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Meaning of Recruitment
A process of searching the candidates for employment and

stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation

Recruitment is the process of finding and engaging the
people the organization needs.
An activity that links the employers and the job seekers
Selection is that part of the recruitment process concerned
with deciding which applicants or candidates should be
appointed to jobs.

Defn cont
A process of finding and attracting capable

applicants for employment

process begins when new recruits are sought
and end when their applications are submitted.
The result is a pool of applicant form which
new employees are selected

Defn cont
It is a process to discover sources of manpower to meet the

requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective

measures of attracting that manpower in adequate
numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient

Defn cont
Recruitment is the function preceding the selection which

helps create a pool of prospective employees for the

organization so that the management can select the right
candidates from this pool ( to expedite the selection process

Four stages of recruitment and

1. Defining requirements preparing role profiles and

person specifications; deciding terms and conditions of

2. Planning recruitment campaigns.
3. Attracting candidates reviewing and evaluating
alternative sources of applicants, inside and outside the
company: advertising, e-recruiting, agencies and
4. Selecting candidates sifting applications, interviewing,
testing, assessing candidates, assessment centres, offering
employment, obtaining references; preparing contracts of

Defining requirements
The number and categories of people required may be set

out in formal human resource or workforce plans from

which are derived detailed recruitment plans
Requirements are expressed in the form of ad hoc demands
for people because of the creation of new posts, expansion
into new activities or areas, or the need for a replacement.
These short-term demands may put HR under pressure to
deliver candidates quickly.

Requirements are set out in the form of job descriptions or

role profiles and person specifications.

These provide the information required to draft
advertisements, post vacancies on the internet, brief
agencies or recruitment consultants, and assess candidates
by means of interviews and selection tests.

Role profiles for recruitment purposes

Role profiles, define the overall purpose of the role, its

reporting relationships and the key result areas.

May also include a list of the competencies required.
These will be technical competencies (knowledge and
skills) and any specific behavioural competencies attached
to the role.
The behaviour competencies would be selected from the
organizations competency framework and modified as
required to fit the demands made on role holders.

For recruiting purposes, the profile is extended to include

information on terms and conditions (pay, benefits and

hours of work), special requirements such as mobility,
travelling or unsocial hours, and learning, development
and career opportunities.
The recruitment role profile provides the basis for a
person specification

The biggest danger to be avoided at this stage is that of

overstating the requirements.

It is natural to go for the best, but setting an unrealistically
high level for candidates increases the problems of
attracting applicants and results in dissatisfaction among
recruits when they find their talents are not being used.
Understating requirements can be equally dangerous.

Competency based role profiling

The competencies defined in the role profile form a

fundamental feature of the selection process

They are used as the basis for structured interviews and
provide guidance on which selection techniques such as
psychological testing or assessment centres are most likely
to be useful

Advantages of competency based

Increases the accuracy of predictions about suitability;
Facilitates a closer match between the persons attributes

and the demands of the job;

Helps to prevent interviewers making snap judgements;
Can underpin the whole range of recruitment techniques
application forms, interviews, tests and assessment centres.

HR specilist competencies

all aspects of recruitment

sources of recruits
different media for use in recruiting
relevant test instruments


interviewing techniques
test administration
role analysis


Able to relate well to others and use interpersonal skills to

achieve desired objectives
Able to influence the behaviour and decisions of people on
matters concerning recruitment and other HR or individual
Able to cope with change, to be flexible and to handle
Able to make sense of issues, identify and solve problems
and think on ones feet
Focus on achieving results
Able to maintain appropriately directed energy and
stamina, to exercise self-control and to learn new
Able to communicate well, orally and on paper

Recruitment planning
Plan will cover:

The number and types of employees

required to cater for expansion or new
developments and make up for any deficits;
The likely sources of candidates;
Plans for tapping alternative sources;
How the recruitment programme will be

Attracting candidates
Attracting candidates is primarily a matter of

identifying, evaluating and using the most

appropriate sources of applicants .
This requires:
Analyze strengths and weaknesses of organisation
Analysis of the requirements
Identifying the sources
Evaluating and using the most appropriate source

Analyzing strengths and weaknesses

In some cases it might be difficult in attracting or

retaining candidates and -- hence it is necessary to carry

out a preliminary study of the factors that are likely to
attract or repel candidates the strengths and weakness of
the organization as an employer..

