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P54x Current Differential Relays

Representation in a Polar Plane

Speaker name

Representation of Relay Characteristics in


Polar Planes
Simple protection functions have their characteristics plotted
on X-Y graph axes. Example:

IDMT overcurrent relays - with Time (Y axis) dependent upon the


Current flowing (X axis)

As relay functions evolved, principally in the 1950s and


1960s, certain relays required that the operating
characteristic could be viewed in both magnitude and phase
angle terms:

Magnitude and phase can be easily combined in a polar plot


Example is for distance protection, showing Z = R + jX
Academics continued this approach, looking at which other
relay characteristics were appropriate to be viewed, or
calibrated in polar terms:

One such polar plot approach is the Alpha plane


Translay S series, MBCI and DIF.L operate on this principle

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WHAT IS AN PLANE ? (1)

plane definition

here after is taken


from A.R. van C.
WARRINGTON
Protective Relays
1962

Forerunner of GEC,
and now AREVA
(Stafford, UK)

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WHAT IS AN PLANE ? (2)


The purpose of this presentation is to outline:

What an Alpha plane is


How such a characteristic can be applied to line differential
protection

Dual Slope bias relay performance in the alpha plane

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WHAT IS AN PLANE ? (3)

A.R. van C. WARRINGTON Protective Relays 1962 :


Differential equation: | I1 - I2 | = K | I1 + I2 |
With

(1)

I1 = local current
I2 = remote current,
k = Constant (a bias slope)

The threshold of the characteristic of the relay can be


presented in the plane, where:
(2)
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WHAT IS AN PLANE ? (4)


replacing (2) in (1),
| a+ jb - 1| = K | a + jb + 1|
( a - 1 ) 2 + b 2 - K2 ( a + 1 ) 2 - K2 b 2 = 0
re-arranging:

This is the equation of a circle with:

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WHAT IS AN PLANE ? (5)

It can be seen that for a particular K value, the threshold


of a differential relay in the plane is circle of radius r
and centre c
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WHAT IS AN PLANE ? (6)

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Brief Summary of van Warringtons work

For a through condition (external load or a fault), I1 is equal to I2.

Result is unity: 1 0 degrees


Inside the circle gives restraint
For a fault condition, the result is not unity

The calculated point is outside of the circle = trip


The radius of the circle has a biasing effect, to counter other effects
which will move the result away from unity (capacitive charging
current, CT errors and saturation)

The convention where remote current is inverted (180) will be


followed from now on.

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Dual Slope Relay Operating Principles (1):


Biased Differential Characteristic

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P54x Relay Operating Principles (2)

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Dual Slope Relay Operating Principles (3)

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Relay Operating Conditions for Low and high bias

Idiff > K2.Ibias - (K2-K1).IS2 + IS1 or


N I1 + I > S1 + K1.N (1+M)/2

I Idiff I > I IS1 + K1.Ibias I or


N I 1 + I > S1 + K1.N (1+M)/2

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Dual Slope Relay Operating Characteristic on


plane (1)

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Dual Slope Relay Operating Characteristic on


plane (2)

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The following slides shown the


characteristic of the dual slope bias relays
for default setting of:
K1 = 30%
K2 = 150%
Is1= 0.2pu
Is2 = 2 pu

Dual Slope Low Bias curves (K1 Slope)


The relay restrains for areas enclosed
within the curve and operates elsewhere.
The effect of T is not significant
and curves resemble circles
particularly for higher N

TRIP

TRIP

NO
TRIP

Higher current flow


means circles contract
Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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TRIP
TRIP

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Dual Slope Transition to High Bias Slope (K2)

TRIP

NO
TRIP
TRIP

TRIP
Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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The high bias slope enlarges the restrain area

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Dual Slope Overall operating characteristic


on the plane

Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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Dual Slope Various Operating Scenarios,


and Behaviour of the Relay using Default
Settings

Scenario (1):
Error in compensating for Propagation Delay
Dual Slope Current differential relays measure the propagation
delay - the time taken for messages to traverse the end-end
channel
The propagation delay measurement is used to time shift current
vectors into time alignment, allowing a like for like comparison
relating to the same instant in real time
The most likely source of incorrect time alignment is on a
SONET/SDH system

