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Objectives

Explain the differences in behaviour of strong and


weak acids and bases using Bronsted-Lowry
theory
Define the terms Ka, pH, pKa and pKb, Kw and
pKw
Perform calculations involving the above terms
Describe the changes in pH during acid/base
titrations
Explain what is meant by the pH range of and
indicator
State the basis for the selection of acid-base
indicator for use in titrations
Include phenolphthalein and methyl orange

Strong and Weak acids


A strong acid is one which dissociates
completely in water into H3O+ and A-.
A strong acid must therefore be a better proton
donor than H3O+. Examples of strong acids are
HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4.
A weak acid is one which is a worse proton donor
than H3O+. Examples are CH3COOH (ethanoic
acid), NaHSO4 (sodium hydrogensulphate) and
CO2 (carbon dioxide).

Todays lesson is brought to you by 7,


14, and the letters

Kw, pH

Acid Base Titrations


An acid with a known concentration (a
standard solution) is slowly added to a
base with an unknown concentration (or
vice versa). A few drops of indicator
solution are added to the base.
The indicator will signal, by colour change,
when the base has been neutralized
i.e. when [H+] = [OH-].

Acid-Base Titration.
Reaction :H2C2O4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) --->
acid

base
Na2C2O4(aq) + 2 H2O(liq)

Carry out this reaction using a TITRATION.


Oxalic acid,

H2C2O4

Neutralization Titration.

Neutralization: acids release H+ into


solution and bases release OH-. If we
were to mix an acid and base
together, the H+ ion would combine
with the OH- ion to make the
molecule of water:
H+ (aq) +OH-(aq)
H2O
The neutralization reaction of an acid
with a base will always produce
water and a salt.

Indicator Selection for Titrations


Titration between . .
.

Indicator

Explanation

strong acid and strong


base

any

strong acid and weak


base

methyl orange

changes color in the


acidic range (3.2 - 4.4)

weak acid and strong


base

phenolphthalein

changes color in the


basic range (8.2 - 10.6)

Weak acid and weak


base

No suitable

Eq. Point and Indicators


For an acid base titration the
equivalence point is the point
where neutralisation occurs.
Indicators possess different
colours according to the [H+]
concentration in the solution.
Colour changes due to structural
changes.

Theory of Indicators and Range


The colour changes shows that
undissociate acid H-In or base InOH have diff. colour from that of its
ion.
All indicators in general use are
very weak organic acids or bases.
Equation : pH = pK In Log[Acidform]

Acid-Base Titration Graph

Properties of an indicators
Indicators must have the following
properties :
a) The indicator must change colour as
close to the equivalence point with the
addition of one drop of solution from the
burette.
b) The indicator should have high colour
intensity to use in small amount.
c) The first colour change should be
distinct / Sharp.
d) Indicator should not be effect by change
in Temperature.

Colour changes of indicators