The national or local reputation of the organization,

Pay, Employee benefits and working conditions,
The intrinsic interest of the job
Security of employment
Opportunities for education and training, career prospects
The location of the office .

The analysis can show where the organization needs to

improve as an employer if it is to attract more or better

candidates and to retain those selected.

Analyse the requirements

First establish how many jobs have to be filled and by

Then turn to an existing role profile and person
specification or, if not available or out of date, draw up
new ones that set out information on responsibilities and
competency requirements.
This information can be analysed to determine the
required education, qualifications and experience.

Source of suitable candidates

Where suitable candidates are likely to come from;

The companies,
Jobs or education establishments they are in;
Parts of the country where they can be found.
Next, define the terms and conditions of the job (pay
and benefits).
Refer to the analysis of strengths and weaknesses to assess

what is likely to attract good candidates to the job or the

organization so the most can be made of these factors when
advertising the vacancy or reaching potential applicants in
other ways

. Consider also what might put them off, for example the

location of the job, so that objections can be anticipated

. Analyse previous successes or failures to establish what
does or does not work.

Identify sources cont..

First, consideration should be given to internal

External sources Advertising,
Online recruiting,
Agencies , consultants, and job centres
Recruitment process outsourcing providers
Direct approaches to educational establishments.
Open evening and walk in

Determinants of recruitment sources

1) the likelihood that it will produce good candidates,
2) the speed with which the choice enables recruitment to

be completed,
3) the costs involved, bearing in mind that there may be
direct advertising costs or consultants fees.

Advertising has traditionally been the most obvious

method of attracting candidates and is still important

Aims at:

Generate candidates attracting sufficient number of good

candidates at minimum cost.
Attract attention it must compete for the attention of potential
candidates against other employees.
Create and maintain interest to communicate in an attractive
and interesting way information about the job.
Stimulate action the message needs to be conveyed in a way
that will prompt a sufficient number of replies from candidates
with the right qualifications for the job

Information in a recruitment advertisement

The organization.
The job.
The person required qualifications, experience, etc.
The pay and benefits offered.
The location.
The action to be taken.

The advertisement
The headline is all important. - the job title in bold type
Highlight the pay and benefits
Give the name of the company. If you want anonymous,

use a consultant
Include any selling points, such as growth or
diversification, and any other areas of interest to potential
candidates, such as career prospects
Include essential features of the job by giving a brief
description of what the job holder will do
Create interest in the job but do not oversell it.

The advert cont

The qualifications and experience required should be

stated as factually as possible

The advertisement should end with information on how
the candidate should apply write or email etc

On line recruitment ( e-recruitment)

uses the internet to advertise or post vacancies, provide

information about jobs and the organization and enable email communication to take place between employers and
Main source is corporate websites site with job/careers
candidates can apply for jobs online and can e-mail
application forms and their CVs to employers or agencies.
Tests can be completed online.
Some organizations are recruit through social networking
sites such as Facebook etc

Using agents/consultants
Recruitment consultants generally advertise, interview and

produce a short-list.
They provide expertise and reduce workload.
Check reputation with other users;
Look at the advertisements of the various firms to obtain an idea
of the quality of a consultancy and the type and level of jobs with
which it deals;
Check on special expertise;
Meet the consultant who will work on the assignment to assess his
or her quality;
Compare fees, although the differences are likely to be small and
the other considerations are usually more important.

