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QUADCOPTER

GUIDE: M.Cheenya
INCHARGE: V.Himaja

Presented By
B.Vishnu Teja

QUADCOPTER

CONTENTS

Introduction

Basic Materials Required

Working Principle

Block Diagram

Advantages

Disadvantages

Applications

INTRODUCTION
Quad copter is an aerial vehicle which is operated to fly
independently.
It is a type of a small representation of Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle(UAV).
A Quadcopter, also called a Quadrotor helicopter, is a
Multicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors.
Quadcopters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to
fixed-wing aircraft, because their lift is generated by a
set of revolving narrow-chord airfoils.

BASIC MATERIALS REQUIRED


Multicontroller v.5.5
Brushless Motors 1200kV
Transmitter and Receiver
Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC)
Propellers
Lithium battery
Gyroscope
Accelerometer
A strong base as to hold the structure

BLOCK DIAGRAM
MOTOR
DRIVERS

MOTOR

MOTOR

DRIVERS

DRIVERS

DRIVERS

MOTOR

MICRO
CONTROLL
ER
(ATMEGA
16)

WORKING PRINCIPLE
Quadcopter is a device with a intense mixture of
Electronics, Mechanical and mainly on the principle of
Aviation.
The Quadcopter has 4 motors whose speed of rotation
and the direction of rotation changes according to the
users desire to move the device in a particular
direction (i.e Takeoff motion, Landing motion, Forward
motion, Backward motion, Left motion, Right Morion. )
The rotation of Motors changes as per the transmitted
signal send from the 6-Channel transmitter.
The program for which is written in the AT-MEGA 16
chip.
The signal from microcontroller goes to ESCs which in
turn control the speed of motor.

TAKE-OFF AND LANDING MOTION


MECHANISM :
Take-off

is movement of Quadcopter that lift up


from ground to hover position and landing
position is versa of take-off position. Takeoff/landing motion is control by
increasing/decreasing speed of four rotors
simultaneously.The take off and landing motions
quadcopter is shown below.

WORKING PRINCIPLE MOTOR ROTATION

Take off Motion

Landing Motion

FORWARD AND BACKWARD


MOTION :

Forward (backward) motion is controlled by increasing


(decreasing) speed of rear (front)rotor. Decreasing
(increasing) rear (front) rotor speed simultaneously will
affect the pitch angle of the Quadcopter. The forward and
backward motion of the quadcopter is shown in below
respectively.

WORKING PRINCIPLE MOTOR ROTATION

FORWARD MOTION

BACKWARD MOTION

LEFT AND RIGHT MOTION :

For left and right motion, it can control by changing the


yaw angle of Quadcopter. Yaw angle can control by
increasing (decreasing) counter-clockwise rotors speed
while decreasing (increasing) clockwise rotor speed.
Figure below shows the right and left motion of
Quadcopter respectively

WORKING PRINCIPLE MOTOR ROTATION

RIGHT MOTION

LEFT MOTION

BRUSHLESS MOTORS :
The purpose of motors is
to spin the propellers.
Each rotor needs to be
controlled separately by a
speed controller.
Brushless motors spin in
much higher speed and
use less power at the
same speed than DC
motors.

ESC- ELECTRONIC SPEED


CONTROLLER:

The electronic speed


controller controls the speed
of the motor or tells the
motors how fast to spin at a
given time.

The motors on a quadcopter


must all spin at Battery used
in our quadcopter 15 precise
speeds to achieve accurate
flight, the ESC is very
important

PROPELLERS :

A quadcopter has four


propellers, two normal
propellers that spin
counterclockwise, and two
pusher propellers that spin
clockwise to avoid body
spinning.

By making the propeller pairs


spin in each direction, but also
having opposite tilting, all of
them will provide lifting thrust
without spinning in the same
direction

TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER :

Transmitter used
in quadcopter

ADVANTAGES :
Small-scale quad-copters have frames that
enclose the rotors, permitting flights through
more challenging environments, with lower risk
of damaging the vehicle or its surroundings.
Small-scale UAVs makes the vehicles safer for
close interaction.
Quadcopters do not require mechanical linkages
to vary the rotor blade pitch angle as they spin.
This simplifies the design and maintenance of the
vehicle.
The use of four rotors allows each individual rotor
to have a smaller diameter than the equivalent
helicopter rotor, allowing them to possess less
kinetic energy during flight.

DISADVANTAGES :
The most significant problem to date have been
an ambitious development schedule coupled with
very limited funds.
The ambition is followed by complexity in
calculation and designing.

APPLICATIONS:
Quadcopter - Unmanned Arial Vehicle are used for
surveillance and reconnaissance by military and law
enforcement agencies, as well as search and rescue
missions in urban environments.
Drones are a widespread application to rescue patients
during injury or any calamity, manmade or natural.
Small and lightweight drones help in surveying large
landscapes with thousands of digital images that can be
stitched together into a string of 3-D maps

END RESULT :

THANK YOU