Split path routings may occur, where Tx and Rx channels have


differing propagation delays

Conventional ping-pong time alignment corrects on the assumption


that Tx and Rx propagation delays are identical

The higher the relative difference in Tx and Rx (t), the greater the
error

This error does not affect magnitude, only phase - causing a rotation
at unity radius on an Alpha plane as we will see later

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Unequal Communications Paths Real Example:


Either use GPS to measure, or accept error

7.8ms
7.8ms

Standby
(protection)
path

TX

3.8ms

fault

RX

RX
TX

3.8ms
Worker (main) path
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Legacy - Deeside Trawsfynydd Line


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Techniques to cope with permanent or


transient difference in TX and RX
propagation delays

Dual Slope relays - Propagation delays (3)


1.For transient switched communication networks by:
De-sensitizing the relay temporarily (up to 500 ms) in the low bias
region by Increasing the low bias slope k1 to 200%. This is equivalent to
increasing the restrain region of the relay represented in the alpha plane

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Dual Slope relays - Propagation delays (4)


2. for systems where a semi-permanent differential
communications delay can be present
By synchronising relays sampling with GPS and use a fallback
technique in case of GPS loss

GPS
receiver

GPS
receiver
1sec

1sec
M iC O M

M iC O M

T R IP

T R IP

ALAR M

ALAR M

O U T O F S E R V IC E

O U T O F S E R V IC E

HEA LTHY

C LE A R

RE AD

EN TER

CG

Relay at End A
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CLEA R

READ

ENTER

CG

E D IT

E D IT

H EA LTH Y

Relay at End B
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Dual Slope relay Propagation delays:


Extent of error required for tripping
Relay provides high
sensitivity for I and IV
quadrants (Internal
faults)

Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope

For load or through conditions with M =1 and = 180, the limits


of the delays may be obtained by calculating values at
intersection points with family of relay characteristic and M=1
circle. Any larger delays will fall in the operating characteristic.
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Allowable Difference in Any Uncompensated


Delays (P54x with Default Settings)

Difference in Delays (ms)

Variation in Allowable Propagation Difference with Current


Flowing (50Hz)
6
5

Trip

Stable Region

3
2

t = 2 x (180-157)/360 cycles
Note: doubling is due to the
error in time alignment being
half of the real difference

1
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Load or Through Fault, % Rated Current


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Dual Slope relays - Propagation delays (1)


K1 slope setting: defines the relay threshold characteristics
under low bias conditions. Effects of increasing K1 on the
permissible transmission delays are shown in the following
slide (Shown just for N=2 in order to simplify the graphic)
Example for N=2, and at 60Hz
Effect of increasing K1 setting on the allowable propagation
delay calculation error (before a maltrip could occur)
K1
0.4
t ms (relay calculated 1.6
error)
Intersection
151
(M1circle & N char.)

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0.6
2.3

0.9
3.3

1.2
4.5

1.5
5.9

139

120

99

74

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Dual Slope relays - Propogation delays (2)


Increasing K1 setting
improves the stability
of the relay in the event of
erroneous compensation

NO
TRIP

Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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Dual Slope Various Operating Scenarios,


and Behaviour of the Relay using Default
Settings

Scenario (2):
Current Transformer Saturation
Conjunctive testing is always performed on differential
relays to check for fast operation for in-zone faults

For fast tripping devices, trip dependability for internal faults


is easily ensured. This is due to the fact that tripping occurs in
early in the fault, before the CTs have much chance to
saturate.

Testing continues to ensure similar performance for repeated


faults on autoreclose, CT remanence etc.

Relay stability (security) for out-of-zone faults is essential

This includes stability throughout the complete time for


downstream protection and CB operation

The downstream protection may be slower, even with an IDMT


characteristic

Differential protection must remain stable throughout

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Dual Slope relays - Current Transformer Saturation


Current transformer
saturation at one of the
ends, during a through fault
condition, will result in a
differential current which
might cause the relay to
misoperate (we will see
later why it does not).
For this analysis we will
utilize the fact that during
saturation the fundamental
component of the
secondary current will start
leading the primary current
whilst the magnitude
reduces
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Dual Slope relays - Remote end CT saturation (1)

Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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Dual Slope relays - Remote end CT saturation (2)

