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Personality, 9e Jerry M. Burger © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied,
Personality, 9e
Jerry M. Burger
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
What is Personality? Chapter 1 © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied,
What is Personality?
Chapter 1
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Chapter Outline  The person and the situation  Defining personality  Six approaches to personality
Chapter Outline
 The person and the situation
 Defining personality
 Six approaches to personality
 Personality and culture
 The study of personality:
Theory, application,
assessment, and research
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
The Person and the Situation  Both the situation and the person influence behavior  Individual's
The Person and the
Situation
 Both the situation and the
person influence behavior
 Individual's personality
determines:
 How different he/she is from
others
 How he/she behaves in the
different situations
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Personality  Consistent behavior patterns and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual  Consistent patterns of
Personality
 Consistent behavior patterns and
intrapersonal processes originating
within the individual
 Consistent patterns of behavior
 To an extent, individual behavior is
consistent across time and situations
 Intrapersonal processes
 Emotional, motivational, and cognitive
processes that influence individual's
feelings and actions
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Approaches to Personality © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or
Approaches to
Personality
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Approaches to Personality © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or
Approaches to
Personality
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Approaches to Personality © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or
Approaches to
Personality
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Aggression  Psychoanalytic approach’s explanation  People possess an unconscious desire to self-destruct  Self-destructive impulses
Aggression
 Psychoanalytic approach’s
explanation
 People possess an unconscious
desire to self-destruct
 Self-destructive impulses are expressed
against others in the form of aggression
 Aggression occurs when people are
blocked from reaching their goals
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
 Trait approach’s explanation  Focusses on individual differences and Aggression the stability of aggressive behavior
 Trait approach’s explanation
Focusses on individual differences and
Aggression
the stability of aggressive behavior
 Aggressive children are most likely to
become aggressive adults
 Biological approach’s explanation
 Genetic predisposition towards
aggression
 Evolutionary theory
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Aggression  Humanistic approach’s explanation  People are basically good  Aggression arises when something interferes
Aggression
 Humanistic approach’s explanation
 People are basically good
 Aggression arises when something
interferes with natural growth process
 Inadequate basic needs, poor self-image
 Behavioral/social approach’s
explanation
 People learn to be aggressive
 Aggressive behavior that is rewarded will
be repeated
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Aggression  Cognitive explanation  Certain cues in the environment trigger a network of aggressive thoughts
Aggression
 Cognitive explanation
 Certain cues in the environment
trigger a network of aggressive
thoughts and emotions
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Depression  Psychoanalytic approach’s explanation  Depression is a result of holding unconscious feelings of anger
Depression
 Psychoanalytic approach’s explanation
 Depression is a result of holding
unconscious feelings of anger and hostility
 Trait approach’s explanation
 Focuses on identifying depression-prone
individuals
 Person’s general emotional level at
present can indicate that person’s
emotions in the future
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Depression  Biological approach’s explanation  Certain people inherit a genetic susceptibility to depression  Humanistic
Depression
 Biological approach’s explanation
 Certain people inherit a genetic
susceptibility to depression
 Humanistic approach’s
explanation
 People frequently suffering from
depression are those who have low
self-worth
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Depression  Behavioral/social approach’s explanation  Depression results from a lack of positive reinforcers in a
Depression
 Behavioral/social approach’s
explanation
 Depression results from a lack of
positive reinforcers in a person’s life
 Cognitive approach’s explanation
 Depression depends on how people
interpret their inability to control events
 Certain individuals use a depressive
filter to interpret and process
information
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Personality and Culture  Cultural context influences an individual’s personality  Individualistic cultures: Emphasize on individual
Personality and Culture
 Cultural context influences an
individual’s personality
 Individualistic cultures:
Emphasize on individual needs
and accomplishments
 Individuals perceive themselves as
independent and unique
 Includes Northern European
countries and the United States
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Personality and Culture  Collectivist cultures: Emphasize on belonging to a larger group  Family, tribe,
Personality and Culture
 Collectivist cultures: Emphasize
on belonging to a larger group
 Family, tribe, or nation
 Includes Asian, African, Central
American, and South American
countries
 Cultural context
influences
interpretation of an individual's
behavior
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Theory  Genetic versus environmental influences  Biological and trait theorists argue that
Study of Personality:
Theory
 Genetic versus environmental
influences
 Biological and trait theorists argue that
psychologists fail to recognize the
significance of inherited predispositions
 Psychoanalytic theorists emphasize innate
needs and unconscious behavior patterns
 Humanistic, behavioral/social learning,
and cognitive theorists rarely emphasize
inherited influences on personality
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Figure 1.1 - Position of the Six Approaches to Personality on Three Theory Issues © 2016
Figure 1.1 - Position of the Six
Approaches to Personality on Three
Theory Issues
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Theory  Conscious versus unconscious determinants of behavior  Psychoanalyst view asserts that
Study of Personality:
Theory
 Conscious versus unconscious
determinants of behavior
 Psychoanalyst view asserts that
much of what people do is without
awareness
 Behavior perspective asserts that
people assume they understand
the reasons for their actions but in
reality they do not
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Theory  Trait and cognitive theorists assume people can identify and report their
Study of Personality:
Theory
 Trait and cognitive theorists
assume people can identify and
report their level of social anxiety
 Humanistic theorists argue that
people do not understand why
they act the way they do
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Theory  Free will versus determinism  Behaviorists argue that behavior is not
Study of Personality:
Theory
 Free will versus determinism
 Behaviorists argue that behavior is not
freely chosen but it is the result of
environmental forces and accumulated
history of experiences
 Psychoanalytic theorists emphasize innate
needs and unconscious mechanisms
 Humanistic theorists identify personal
choice and responsibility as the basis of
mental health
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Theory  Trait theorists and biological theorists emphasize genetic predispositions  Cognitive psychotherapists
Study of Personality:
Theory
 Trait theorists and biological
theorists emphasize genetic
predispositions
 Cognitive psychotherapists
encourage their clients to
recognize the cause of their
problems and help them to
develop strategies to avoid future
difficulties
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Application  Psychoanalytic therapists attend to unconscious causes of the problem behavior 
Study of Personality:
Application
 Psychoanalytic therapists attend to
unconscious causes of the problem
behavior
 Humanistic therapists provide the
atmosphere for clients to explore
their feelings
 Cognitive therapists try to change
the way their clients process
information
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Application  Behaviorists structure the environment to increase the frequency of desired behaviors
Study of Personality:
Application
 Behaviorists structure the
environment to increase the
frequency of desired behaviors
and decrease undesired behaviors
 Personality theory and research is
used by psychologists in
educational, organizational, and
counseling settings
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Assessment  Researchers use self-report inventories to measure personality  Psychoanalytic psychologists focus
Study of Personality:
Assessment
 Researchers use self-report
inventories to measure personality
 Psychoanalytic psychologists focus
on learning unconscious thoughts
 Require test takers to respond to
ambiguous stimuli
 Behavioral psychologists observe
behavior to determine consistent
behavior patterns
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Study of Personality: Research  Test principles and assumptions of certain researches are central to the
Study of Personality:
Research
 Test principles and assumptions of
certain researches are central to
the theory
 Few researches are focused on the
concepts introduced by personality
theory
 Psychology researchers employ
several methods to uncover
information about personality
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.