Using executive search consultants

Executive search consultant, or head hunter are used for

senior jobs where there are only a

limited number of suitable people and a direct lead to them
is wanted.
They first approach their own contacts in the industry or
profession concerned. The good ones have an extensive
range of contacts and their own data bank.
They will also have researchers who will identify suitable
people who may fit the specification or can provide a lead
to someone else who may be suitable.

Recruitment process outsourcing

Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) is the term used

when an organization commissions a provider to take

responsibility for the end-to-end delivery of the
recruitment process covering all vacancies or a selection of

Education and training colleges

For some organizations the major source of recruits for

training schemes will be universities and training colleges

Graduate recruitment is a major annual exercise for some

Employee selection
With a pool of applicants, the next step is to select the best

candidate for the job.

This means whittling down the application pool by using
the screening tools such as test, assessment centers,
background and reference checks

Basic tests for selection

For effective recruiting, therefore, the selection test must

be valid and reliable


The test should measure what is supposed to measure. The

evidence that is being tested should be job related, in other words,
the performance on the test is a valid predictor of subsequent
performance on the job

Basic Testing Concepts--Validity

Test validity answers the question: "Does this test
measure what it's supposed to measure?
Whether the performance on the test is a valid predictor
of subsequent performance on the job? There are two main
ways to demonstrate a test's validity, criterion validity and
content validity.
Criterion validity -- A type of validity based on
showing that scores on the test (predictors) are related to
job performance (criterion).
Content validity -- A test that is content valid is one in
which the test contains a fair sample of the tasks and skills
actually needed for the job in question.

Reliability refers to its consistency.
It is the consistency of scores obtained by the same person

when retested with the identical test or with an equivalent

form of test whether on different days or different
If a person score 90% on Monday, then they should score
the same on Tuesday for the same test.,

Selection Tools


Types of tests

Cognitive (mental) abilities.

Or psychomotor (motor and physical)
Personality or interest
Achievements tests
Assessment centre

Test for cognitive abilities ( aptitude

These includes:
Test of general reasoning ability (intelligence)
Test of specific mental abilities like memory and reasoning, verbal
comprehension, numerical ability

Test for motor and physical abilities

These includes test such as manual dexterity, reaction time,
speed of hands, arms, mechanical ability, weight lifting, body
coordination etc
Measuring personality and interest
These includes persons motivation and interpersonal skills ,
attitudes, temperaments etc
It will measure basic aspects of a applicants personality such
as introversion, stability and motivation.

Achievement tests
Measure what a person has learned
Measure your job knowledge in areas like marketing,

human resources. E.g. giving people a problem in human

resources to solve

Management assessment centre

Is a 2 to 3 days simulation in which 10 12 candidates

perform realistic tasks (like making presentations,

meetings, case study analysis each under watchful eye of
experts. Also included are interviews, leadership group
discussions, management games,

Other selection techniques

Background investigation and reference check

Polygraph (lie detector) and honesty testing
physical examination
Substance abuse screening

Background investigation and

reference checks
Purpose is to verifying job applicants background

information and references:

These include making telephone enquiries, credit rating,
use of reference letters
Commonly verified data include legal eligibility for
employment, dates of prior employment, education and
identification (dates of birth, address to confirm identity)

Reasons to conduct background

Two main reasons to conduct employment background

investigation and/or reference check:

To verify faction information previously provided by the
To uncover damaging information such as criminal records

Physical/medical examination
Takes place once the person is hired or sometimes

after the person is hired


To verify that the applicant meets the physical requirements

for the
Discover any medical limitations you should take into
account in placing the applicants
To establish a record and baseline of the applicants health
for future insurance or compensation claims
By identifying health problems, the examination can reduce
absenteeism and accidents and, of course determine
communicable diseases that may be unknown to the

Selection interview
Three fundamental questions
1. Can candidates do the job are they competent?
2. Will candidates do the job are they well-motivated?
3. How will individuals fit into the organization?