TRIP

NO
TRIP

Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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Dual Slope relays - Local end CT saturation (1)

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Dual Slope relays - Local end CT saturation (2)


Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope

Saturation creates an
unbalance in the system
by changing the value of
M from its natural value of 1
to a higher value and to less than
180 instead of the natural value of 180. The relay
restrains for such deviations as restraint region is large because
during CT saturation the relay is in the high bias slope characteristic
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Dual Slope relays - CT saturation:


CT Claims Fully-Tested on RTDS
The P54x has two bias slopes:
K1 - This provides stability for small CT mismatches, whilst
ensuring good sensitivity to resistive faults under heavy load
conditions.
The factory default setting is 30%
K2 - To counter CT saturation during through faults
The recommended setting is 100% or 150%
Stability of the relay for heavy through faults is guaranteed as the
CT requirements take in to account the worst conditions for CT
saturation during an external fault. i.e. applying three consecutive
faults on the point on wave where maximum offset of the current
waveform is produced (in order to obtain the maximum remanent
flux in the CT) before inverting the point on wave to 180 and
applying another three consecutive faults

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Dual Slope bias relay - CT saturation


And additionally...
Because P54x relays use the maximum bias present in
the fault (ie. Max value of Ibias A, Ibias B and Ibias C ):
The restrain region will increase in the case of
multiphase faults (phase to phase and three phase
faults) where the expected fault currents are often
higher. Also, in the event of cross-country faults it
is important to ensure that where one phase has
an out of zone fault, it is not adversely affected by
coupled CT secondary spill current (from the inzone faulted phase CT).
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Dual Slope bias relay Performance for internal


faults in II and III Quadrants
Previous slides showed the relay performance under
propagation delays and CT saturation. It was seen that
stability for propagation delay may be improved by
reducing relay sensitivity in the II and III quadrants
(increasing the slope setting K1), for low bias.
It is generally assumed that with internal faults the vector
would remain in the I and IV quadrants , and tripping of the
relay for this region would provide sufficient selectivity and
sensitivity.
In the following section we analyze internal fault conditions
which may result in the measurement of the within
900 < < 270 0 .
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Weak infeed definition & considerations


A weak infeed condition occurs when the available fault
current is so low that relays become inoperative or their
performance becomes marginal.
Weak infeed conditions resulting in an value in the first
and fourth quadrants will be cleared by correct tripping of
the relay. Cases with zero infeed from one of the ends
(i.e M=0 and ) are always included in the trip region of
the characteristics.
Therefore, we will only consider conditions resulting in an
value within 90 < < 270 0 .

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Outfeed definition & considerations

Definition of Outfeed condition: Case when for an internal


fault , current at one terminal flows from the protected feeder
to the source while current is flowing to the fault (Elmore
W. A , Wang L. Protective Relays Under Weak Infeed
Conditions ).
Here, outfeed will refer to an outflow of current at one
terminal in about 180 0 phase opposition to the current
at the other end, during an internal fault.
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Components of the fault currents (1)


Using the superimposition theorem we can represent
currents under fault conditions as sum of the currents
before the fault (load currents ) plus the superimposed
currents ( I , currents due to the fault alone ).

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Components of the fault currents (2)


Superimpose (delta) currents can be calculated by replacing
the voltage sources in the positive sequence network by an
equivalent source at the fault point ,with a value of pre-fault
voltage at this point, but of opposite polarity , in series with
an impedance , Zfault.

Local and remote currents will be;


IL = Iload + IL
IR = - Iload + IR
The total fault current IF is obtained as ;
IF = IL + IR = IL + IR
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Components of the fault currents (3)


IL and IR are determined
by Zfault , sequence
impedances , as well as the
internal current division
factors between the
sequence impedances to the
left and right of the fault
point.
The case shown here
corresponds to a single
phase to ground fault.
Fault resistance RF would be
the main limiting factor for the
fault current and the
superimposed currents.
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OUTFEED
With the pre-fault voltage at fault point as reference ( i.e VFpf = 1 0 )
the terminal voltages VLpf and VRpf would lead and lag this voltage up
to 10-15 degrees , respectively ,depending on the load flow. We can
also assume the load current Iload to be in phase with VFpf.
If the resistive component of the fault current infeed from one of the
terminals, IL and IR, is less than the load current (which is also
resistive) the resulting angle between IL and IR may be around 180 as
shown here. This is called OUTFEED.

