You are on page 1of 21

DCC 2052 : TOPIC 2

PRECAST
COMPONENTS
OF INDUSTRIALISED
BUILDING SYSTEM

2.1 PRECAST
CONCRETE
&
PREFABRICATED
TECHNOLOGY

PRECAST CONCRETE IS A CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT


PRODUCED BY CASTING CONCRETE IN A REUSABLE MOLD
OR "FORM" WHICH IS THEN CURED IN A CONTROLLED
ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORTED TO THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
AND LIFTED INTO PLACE. IN CONTRAST, STANDARD
CONCRETE IS POURED INTO SITE-SPECIFIC FORMS AND
CURED ON SITE.
TO FABRICATE THE PARTS OF AT A FACTORY SO THAT
CONSTRUCTION CONSISTS MAINLY OF ASSEMBLING AND
UNITING STANDARDIZED PARTS.
3

Prefabrication normally involves one skill or


trade, such as electrical, piping, or rebar.
Prefabrication can be defined as a
manufacturing process, generally taking
place at a specialized facility, in which
various materials are joined to form a
component part of structure.
4

LIST OF STRUCT
URE

ADVANTAGES

SHORTCOMING

2.2 CONCEPT OF
LIGHTWEIGHT
CONCRETE
8

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
THE USE OF LWC (LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE) HAS BEEN A FEATURE IN
THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY FOR CENTURIES, BUT LIKE OTHER
MATERIAL THE EXPECTATIONS OF THE PERFORMANCE HAVE RAISED AND
NOW WE ARE EXPECTING A CONSISTENT, RELIABLE MATERIAL AND
PREDICTABLE CHARACTERISTICS.
STRUCTURAL LWC HAS AN IN-PLACE DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) ON THE
ORDER OF 90 TO 115 LB / FT (1440 TO 1840 KG/M) COMPARED TO
NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE A DENSITY IN THE RANGE OF 140 TO 150
LB/FT (2240 TO 2400 KG/M). FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS THE
CONCRETE STRENGTH SHOULD BE GREATER THAN 2500 PSI (17.0 MPA).
10

THE CONCRETE MIXTURE IS MADE WITH A LIGHTWEIGHT COARSE AGGREGATE. IN


SOME CASES A PORTION OR THE ENTIRE FINE AGGREGATES MAY BE A
LIGHTWEIGHT PRODUCT.
LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES USED IN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE ARE
TYPICALLY EXPANDED SHALE, CLAY OR SLATE MATERIALS THAT HAVE BEEN FIRED
IN A ROTARY KILN TO DEVELOP A POROUS STRUCTURE. OTHER PRODUCTS SUCH
AS AIR-COOLED BLAST FURNACE SLAG ARE ALSO USED.
THERE ARE OTHER CLASSES OF NON-STRUCTURAL LWC WITH LOWER DENSITY
MADE WITH OTHER AGGREGATE MATERIALS AND HIGHER AIR VOIDS IN THE
CEMENT PASTE MATRIX, SUCH AS IN CELLULAR CONCRETE.
11

CLASSIFICATION OF LWC

IT IS CONVENIENT TO CLASSIFY THE VARIOUS TYPES OF LIGHTWEIGHT


CONCRETE BY THEIR METHOD OF PRODUCTION. THESE ARE:
BY USING POROUS LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE OF LOW APPARENT SPECIFIC
GRAVITY.THIS TYPE OF CONCRETE IS KNOWN AS LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE
CONCRETE.

BY INTRODUCING LARGE VOIDS WITHIN THE CONCRETE OR MORTAR MASS;


THESE VOIDS SHOULD BE CLEARLY DISTINGUISHED FROM THE EXTREMELY
FINE VOIDS PRODUCED BY AIR ENTRAINMENT. THIS TYPES OF CONCRETE IS
VARIOUSLY KNOWS AS AERATED, CELLULAR, FOAMED OR GAS CONCRETE.

BY OMITTING THE FINE AGGREGATE FROM THE MIX SO THAT A LARGE NUMBER
OF INTERSTITIAL VOIDS IS PRESENT; NORMAL WEIGHT COARSE AGGREGATE IS
GENERALLY USED. THIS CONCRETE AS NO-FINES CONCRETE.
12

LWC CAN ALSO BE CLASSIFIED


ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE FOR
WHICH IT IS TO BE USED:

STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE (ASTM C 330-82A),


CONCRETE USED IN MASONRY UNITS (ASTM C 331-81),
AND INSULATING CONCRETE (ASTM C 332-83).

THIS CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL


LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE IS BASED ON A
MINIMUM STRENGTH:
ACCORDING TO ASTM C 330-82A, THE 28-DAY CYLINDER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH SHOULD
NOT BE LESS THAN 17 MPA (2500 PSI).
THE DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) OF SUCH CONCRETE (DETERMINED IN THE DRY STATE) SHOULD
NOT EXCEED 1840 KG/M (115 LB/FT), AND IS USUALLY BETWEEN 1400 AND 1800 KG/M (85
AND 110 LB/FT).
ON THE OTHER HAND, MASONRY CONCRETE GENERALLY HAS A DENSITY BETWEEN 500 AND
13
800 KG/M (30 AND 50 LB/FT) AND A STRENGTH BETWEEN 7 AND 14 MPA (1000 AND 2000 PSI).

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
TYPE OF LCW

THE USE OF L
CW

PRODUCTION

ADVANTAGES

LCW & MASS


CONCRETE

DURABILITY

14

2.3 CREATIVE
PRECAST PANEL

15

CREATIVE PRECAST PANEL OF


IBS
TO GIVE EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS FORMS OFCREATIVITY
PANELS.

PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THEIR OWN EFFORTS IN


INNOVATION ANDCREATIVITY....

MANY CONSTRUCTION IN THE FOLLOWING YEARS


UTILISEDPRECASTWALLPANELSYSTEM.
16

CREATIVE PRECAST PANEL OF


IBS

CURVE
PANEL

FALSE
CORNIC
COLUMN E

FACAD
E

HALF S
LAB
17

CREATIVE PRECAST PANEL OF


IBS
PRECAST S
TAIRCASE

BATHROOM
UNIT

APPLICATI
ON OF TIM
BER
18

2.4 SIZING
OF
COMPONENT
19

IBS PROJECT

20

REFERENCE

ALL ABOUT LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE RETRIEVED FROM


HTTP://THECONSTRUCTOR.ORG/CONCRETE/ALL-ABOUT-LIGHT
-WEIGHT-CONCRETE/1670/
JOHN BRENNAN , DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIGHTWEIGHT &
HEAVYWEIGHT CONCRETE RETRIEVED FROM
HTTP://WWW.EHOW.COM/INFO_12182927_DIFFERENCE-BET
WEEN-LIGHTWEIGHT-HEAVYWEIGHT-CONCRETE.HTML

21