The basis of an interview personal

Interviewing involves processing and evaluating evidence

about the capabilities of a candidate in relation to a person

specifcation. This might be set out under the following
, Knowledge what the individual needs to know to carry out
the role.
Skills and abilities what the individual has to be able to do to
carry out the role.
Behavioural competencies the types of behaviour required
for successful performance
of the role.

Qualifications and training the professional, technical or

academic qualifications required or the training that the

candidate should have undertaken.
Experience the types of achievements and activities that
would be likely to predict success.
Specific demands anything that the role holder will be
expected to achieve in specified areas, eg develop new
markets or products, improve sales, productivity or levels of
customer service, introduce new systems or processes.
Special requirements travelling, unsocial hours, mobility

An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information

form a person through oral responses to oral enquires. On

the basis of these responses the interviewer is able to
predict future job performance
Interview is by far the most widely used personnel
selection method

Types of interviews
We can classify selection interviews according to:
How they are structured - directive or non directive
content type of questions they contain
How the firm administers the interview

Unstructured or non directive

There is generally no set format to follow so the interview can take
various direction
Lack of structures allow the interviewer to ask follow up questions
and pursue points of interest as they develop

Structured or directive interviews

The questions and acceptable responses are specified in

advance and the responses rated for appropriateness of

All interviewers generally ask all applicants the same
questions, and hence:
Tend to be more reliable and valid
It increases consistency across candidates
Enhances job relatedness
Reduces overall subjectivity ( and thus the potential for
May enhance ability to withstand legal challenges
On the other hand structured interviews do not provide
opportunity to pursue points of interest as they develop

Interview questions
Open questions - give no indication of the expected reply; they

cannot be answered by yes or no. They encourage candidates

to talk, drawing them out and obtaining a full response.
Id like you to tell me about the sort of work you are doing in your

present job.
What do you know about?
Could you give me some examples of?
In what ways do you think your experience fits you to do the job
for which you have applied?

Probing questions
Probing questions ask for further details and explanations to

ensure that you are getting all the

You ask them when answers have been too generalized or when
you suspect that there may be some more relevant information
that candidates have not disclosed.
A candidate may claim to have done something and it may be
useful to find out more about exactly what contribution was
Youve informed me that you have had experience in Could you tell me
more about what you did?
What sort of targets or standards have you been expected to achieve?
How successful have you been in achieving those targets or standards?
Please give examples.

Closed questions
Closed questions aim to clarify a point of fact. The

expected reply will be an explicit single word or brief

sentence.. When you ask a closed question you intend to
find out:
What the candidate has or has not done What did you do
Why something took place Why did that happen?
When something took place When did that happen?
How something happened How did that situation arise?

Hypothetical questions
Hypothetical questions are used in structured situational-

based interviews when a situation is described to

candidates and they are asked how they would respond or
approach a typical problem. Such questions may be
What do you think you would do if? When such
questions lie well within the candidates expertise and
experience the answers can be illuminating

Behavioural events questions

Behavioural event questions aim to get candidates to tell

you how they would behave in situations that have been

identified as critical to successful job performance.
The assumption is that past behaviour in dealing with or
reacting to events is the best predictor of future behaviour.
Could you give an instance when you persuaded others to take an
unusual course of action?
Could you describe an occasion when you completed a project or
task in the face of great difficulties?
Could you describe any contribution you have made as a member of a
team in achieving an unusually successful result?

Capability Questions
Aims to establish what candidates know, the skills they

possess and use and their competencies what they are

capable of doing.
They can be open, probing or closed but they will always
be focused as precisely as possible on the contents of the
person specification, referring to knowledge, skills and

What do you know about?

How did you gain this knowledge?
What are the key skills you are expected to use in your work?
How would your present employer rate the level of skill you have
reached in?

Motivation questions
This is usually achieved by inference rather
than direct questions.
Career - Why did you decide to move on from
Achievements How did you achieve it? and What

difficulties did you overcome?

Career questions
Career history of candidates can provide some
insight into motivation as well as establishing how they

have progressed in acquiring useful and relevant

knowledge, skills and experience.