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WEAK INFEED
As the fault resistance gets smaller and becomes comparable to other
circuit impedances, the total fault current as well as its components IL
and IR start lagging the pre-fault voltage, VFpf ,whilst their
amplitudes increase. Consequently, the angle will start to decrease
from 180 . If the load component of the current at one of the ends still
remains significant, the angle will remain in this area (that
corresponds to 90 to 270 in the plane)

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Outfeed capabilty shown in alpha plane (1)


Outfeed capability is the limit of relay trip for an internal fault with
outfeed at one end. Typically, this will be a resistive fault.

This can be calculated for by letting =180 or = -M for the relay


threshold equation, therefore the limit will be the intersection point
with the negative axis on the plane.
Two situations should be considered:
1. If M<1,consequently IL>IR . This is a REMOTE END OUTFEED
2. If M>1,consequently IL<IR . This is a LOCAL END OUTFEED
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Outfeed capabilty shown in alpha plane (2)


Doing the calculations for N=2 value for example, with default relay
settings, we can obtain the limits as follows:

NO
TRIP

For this case N=2, remote end outfeed is


Seen in low bias while local end outfeed is seen
in high bias
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Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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Outfeed capabilty shown in alpha plane (3)


Shown here, outfeed
Capabilities for
different N values

Left hand side of


the characteristics
= Local end values
Right hand side =
Remote end values
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Dual Slope relay Outfeed Capabilities in Percent


K1 = 30%,K2=150%,Is1 =0.2pu,Is2=2pu

Remote outfeed capabilities

Local outfeed capabilities


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Performance of the relay during Weak Infeed


conditions
During weak infeed, angle starts to shift from 1800, therefore the weak
infeed capability of the relay, limit value of M corresponding to the new
value of , will also increase following the curve. For example for N=2
the relays remote end capability of 0.653 ( =180) will increase to a
weak infeed capability of 1 as moves to 157)

NO
TRIP
Reminder:
N = Local Current (xIn)
M = Remote/Local Ratio
K1 = Low Bias Slope
K2 = High Bias Slope
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Outfeed & Weak Infeed conditions with biased


relay
The inherent
adaptivity of the Dual
slope characteristics
relays provides a
good sensitivity for
detection of a wide
range of fault
conditions resulting in
outfeed and weak
infeed.
Sensitivity is clear
and consistent.

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Observations

If the load is low even with a high resistive fault, the


remote current is zero or too close to zero and location
in the alpha plane is in I and IV quadrants which is
always operation.

With a high resistive fault and being the fault current


significantly smaller than load flowing into the circuit ,
the remote current can result in a negative value -180(OUTFEED) . This is shown in the alpha plane in the II
and III quadrants (previous slides). As the fault
resistance decreases, the impedance of the circuit gets
more influential but still the fault could be located in the
II and III quadrants (WEAK INFEED also shown
previously). For those conditions, the dual slope bias
relay has very good resistive coverage as we
discussed.
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Conclusions (1)
The operation of a dual slope bias current differential
relay can be represented in detail in the alpha plane; low,
transition and high bias have been shown in the alpha
plane. Analyzing the performance of the relay seen from
the alpha plane point of view, we can conclude:
Higher tolerated asymmetry in the transmission
delays could be achieved by increasing the low slope
bias setting but compromising the sensitivity of the
relay. Instead of that, solutions for permanent and
semi-permanent channel asymmetry can be done.

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Conclusions (2)
The dual slope bias current differential relay adapts
perfectly for heavy external through faults as the
restrain region increases once we are in the high bias
slope. Additionally for the more onerous faults
(multiphase faults), the relay uses the highest bias
making it even more stable, with the restrain region
increasing.
The inherent adaptivity of the dual slope bias current
differential relay makes it appropriate for Weak infeed
and Outfeed conditions which are located in II and III
quadrants.

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Conclusions (3)
And finally. by using the alpha plane mathematical
technique mentioned by A.R. van C. Warrington in
1962, we have shown that the well known Biased
Current Differential technique that has been widely
used for years to protect the most vital plant in power
systems such as lines, generators and transformers is
completely valid.

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