magnesium
filings
Miscellaneous
flour
Steel
Vegetable matter
Vegetable oils
Zincwww.rkmfiles.net/ 2010 rommel k manwong

Form
Shavings
Hides, Skin,
Shavings, filings
Shavings,
Sawdust, coal,
Shavings, filings
Hay, grain
All
Shavings, filings

QUESTION
51. Under the DILG or PNP Law, which
government agency is responsible for the
prevention and suppression of all destructive
fires on buildings, houses, and other
structures, forest, land transportation vehicles,
aircraft, sea transportation and equipment.
A. Bureau of Jail and Management
B. Local Government
C. Bureau of Fir Protection and Public Safety
D. Fire Department

Answer
C

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QUESTION
52. What important point to be
established to determine the location or
place in the building the fire started?
A. The most damaged part of the building
B. The exterior part of the building
C. The interior and the badly damaged
part of the building
D. The point of origin of the fire
Answer
D
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QUESTION
53. It is the uncontrollable impulse of a
person to burn anything.
A. Reaction
B. Pyromania
C. Body spasm
D. Pyromaniac
Answer
B
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QUESTION
54. In a fire situation, or burning building,
an important factor in determining the
use of incendiary fire and a good
indication of the intensity of the fire is _.
A. Color of smoke
B. The heat
C. Type of fuel
D. Color of flame
Answer
B
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BOARD QUESTION
55. The activity of protecting the properties from
preventable damage other than the fire. The
steps are a) remove the material outside the
burning area, and b) protecting or cover the
materials by using tarpaulins (cotton canvass
treated with water proofing) is called __.
A. Fire fighting
B. Extinguishment
C. Salvage
D. Overhauling

Answer
C

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