What did you learn from that new job?

What different skills had you to use when you were promoted?
Why did you leave that job?
What happened after you left that job?

Administering interviews
Personal interviews (one on one) - two people meet alone

and one interviews the other by seeking oral responses to

oral inquires
Sequential several persons interview the applicant in
sequence, before a decision is made. This can be structured
or unstructured
Panel a group of interviewers question the candidate.
This may have advantage over the others because in
sequential candidates may cover the same ground over and
over again with each interviewer. But panel format lets the
interviewers ask follow up questions based on the
candidates answer. This may elicit more responses

Computerized interview - in this case a job candidates

oral and/visual responses are obtained in response to

computerized oral or visual or written questions
A candidate is presented with a series of specific questions
regarding his/her background,, experience, education,
skills, knowledge and work attitudes that relate to the job
for which the person has applied
The questions are presented in a multiple choice and
questions come in rapid sequence
After the computerized interview there is usually a one on

Designing and conducting an effective

interview steps
The structured situational interview procedure:
Job analysis -write a job description and list of duties,
knowledge, skills and abilities
Rate the job duties
Create the interview questions situational questions, job
knowledge questions etc
Create benchmark answers with a five point rating scale
Appoint an interview panel and conduct interview 3 6
members preferably the same employees who wrote the
questions , also include job supervisor and/or incumbent, and an
HR representative
Meet to allocate interview responsibilities and train if need be.

Interview question structure

Structure your interview questions so that it is standardized,

consistent and relevant. This will include ensuring that :

You base your questions on action job
Use knowledge, situational and behavior oriented questions
and an objective criteria to assess the interviewees response
Train your interviewers
Use the same questions for all candidates
Use rating scales to rate answers
Use multiple interviewers for panel interviews to reduce bias
Control the interview limit the interviews follow up

2. Prepare for the interview

The interview should take place in a private room

with minimum interruptions

Prior to the interview, review the candidates
application and resume and not areas that are vague
or that may indicate strengths or weaknesses
Remember the duties of the job and the specific skills
and traits that you are looking for review the job
Start the interview with an accurate picture of the
traits for the ideal candidate.

3. Establish rapport put the person at ease greet the

applicant, drop in some courtesy words and start interview

with non related question, e.g.. About the whether
Be aware of peoples background and make additional
efforts to make such people relax

Ask questions follow your list of questions.

Dont ask questions which can be answered with yes or no,
dont push words into the applicants mount, dont
interrogate the applicant as if the person is a criminal ,
dont be patronizing, sarcastic ask open ended questions,
listen to the candidate, , encourage them
5. Close the interview leave time to answer any questions
the candidates may have
End the interview with a positive not, tell the applicant the
next steps, make any rejections diplomatically
6. Review the interview review notes and fill in the
structured interview guide


What can undermine an interviews

usefulness pitfalls/errors
First impression which one gets from the interviewees

application form and personal appearance

Misunderstanding of the job - interviewers who do not
know precisely what the job entails and what sort of
candidate is best suited for it usually make their decisions
based on incorrect stereotype of what a good applicant is

Candidates-order (contrast) error and pressure to hire -

The order in which you see applicants affect how you rate
them. After first evaluating unfavorable candidates, an
average candidate can score quite highly
Pressure to hire accentuate problems like the error or

Non verbal behavior and impressions management - - eye contact,

energy levels , low voice etc can influence the interviewers decision
Body language, smile, posture may interfere with the interviewers
Effect on personal characteristics stereotyping :
Involves categorizing groups according to general traits then
attributing those traits to a particular individual once the group
membership is known
attractiveness, gender, race - in general, individuals ascribe more
favorable traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive people
Some see men or women as more suitable or a certain race as more

Interviewers behavior - some interviewers talk so much

that the applicant have no time to answer questions. On

the other extreme, some interviewers let the applicant
dominate the interview and so dont ask questions. Neither
is good situation
Others play the role of a judge or psychologist